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Premium member Presentation Transcript Chemical Spills : Chemical Spills Prevention, Assessment, Reporting and Cleanup Updated 6/29/99 Objectives : 05/21/99 2 Objectives Create Awareness of State and Federal OSHA & EPA regulations that affect spill clean-up Explain responsibilities Provide strategies to prevent spills assess hazards presented by spills report spills when needed clean-up spills when appropriate Regulations : 05/21/99 3 Regulations OSHA 1910.120 - Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response (1991) very specific training and procedures are mandatory for reporting of and response to chemical spills that are considered HazMat incidents. A HazMat spill is one where there is an immediate danger to life and health most lab spills are not HazMat incidents Numerous EPA regulations control hazardous waste Responsibilities : 05/21/99 4 Responsibilities Researchers are responsible for: Ensuring spills are reported or cleaned up in a timely manner Cleaning up nuisance spills of materials in their area, even if someone else spills them(janitors, service people) knowing the properties of the materials they are working with taking reasonable steps to prevent spills HazMat team will: Assist researchers who are not comfortable cleaning up spills in their areas (even nuisance spills) Clean-up serious (HazMat) spills Nuisance Spills : 05/21/99 5 Nuisance Spills Spills of less than 4L of material that you know the hazards of and are comfortable cleaning up that you have the ability to clean up assess the hazard wear appropriate PPE If you are unsure of the hazard of a spill or need assistance with PPE selection, call Safety Potentially Hazardous Spills : 05/21/99 6 Potentially Hazardous Spills Spills of greater than 4L smaller spills of materials of low LD50 carcinogens flammable liquids or metals compounds of unknown toxicity Preventing Spills : 05/21/99 7 Preventing Spills Eliminate clutter Know proper work practices for biological, chemical materials you use Use unbreakable secondary containers Store chemicals properly Dispose of waste and excess chemicals in a timely manner Preparation : 05/21/99 8 Preparation What are the physical and toxicological properties of the biological and chemical materials you use? What is the worst thing that could happen if you dropped/spilled a bottle of each chemical you use? inconvenience skin burns fire chemical exposure ( fatality? permanent injury?) Hazards : Hazards Toxic Flammable Caustic Reactive/Explosive Radioactive Other? 9 You are the expert on the hazards of materials in your possession. : 05/21/99 10 You are the expert on the hazards of materials in your possession. know properties of biologicals/chemicals you use before you handle them Know what appropriate work practices are & use them know what the worst case scenario is for a spill of the chemicals you use Think about how you will react to a spill of the materials you use know what appropriate clean-up procedures are for the materials you use Toxic MaterialsAssessing the risks due to the toxic effects of biologicals/chemicals : 05/21/99 11 Toxic MaterialsAssessing the risks due to the toxic effects of biologicals/chemicals Route of exposure Acute Toxicants Corrosive Substances, Irritants and Allergens Carcinogens Infectious materials Examples of materials with a High Level of Acute Toxicity : 05/21/99 12 Examples of materials with a High Level of Acute Toxicity Acrolein Diazomethane Hydrogen cyanide Hydrogen fluoride Biological toxins; Tetrodotoxin, snake venoms Osmium tetroxide Beta-mercaptoethanol Toxicity of commonly used chemicals : 05/21/99 13 Toxicity of commonly used chemicals Flammability Hazards : 05/21/99 14 Flammability Hazards Location, location, location Ignition sources Ventilation Other fuels in the area Don’t store more than 10 gallons of flammable liquids outside of flammable liquid storage cabinets per laboratory Flash Point - The lowest temperature at which a liquid has sufficient vapor pressure to form an ignitable mixture with air near the surface of the liquid : 05/21/99 15 Flash Point - The lowest temperature at which a liquid has sufficient vapor pressure to form an ignitable mixture with air near the surface of the liquid Caustic Chemical Hazards : 05/21/99 16 Caustic Chemical Hazards Acids & Bases (organic and inorganic) ex. : HCl, NaOH, phenol, triethylamine skin burns permanent eye damage inhalation hazards Know the differences in hazards between concentrated vs. dilute solutions Carcinogens : 05/21/99 17 Carcinogens The OSHA Select Carcinogen List Biological Materials : Biological Materials BSL1- defined & well characterized strains of viable microorganism NOT known to cause disease in healthy adults. Examples: Bacillus subtilis and infectious Canine hepatitis. BSL2 - a broad spectrum of indigenous moderate -risk agents present in the community and associated with human diseases of varying severity. With good technique, these agents can be used safely on open benchtop when potential for aerosolization or splashing is low. Examples: Hepatitis B virus, Salmonellae spp, and Toxoplasma spp. Hazards are mainly due to the potential for needlestick (autoinnoculation) or ingestion exposure. 18 Slide 19: BSL3 - Indigenous or exotic agents with a potential for respiratory transmission, and which may cause serious and potentially lethal infection. Examples: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Coxiella burnetii. Hazards include autoinnoculation, ingestion, and exposure to infectious aerosols. 19 Where to obtain hazard information on the materials you use. : 05/21/99 20 Where to obtain hazard information on the materials you use. Howard Hughes Medical Institute http://www.hhmi.org/science/labsafe/lcss/tlisting.htm Safety Home Page - MSDS ABSA-American Biological Safety Association CDC- Center for Disease Control Chemical Spill ResponseNuisance Spill : 05/21/99 21 Chemical Spill ResponseNuisance Spill Alert people in immediate area of spill Wear appropriate protective gloves, goggles, long sleeve labcoat Avoid breathing vapors from the spill Confine spill to small area& absorb on absorbent pads &/or kitty litter Clean spill area with soap & water Collect all contaminated absorbent, gloves & residues in plastic bag lined garbage can Label and dispose of properly (call Environmental) Chemical Spill Response Potentially Hazardous Spill : 05/21/99 22 Chemical Spill Response Potentially Hazardous Spill Attend to injured or contaminated persons and remove them from the exposure if you can do so without endangering yourself Alert persons in the immediate area to evacuate the lab If spilled material is flammable, turn off heat and ignition sources Call Spill Emergency Close doors to affected area Have a person knowledgeable of incident and laboratory assist HazMat personnel. Biological Spill Response : 05/21/99 23 Biological Spill Response BSL1 Spill Wear disposable gloves Soak paper towels in disinfectant and place over spill area Place towels in Biohazard bag for disposal Clean spill area with fresh towels soaked in disinfectant. BSL 2 Spill Alert people in the immediate area of the spill Put on appropriate protective equipment Cover spill with paper towels soaked in absorbent materials Pour a freshly prepared 1:10 bleach solution around the edges of the spill, then into center area Allow a 20 minute contact period Dispose of as in BSL 1 procedure Radioactive Spill Response : 05/21/99 24 Radioactive Spill Response The person who uses or purchases radioactive material is responsible for cleaning it up if it spills. Nuisance Spills -Nuisance spills contain less than 1,000mCi of less than 100mCi of other isotopes can be cleaned up, decontaminated and monitored under your own supervision. Large Spills - Larger spills than those above must be cleaned up in the following manner: Materials of high vapor pressure -leave the area, post “Do not enter” signs on all doors, seal entry ways leading into affected areas and call emergency. Do not resume activities in the contaminated area until approved by the RSO. Non-Volatile materials - may be cleaned up and decontaminated on your own. You must report the spill and swipe test results to the Authorized User and the RSO. Contamination of areas beyond the spill can easily occur if you walk through or spread the radioactive materials during cleanup. Don’t leave the spill area without monitoring your shoes, body and hands. Remove all contamination or contaminated items before leaving the area. Radioactive Spill Clean-up Procedures : 05/21/99 25 Radioactive Spill Clean-up Procedures Protect people and contain the spill: Alert people in the immediate area of the spill Ask for help and confine the spill immediately Step away from the spill- remove contaminated clothing(gloves last) Have someone cover the spill with absorbent mats or paper towels while you decontaminate yourself &fellow workers Wash off contaminated skin for three to five minutes with soap and water. Call the nurse Report all incidents of personal contamination to the RSO Slide 26: 05/21/99 26 Radioactive spill clean-up Wear appropriate gloves, splash goggles or safety glasses and a lab coat. Soak up the spill with paper towels or spill pillows. Use tongs top to place all clean-up materials into a radioactive waste plastic bag. Put broken glass into a properly labeled steel can. Apply cleaning solution, wipe area from edge to center, dispose of as above. Monitor the area with a 100cm2 swipe for each ft2 of spill. Repeat the cleaning process if >200dpm is found in any swipe. Repeat monitoring. Many spills will need to be cleaned 5-7 times to achieve adequate decontamination. Dispose of gloves, wash your hands. Label waste bag accurately and put into a radioactive waste pail. Estimating Potential Hazards : 05/21/99 27 Estimating Potential Hazards Research hazards before you use a new biological agent or chemical Consider the toxicity, flammability, physical state and the amount of the material involved. Consider the location of the spill Consider your knowledge and skills Ask for help in estimating hazards call Safety Summary : 05/21/99 28 Summary Know the properties of all the hazardous materials you handle Prevent spills If a potentially hazardous spill occurs, protect people first, evacuate & ask for help Call Engineering for EMERGENCY spill/fire assistance Call Safety for information and non-emergency assistance You are responsible for reporting or cleaning up spills of materials you use You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.