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WHAT IS MOTIVATION? To initiate action on a certain task To expend a certain amount of effort on that task To persist in expending effort over a period of time 8- 2


MOTIVATION IS Why do people work Why do they put in the effort they do Why do some work harder than others Why do individuals respond differently to attempts to increase their motivation 8- 3


DRIVING FORCE Energies Behaviour What initiates a behaviour, behavioural patterns, or changes in behaviour? What determines the level of effort and how hard a person works? Directs Behaviour What determines which behaviours an individual chooses? Sustains Behaviour What determines an individual level of persistence with respect to behavioural patterns? 8- 4


PROBLEMS DUE TO LACK OF MOTIVATION Sales will be lower Enthusiasm, drive and hours worked will be less High sales staff turnover High expenses Indiscipline or “bad-mouthing to others 8- 5


WHY MOTIVATION? Inherent nature of the sales job Salesperson’s role conflicts and boundary position Tendency towards apathy Maintaining a feeling of group identity 8- 6


Managers often confuse performance with motivation Performance always involves the evaluation of a person’s behaviour on the job; while motivation is only one of several factors that influence workplace performance Low motivation does not necessarily cause low performance. An employee may have skills and abilities in such abundance that his high performance is assured in spite of his motivational level Those who assume that poor performance is a result of low motivation risk taking the wrong steps to correct performance problems in the workplace MOTIVATION AND PERFORMANCE 8- 7


APPLICATIONS OF MOTIVATION Design of pay/reward systems Design of tasks, jobs & roles Group structures Role of the supervisor Measuring motivation Greater “ individualisation ” 8- 8


SOURCES OF MOTIVATION Intrinsic Process - Motivated by fun Instrumental - Motivated by rewards Self-Concept External - Motivated by reputation Self-Concept Internal - Motivated by challenge Goal Internalized - Motivated by the cause 8- 9


MOTIVATION Self-motivation The will to succeed Inspired management Targeting Verbal encouragement Financial reward/benefits Increased status Commendation 8- 10


PRIME MOTIVATORS Greed Fear Exclusivity Guilt 8- 11


PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS Individual’s satisfaction with current rewards Demographics Job experience Psychological variables Performance attributions 8- 12


VARIABILITY OF MOTIVATION Organisational change Smart workers and smart technology Management awareness Cultural considerations 8- 13


MOTIVATION THEORIES Maslow’s hierarchy of needs Herzberg’s motivation-hygiene theory McClelland’s achievement motivation theory Alderfer’s existence, relatedness and growth theory Expectancy model 8- 14


MASLOW’S CONCEPTS Deprivation Of Lowest Level Of Need Behaviour Dominated By Need Satisfaction Of Need Activation Of Next Higher Need Activation Of Self-actualization 1 2 3 4a 4b 8- 15


HERZBERG’S THEORY Need For Healthy, Safe And Secure Environment Need For Personal Growth And Development Employee Feels Not Dissatisfied Employee Feels Dissatisfied Employee Feels Satisfied Employee Feels Unsatisfied Satisfied By Hygiene Factors With Extrinsic Outcomes Satisfied By Motivator Factors With Intrinsic Outcomes Not Satisfied Not Satisfied 8- 16

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2 variables: ‘motivator’ and ‘hygiene’ factors Motivator – characteristics that enhance job satisfaction (e.g. achievement, recognition, career advancement) Hygiene – characteristics that leads to job dissatisfaction (e.g. work context such as organizational culture, company policy, salary, physical work environment, interpersonal relationship) Herzberg Implications to Sales Manager Apart from an attractive remuneration and good work conditions,,enriched job that offers opportunity for achievement, training and advancement is also important 8-17


SALESFORCE MOTIVATION Motivational “help” from management Need gratification and motivation Interdependence and motivation Motivation and leadership Motivation and communication Unionisation of sales personnel 8- 18


MOTIVATIONAL PERCEPTIONS Expectancies Perceived links between expending effort on a particular task and achieving improved performance Instrumentalities Perceived relationship between attainment of increased rewards Valence for rewards Perceived attractiveness of various rewards 8- 19


MOTIVATION & EXPECTANCY MODEL Concept of Valence Instrumentality Expectancy Work Environment 8- 20


Valence Valence may be defined as the personal attractiveness of different outcomes and which employees assign to different outcomes. Two classes of outcomes may be identified. First level outcomes are related to effort and could be: performance on the job working at home as part of a networking system flexible working hours employment mobility Second level outcomes that occur after first level outcomes and are related to the achievement or not of these first level outcomes. Some examples are: o promotion or transfer opportunities o recognition o pay increases o opportunities for career development 8- 21


Instrumentality May be defined as the belief that first level outcomes do indeed lead to second level outcomes. If instrumentality is positive then the employee will believe that a second level outcome will occur after some level of performance. Negative instrumentality relates to the employee's belief that this will not occur. 8- 22


Expectancy The individual's judgement that a valued first level outcome will follow from a given level of effort on the job and that this will lead to a desirable second level outcome There are two constraints here. First the individual worker must have the necessary ability to do the job to the required standard and secondly that timely and adequate feedback is given about job performance 8- 23

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provides a reward for engaging in a particular behaviour or performance Link effort to performance EXPECTANCY THEORY Implications to Sales managers 1 st - figure out the outcomes each employee desires. 2 nd -decide what kinds & levels of performance are needed to meet organization goals. 3 rd- link desired outcomes to targeted levels of performance. 8- 24


MOTIVATION FACTORS Personal and organisational variables Role perceptions Compensation plan Salesperson’s job satisfaction -- both intrinsic and extrinsic rewards 8- 25


INTRINSIC MOTIVATION Refers to the value of the learning task itself – there is joy simply in learning something new An employee may not be motivated to do a task, or to do it well, because he/she does not find it rewarding in itself How the person perceives a task/job is an interaction between what the job has to offer – the content and context of the job – and what the individual would like from a job in terms of the particular needs which are most important to that individual at that time Individual intrinsic needs can be satisfied by some form of job redesign activities 8- 26

Job Characteristics Model:

Job Characteristics Model Core Job Characteristics Critical Psychological States Outcomes Skill Variety Task Identity Task Significance Autonomy Feedback from job Experienced Meaningfulness Of the work Experienced Responsibility For Outcomes Of The Work Knowledge Of The Actual Results Of Work Activities High Internal Motivation High ‘Growth’ Satisfaction High General Satisfaction Knowledge And Skill 2. Growth Need Strength 3. ‘Context’ Satisfaction Moderators 8- 27

Growth Need Strength:

Growth Need Strength The strength of the relationship of job content to work outcomes is moderated by the ‘growth need strength’ (GNS) of the employees concerned Employees with high GNS (those who value higher-order needs fulfillment) are more likely to react favourably to enriched jobs than those with low GNS The outcomes for employees who perceive their jobs as enriched on the five dimensions are predicted to be higher levels of intrinsic motivation, job satisfaction, and work performance A limitation of the model exists in that it tells us how to enrich jobs to suit high GNS employees, but not how to design jobs which would be satisfying to those with low GNS 8- 28

Extrinsic Rewards And Other Influences:

Extrinsic Rewards And Other Influences Although pay is an extrinsic reward (given by others) there is some indication that, in work situations, it can interact with other intrinsic rewards and affect performance Another variable relates to social interaction – job enrichment often provides a more interesting job at the expense of reduced opportunities for social interaction Some employees may take the view that unless the increased responsibility is matched by a commensurate increase in pay, management is simply trying to trick them into doing a more difficult job for the same money 8- 29


EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION Rewards which are provided by someone else – whether the individual receives them is under the control of an external agent If the nature of the reward system is such that it does not pay to be a good performer, it is only to be expected that extrinsic motivation will be low Need to examine reward application: Rewards which are likely to result from good performance Rewards which are likely to result from poor performance Negative or zero outcomes likely to result from good performance Negative or zero outcomes likely to result from poor performance 8- 30

Reward Application:

Reward Application Good Performance Poor Performance Rewards Negative Or Zero Outcomes 1 2 4 3 If most items are in quadrants 2 and 3, then there is something wrong and changes should be made to give rewards for good performance and negative, or at least zero, outcomes for poor performance 8- 31

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Compensational Strategies Non-Compensational Strategies Financial Non-Financial REWARD SYSTEM MANAGEMENT 8- 32


ORGANISATIONAL FACTORS & MOTIVATION Need for achievement Locus of control Self-esteem Role ambiguity Role conflict Performance appraisal Job design 8- 33


RAISING COMMITMENT & JOB INVOLVEMENT Demonstrate management honestly cares about employees’ welfare Create opportunities for achieving personal goals Modify jobs to provide more intrinsic rewards Reward employees regularly Develop participative management 8- 34


HEIDER’S ANALYSIS OF ACTION Personal Power Or Ability Environmental Freedom Motivation Or Intention To Act Display Of Exertion CAN TRY Performance Performance Outcome 8- 35

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ROLES OF SALES MANAGER The sales manager plays an important role in motivating the salespeople. Manager must: Motivate their salespeople individually. Identify the differing personalities and needs of their salespeople. Target incentive prizes to those specific characteristics. Create a portfolio of motivational techniques and strategies that can be tailored to each salesperson. 8- 36


CAREER STAGES Exploration Establishment Maintenance Disengagement 8- 37

Career Stages and Motivation :

Career Stages and Motivation Exploration – lack of assurance Establishment – selection of selling as an occupation and desire for career success. Maintenance – seeking to retain present position, high status, and achievement Disengagement – preparation for retirement and possible loss of self-identity 8- 38


PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS AFFECTING MOTIVATION Individual satisfaction with current rewards Demographic variables Job experience Psychological variables – personality traits and attribution of meaning to performance 8- 39


PERFORMANCE ATTRIBUTIONS People try to identify and understand the causes of major events and outcomes in their lives Stable internal factors – unlikely to change much in the near future Unstable internal factors – vary from time to time Stable external factors – e.g., the nature of the task or competitive situation in a particular territory Unstable external factors – may change next time 8- 40


MANAGEMENT IMPLICATIONS Relationships between characteristics and motivation levels have two broad implications for sales managers: They suggest people with certain characteristics are likely to understand their jobs and their companies’ policies especially well Some personal characteristics are related to the kinds of rewards salespeople are likely to value and find motivating 8- 41


CAUSES OF PLATEAUING Lack of a clear career path Boredom Failure to manage the person effectively 8- 42

Solutions for the Plateaued Salesperson :

Solutions for the Plateaued Salesperson Talk with salesperson about problem Discuss reasons and possible solutions Conduct motivations sessions Manage, lead and communicate Cut salesperson’s responsibilities Assign to a new territory Inform rep on his/her responsibilities Provide time off 8- 43


IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENT ON MOTIVATION Variations in territory potential and strength of competition constrain ability to achieve high levels of performance Understanding how and why salespeople perform differently under varying environmental circumstances is useful to sales managers 8- 44


SUPERVISORY VARIABLES AND LEADERSHIP Closeness of supervision Most occupations prefer relatively free from supervision B-2-B salespeople prefer close supervision Span of control – increased span of control results in decreased supervision Frequency of communication – increased communication means decreased role ambiguity 8- 45

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