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Premium member Presentation Transcript Applications of Industrial Microbiology : Applications of Industrial Microbiology By Dr Bela Nabar Associate Professor of Microbiology Smt CHM College Ulhasnagar October 2010 22/10/2010 1 Products Manufactured. : Products Manufactured. 22/10/2010 2 . : . . 22/10/2010 3 Vinegar• sour (spoiled ) wine, vinegar (from French): vin and aigre (sour)• production in the US about 160 million gallons per year.(2/3 used in commercial products such as sauces and dressings, production of pickles and tomato products)• the acetic acid bacteria divided into two genera:Acetobacter aceti and Gluconobacter oxydans• obligate aerobes that oxidize sugar, sugar alcohols and ethanol with the production of acetic acid as the major end product• ethanol oxidation occurs via two membrane-associated dehydrogenases: alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase : Vinegar• sour (spoiled ) wine, vinegar (from French): vin and aigre (sour)• production in the US about 160 million gallons per year.(2/3 used in commercial products such as sauces and dressings, production of pickles and tomato products)• the acetic acid bacteria divided into two genera:Acetobacter aceti and Gluconobacter oxydans• obligate aerobes that oxidize sugar, sugar alcohols and ethanol with the production of acetic acid as the major end product• ethanol oxidation occurs via two membrane-associated dehydrogenases: alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase 22/10/2010 4 . : . 22/10/2010 5 Bacitracin Production : Bacitracin Production 22/10/2010 6 Antibiotics produced by Streptomyces : Antibiotics produced by Streptomyces 22/10/2010 7 Slide 8: 22/10/2010 8 Slide 9: 22/10/2010 9 Slide 10: 22/10/2010 10 Slide 11: 22/10/2010 11 Slide 12: 22/10/2010 12 Single Cell Protein : Single Cell Protein Microbial protein for use as human food or animal feed. Rapid growth rate and high productivity Low cost & High protein content (30-80% of dw) Ability to utilize a wide range of cheap carbon sources methane, methanol, molasses, whey, lignocellulose waste, etc. Production independent of season and climate Fast growing aerobic microorganisms 22/10/2010 13 Single Cell ProteinMushrooms • filamentous fungus ; Paecilomyces variotiiPruteen: methanol as C carbon source ,Methylophilus methylotrophus: feed proteinQuorn : fungal mycelium,Fusarium (mycoprotein) for human consumption • processing to resemble meatYeast, fungi, bacteria, and algae are grown on hydrocarbon wastes, and cells are harvested as sources of protein. It has been calculated that 100 lbs of yeast will produce 250 tons of proteins in 24 hours, Similar, algae grown in ponds can produce 20 tons (dry weight) of protein, per acre, per year. This yield is 10 to 15 times higher than soybean and 25 to 50 times higher than corn. There are both advantages and disadvantages in using microorganisms for animal or human consumption. Bacteria are usually high in protein (50 to 80 percent) and have a rapid growth rate. : Single Cell ProteinMushrooms • filamentous fungus ; Paecilomyces variotiiPruteen: methanol as C carbon source ,Methylophilus methylotrophus: feed proteinQuorn : fungal mycelium,Fusarium (mycoprotein) for human consumption • processing to resemble meatYeast, fungi, bacteria, and algae are grown on hydrocarbon wastes, and cells are harvested as sources of protein. It has been calculated that 100 lbs of yeast will produce 250 tons of proteins in 24 hours, Similar, algae grown in ponds can produce 20 tons (dry weight) of protein, per acre, per year. This yield is 10 to 15 times higher than soybean and 25 to 50 times higher than corn. There are both advantages and disadvantages in using microorganisms for animal or human consumption. Bacteria are usually high in protein (50 to 80 percent) and have a rapid growth rate. 22/10/2010 14 SpirulinaProduction : SpirulinaProduction 22/10/2010 15 Single-Cell Protein Production by the Acid-Tolerant Fungus Scytalidium acidophilum from Acid Hydrolysates of Waste Paper : Single-Cell Protein Production by the Acid-Tolerant Fungus Scytalidium acidophilum from Acid Hydrolysates of Waste Paper The bioconversion of waste paper to single-cell protein at pH <1 by Scytalidium acidophilum Waste paper pretreated with 72% H2SO4 at 4°C was diluted with water to a pH of <0.1 and hydrolyzed. This yielded an adequate sugar-containing substrate for the growth of the fungus. A total of 97% of the sugars (glucose, galactose, mannose, xylose, arabinose) in the hydrolysates were converted to cell biomass. 22/10/2010 16 Activated sludge treatment : Activated sludge treatment 22/10/2010 17 Waste-water and sewage treatmentTreatment methods:Activated Sludge ProcessPreliminary treatment: removal of debris and coarse materials that may clog equipmentPrimarySecondaryTertiary or advancedDisinfection : Waste-water and sewage treatmentTreatment methods:Activated Sludge ProcessPreliminary treatment: removal of debris and coarse materials that may clog equipmentPrimarySecondaryTertiary or advancedDisinfection 22/10/2010 18 . : . Production of solvents: Acetone-butanol fermentation by Clostridium acetobutylicum •Biphasic fermentation: during growth acetate and butyrate are formed (acidogenic phase) •as pH drops the culture enters stationary phase and there is a metabolic shift to solvent phase acetyl-CoA as central intermediate, which can be: a) reduced to butyrate and butanol b) cleave d via decarboxylation to acetone 22/10/2010 19 Types of vaccines : Types of vaccines There are four basic types of vaccine in use today Killed vaccines: These are preparations of the normal (wild type) infectious, pathogenic virus that has been rendered non-pathogenic, usually by chemical treatment such as with formalin that cross-links viral proteins. Attenuated vaccines: These are live virus particles that grow in the vaccine recipient but do not cause disease because the vaccine virus has been altered (mutated) to a non-pathogenic form; for example, its tropism has been altered so that it no longer grows at a site that can cause disease. Sub-unit vaccines: These are purified components of the virus, such as a surface antigen. DNA vaccines: These are usually harmless viruses into which a gene for a (supposedly) protective antigen has been spliced. The protective antigen is then made in the vaccine recipient to elicit an immune response 22/10/2010 20 Steps in Vaccine production : Steps in Vaccine production The Seed Growing the virus Separation Selecting the strain Quality Control The Approval Process 22/10/2010 21 Vaccine Manufacturing : Vaccine Manufacturing 22/10/2010 22 Vaccine Manufacturing : Vaccine Manufacturing 22/10/2010 23 Probiotics : Probiotics Probiotics were defined by a group of experts convened by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) as "live micro organisms administered in adequate amounts which confer a beneficial health effect on the host". Helps to fight bacteria with pathogenic effects in a natural way and at the same time , its Beneficial for human and animal digestive system which supports general well-being. Traditional cultures used: L. acidophilus group : L. acidophilus and L.johnsonii L. casei group & L. reuteri Bifidobacterium spp. – B. animalis [B.bifidum], B. longum, B. lactis, B. infantis, B.breve 22/10/2010 24 New methods of vaccine production : New methods of vaccine production The attenuated influenza vaccine, called FluMist, uses a cold-sensitive mutant that can be reassorted with any new virulent influenza strain that appears . The reassorted virus will have the genes for the internal proteins from the attenuated virus (and hence will be attenuated) but will display the surface proteins of the new virulent antigenic variant. 22/10/2010 25 Synthetic peptides : Synthetic peptides Injected peptides which are much smaller than the original virus protein raise an IgG response but there is a problem with poor antigenicity. This is because the epitope may depend on the conformation of the virus as a whole. A non-viral example that has achieved some limited success is a prototype anti-malarial vaccine. 22/10/2010 26 Recombinant DNA techniques : Recombinant DNA techniques Attenuation of virus Deletion mutations can be made that are large enough that they are unlikely to revert . Such Nef deletion mutants developed as potential anti-HIV vaccines. . Single gene approach A single gene (for a protective antigen) can be expressed in a foreign host. Expression vectors are used to make large amounts of antigen to be used as a vaccine. .Yeast are better for making large amounts of antigen for vaccines since they process glycoproteins in their Golgi bodies Vaccine in which a viral protein is expressed & purified from yeast is Gardasil, an anti-human papilloma virus vaccine its effective in preventing cervical cancer. The current hepatitis B vaccine is similar to anti-human papilloma vaccine, Cervarix, is made by expressing viral genes recombined into a bacculovirus and expressed in insect cells. 22/10/2010 27 DNA VaccinesThe Third Vaccine Revolution : DNA VaccinesThe Third Vaccine Revolution Introduction of a DNA plasmid into the vaccine. The plasmid carries a protein-coding gene that transfects cells in vivo at very low efficiency and expresses an antigen that causes an immune response. These are often called DNA vaccines but would better be called DNA-mediated or DNA-based immunization since it is not the purpose to raise antibodies against the DNA molecules themselves but to get the protein expressed by cells of the vaccine. 22/10/2010 28 H1N1 Vaccine : H1N1 Vaccine A 2009 H1N1 “flu shot” — an inactivated vaccine (containing dead virus) is given with a needle, usually in the arm. The flu shot is approved for use in people 6 months of age and older, including healthy people, people with chronic medical conditions and pregnant women. The 2009 H1N1 nasal spray flu vaccine — a vaccine made with live, weakened viruses that do not cause the flu (sometimes called LAIV for “live attenuated influenza vaccine”). Nasal vaccine is approved for use in “healthy” people 2 years to 49 years of age who are not pregnant. About 2 weeks after vaccination, antibodies that provide protection against 2009 H1N1 influenza virus infection will develop in the body. However, the 2009 H1N1 vaccine will not protect against seasonal influenza viruses, so to get the best possible protection you will need two flu shots. 22/10/2010 29 Product recovery : Product recovery 22/10/2010 30 Product recovery : Product recovery 22/10/2010 31 Packaging of Products : Packaging of Products 22/10/2010 32 Slide 33: 22/10/2010 33 Slide 34: 22/10/2010 34 Slide 35: 22/10/2010 35 Slide 36: 22/10/2010 36 Slide 37: 22/10/2010 37 Slide 38: 22/10/2010 38 Slide 39: 22/10/2010 39 Slide 40: 22/10/2010 40 Slide 41: 22/10/2010 41 Slide 42: 22/10/2010 42 Slide 43: 22/10/2010 43 Slide 44: 22/10/2010 44 Slide 45: 22/10/2010 45 What is GMP ? : What is GMP ? GMP is that part of Quality assurance which ensures that the products are consistently manufactured and controlled to the Quality standards appropriate to their intended use "GMP" - A set of principles and procedures which, when followed by manufacturers for therapeutic goods, helps ensure that the products manufactured will have the required quality. 22/10/2010 46 Slide 47: 22/10/2010 47 Slide 48: 22/10/2010 48 Slide 49: 22/10/2010 49 Slide 50: 22/10/2010 50 Slide 51: 22/10/2010 51 Slide 52: 22/10/2010 52 Slide 53: 22/10/2010 53 Slide 54: 22/10/2010 54 Slide 55: 22/10/2010 55 Slide 56: 22/10/2010 56 Slide 57: 22/10/2010 57 Slide 58: 22/10/2010 58 Complaints & Product Recall : Complaints & Product Recall All complaints concerning potentially defective products must be reviewed according to written procedures. There should be written recall procedures that are checked and updated as necessary Recall operations must be able to be initiated promptly and at any time 22/10/2010 59 Self Inspection - Audit : Self Inspection - Audit A planned, independent investigation of selected elements of a quality assurance system to collect objective evidence that the system has been implemented, is effective and is being complied with.” 22/10/2010 60 Slide 61: 22/10/2010 61 Slide 62: 22/10/2010 62 Slide 63: 22/10/2010 63 Slide 64: 22/10/2010 64 Slide 65: 22/10/2010 65 Slide 66: 22/10/2010 66 Slide 67: 22/10/2010 67 Slide 68: 22/10/2010 68 Slide 69: 22/10/2010 69 Slide 70: 22/10/2010 70 Slide 71: 22/10/2010 71 Slide 72: 22/10/2010 72 Thanks to the infinite microorganisms : Thanks to the infinite microorganisms 22/10/2010 73 Slide 74: 22/10/2010 74 You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.