Chemical Spills : Chemical Spills Prevention, Assessment, Reporting and Cleanup
Updated 6/29/99 Objectives : 05/21/99 2 Objectives Create Awareness of State and Federal OSHA & EPA regulations that affect spill clean-up
Provide strategies to
assess hazards presented by spills
report spills when needed
clean-up spills when appropriate Regulations : 05/21/99 3 Regulations OSHA 1910.120 - Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response (1991)
very specific training and procedures are mandatory for reporting of and response to chemical spills that are considered HazMat incidents.
A HazMat spill is one where there is an immediate danger to life and health
most lab spills are not HazMat incidents
Numerous EPA regulations control hazardous waste Responsibilities : 05/21/99 4 Responsibilities Researchers are responsible for:
Ensuring spills are reported or cleaned up in a timely manner
Cleaning up nuisance spills of materials in their area, even if someone else spills them(janitors, service people)
knowing the properties of the materials they are working with
taking reasonable steps to prevent spills
HazMat team will:
Assist researchers who are not comfortable cleaning up spills in their areas (even nuisance spills)
Clean-up serious (HazMat) spills Nuisance Spills : 05/21/99 5 Nuisance Spills Spills of
less than 4L of material that you know the
hazards of and are comfortable cleaning up that
you have the ability to clean up
assess the hazard
wear appropriate PPE
If you are unsure of the hazard of a spill or need assistance with PPE selection,
call Safety Potentially Hazardous Spills : 05/21/99 6 Potentially Hazardous Spills Spills of
greater than 4L
smaller spills of materials of
flammable liquids or metals
compounds of unknown toxicity Preventing Spills : 05/21/99 7 Preventing Spills Eliminate clutter
Know proper work practices for biological, chemical materials you use
Use unbreakable secondary containers
Store chemicals properly
Dispose of waste and excess chemicals in a timely manner Preparation : 05/21/99 8 Preparation What are the physical and toxicological properties of the biological and chemical materials you use?
What is the worst thing that could happen if you dropped/spilled a bottle of each chemical you use?
chemical exposure ( fatality? permanent injury?) Hazards : Hazards Toxic
Other? 9 You are the expert on the hazards of materials in your possession. : 05/21/99 10 You are the expert on the hazards of materials in your possession. know properties of biologicals/chemicals you use before you handle them
Know what appropriate work practices are & use them
know what the worst case scenario is for a spill of the chemicals you use
Think about how you will react to a spill of the materials you use
know what appropriate clean-up procedures are for the materials you use Toxic MaterialsAssessing the risks due to the toxic effects of biologicals/chemicals : 05/21/99 11 Toxic MaterialsAssessing the risks due to the toxic effects of biologicals/chemicals Route of exposure
Corrosive Substances, Irritants and Allergens
Infectious materials Examples of materials with a High Level of Acute Toxicity : 05/21/99 12 Examples of materials with a High Level of Acute Toxicity Acrolein
Biological toxins; Tetrodotoxin, snake venoms
Beta-mercaptoethanol Toxicity of commonly used chemicals : 05/21/99 13 Toxicity of commonly used chemicals Flammability Hazards : 05/21/99 14 Flammability Hazards Location, location, location
Other fuels in the area
Don’t store more than 10 gallons of flammable liquids outside of flammable liquid storage cabinets per laboratory Flash Point - The lowest temperature at which a liquid has sufficient vapor pressure to form an ignitable mixture with air near the surface of the liquid : 05/21/99 15 Flash Point - The lowest temperature at which a liquid has sufficient vapor pressure to form an ignitable mixture with air near the surface of the liquid Caustic Chemical Hazards : 05/21/99 16 Caustic Chemical Hazards Acids & Bases (organic and inorganic)
ex. : HCl, NaOH, phenol, triethylamine
permanent eye damage
Know the differences in hazards between concentrated vs. dilute solutions Carcinogens : 05/21/99 17 Carcinogens The OSHA Select Carcinogen List Biological Materials : Biological Materials BSL1- defined & well characterized strains of viable microorganism NOT known to cause disease in healthy adults. Examples: Bacillus subtilis and infectious Canine hepatitis.
BSL2 - a broad spectrum of indigenous moderate -risk agents present in the community and associated with human diseases of varying severity. With good technique, these agents can be used safely on open benchtop when potential for aerosolization or splashing is low. Examples: Hepatitis B virus, Salmonellae spp, and Toxoplasma spp. Hazards are mainly due to the potential for needlestick (autoinnoculation) or ingestion exposure. 18 Slide 19: BSL3 - Indigenous or exotic agents with a potential for respiratory transmission, and which may cause serious and potentially lethal infection.
Examples: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Coxiella burnetii.
Hazards include autoinnoculation, ingestion, and exposure to infectious aerosols. 19 Where to obtain hazard information on the materials you use. : 05/21/99 20 Where to obtain hazard information on the materials you use. Howard Hughes Medical Institute
Safety Home Page - MSDS
ABSA-American Biological Safety Association
CDC- Center for Disease Control Chemical Spill ResponseNuisance Spill : 05/21/99 21 Chemical Spill ResponseNuisance Spill Alert people in immediate area of spill
Wear appropriate protective gloves, goggles, long sleeve labcoat
Avoid breathing vapors from the spill
Confine spill to small area& absorb on absorbent pads &/or kitty litter
Clean spill area with soap & water
Collect all contaminated absorbent, gloves & residues in plastic bag lined garbage can
Label and dispose of properly (call Environmental) Chemical Spill Response Potentially Hazardous Spill : 05/21/99 22 Chemical Spill Response Potentially Hazardous Spill Attend to injured or contaminated persons and remove them from the exposure if you can do so without endangering yourself
Alert persons in the immediate area to evacuate the lab
If spilled material is flammable, turn off heat and ignition sources
Call Spill Emergency
Close doors to affected area
Have a person knowledgeable of incident and laboratory assist HazMat personnel. Biological Spill Response : 05/21/99 23 Biological Spill Response BSL1 Spill
Wear disposable gloves
Soak paper towels in disinfectant and place over spill area
Place towels in Biohazard bag for disposal
Clean spill area with fresh towels soaked in disinfectant.
BSL 2 Spill
Alert people in the immediate area of the spill
Put on appropriate protective equipment
Cover spill with paper towels soaked in absorbent materials
Pour a freshly prepared 1:10 bleach solution around the edges of the spill, then into center area
Allow a 20 minute contact period
Dispose of as in BSL 1 procedure Radioactive Spill Response : 05/21/99 24 Radioactive Spill Response The person who uses or purchases radioactive material
is responsible for cleaning it up if it spills.
Nuisance Spills -Nuisance spills contain less than 1,000mCi of less than 100mCi of other isotopes can be cleaned up, decontaminated and monitored under your own supervision.
Large Spills - Larger spills than those above must be cleaned up in the following manner:
Materials of high vapor pressure -leave the area, post “Do not enter” signs on all doors, seal entry ways leading into affected areas and call emergency.
Do not resume activities in the contaminated area until approved by the RSO.
Non-Volatile materials - may be cleaned up and decontaminated on your own. You must report the spill and swipe test results to the Authorized User and the RSO.
Contamination of areas beyond the spill can easily occur if you walk through or spread the radioactive materials during cleanup. Don’t leave the spill area without monitoring your shoes, body and hands. Remove all contamination or contaminated items before leaving the area. Radioactive Spill Clean-up Procedures : 05/21/99 25 Radioactive Spill Clean-up Procedures Protect people and contain the spill:
Alert people in the immediate area of the spill
Ask for help and confine the spill immediately
Step away from the spill- remove contaminated clothing(gloves last)
Have someone cover the spill with absorbent mats or paper towels while you decontaminate yourself &fellow workers
Wash off contaminated skin for three to five minutes with soap and water. Call the nurse
Report all incidents of personal contamination to the RSO Slide 26: 05/21/99 26 Radioactive spill clean-up
Wear appropriate gloves, splash goggles or safety glasses and a lab coat.
Soak up the spill with paper towels or spill pillows.
Use tongs top to place all clean-up materials into a radioactive waste plastic bag. Put broken glass into a properly labeled steel can.
Apply cleaning solution, wipe area from edge to center, dispose of as above.
Monitor the area with a 100cm2 swipe for each ft2 of spill. Repeat the cleaning process if >200dpm is found in any swipe. Repeat monitoring.
Many spills will need to be cleaned 5-7 times to achieve adequate decontamination.
Dispose of gloves, wash your hands.
Label waste bag accurately and put into a radioactive waste pail. Estimating Potential Hazards : 05/21/99 27 Estimating Potential Hazards Research hazards before you use a new biological agent or chemical
Consider the toxicity, flammability, physical state and the amount of the material involved.
Consider the location of the spill
Consider your knowledge and skills
Ask for help in estimating hazards call Safety Summary : 05/21/99 28 Summary Know the properties of all the hazardous materials you handle
If a potentially hazardous spill occurs, protect people first, evacuate & ask for help
Call Engineering for EMERGENCY spill/fire assistance
Call Safety for information and non-emergency assistance
You are responsible for reporting or cleaning up spills of materials you use