GROUP 1 READING II-ST.MONICA

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Chinese Literature by: Group I II- St.Monica

A Time of Poems' Great Prosperity--Tang Dynasty:

A Time of Poems' Great Prosperity--Tang Dynasty ♥ The Tang Dynasty was an exceptional in China’s History. The society was prosperous and stable and had achieved great success in culture, art and writing. ♥ The development of Tang Poems went through four major periods: Early Tang, High Tang, Mid Tang and Late Tang. ♥ Writing poems was a major cultural activity and even the imperial civil examination began to require poem writing instead of essay writing.

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♥ High Tang (712—762) was the highest level of Tang poetry. The topics and styles of the poems were rich and varied. Poets wrote freely in a romantic atmosphere, some singing the praises of nature, some yearning for life at a frontier fortress, some sighing with frustration. Together, they created an imposing scene that had immense influences on later writers. ♥ In the Mid Tang lived the famous poets Bai Juyi, Yuan Zhen and Li He. Bai Juyi was an expert at satire. He mocked excessive taxes, objected to war and criticized high-ranking officials. He tried to make his language plain, smooth and lively so that more people could appreciate his poem. ♥ The Late Tang period (827—859) saw the well-known poets Li Shangyin and Du Mu. Du Mu' poems were fresh and cool and expressed his sadness and frustration in his official career. There is still debate today over his famous poem "Untitled". Critics argue over weather the poem is a love song or a political statement.

Sung Dynasty Literature:

Sung Dynasty Literature ♥ new form of poetry called 'chih',created during the 10 Kingdoms & 5 Dynasties, became the prime form of poetry used & further developed in the Sung dynasty ♥ the form of Tang poetry or 'shih' remained being created though not as extensive as before. --Sung prose inhereited the Tang remains & became more radical than ever. ♥ leading prose writers are the '8 Great Intellects of the Tang-Sung period' : the first 2 are Han Yu & Liu Zhong Yuan (Tang) & the remaining 6 are : Ouyang Hsiu (politician/1021-1086), Wang An Shih (most important N.Sung politician who created the 'New Laws'/'Hsin Fa',Zeng Kong & the 3 Su brothers: Su Hsun.Su Shi & Su Che. ♥ the creation of records of stories that are told through story-telling,providing information for future novels & drama.

Sung Poetry:

Sung Poetry ♥ chih ' is a new form of poetry that has a score with its own particular music,& can be sang like a song, other than being recited Northern Sung: Style is generally woeful & over-indulgent in emotions until Su Shi added vibrance & energy - Representative poets: a.Liu Yong : popular romantic who tends to be over-emotional,whose works are often very melodic b.Su Shi :also known as Su Tung-po,a very important poet whose versatility is seen in his style which vary with different content suitably,often creative,majestic,clear,masculine & expressive.The following is an example of his classic poetry that is still made popular by pop music & remains widely recited especially during the Mid Autumm Festival.

Example of Su Shi’s classical poetry:

Example of Su Shi’s classical poetry 'Song by the River' ('Thinking of You') {'Shui Tiao Ge Tou'} 'When will the moon be clear and bright? With a cup of wine in my hand, I ask the blue sky I don't know what season it would be In the heavens on this night I'd like to ride the wind to fly home Yet I fear the crystal and jade mansions are much too high and cold for me Dancing with my moon-lit shadow It does not seem like the human world The moon rounds the red mansion Stoops to silk-pad doors Shines upon the sleepless Bearing no grudge Why does the moon tend to be full when people are apart?

Example of Su Shi’s classical poetry:

Example of Su Shi’s classical poetry People may have sorrow or joy, be near or far apart The moon may be dim or bright, wax or wane This has been going on since the beginning of time May we all be blessed with longevity Though far apart, we are still able to share the beauty of the moon together.' - Poem written during the night of the Mid-Autumn Festival of 1076 by Su Tung Po (Translated by Shun-Yi Lee in 1998)

Sung Poetry:

Sung Poetry Southern Sung: --Style is initially a continuation of Su Shi's but the chaotic situation led to a reversion to the N.Sung way of sorrow & extravagance with emphasis on rhyme & rhythm which is uncalled for,hence showing the artificiality. -- Representative poets: a.Li Ching-chao : a female poet who exploits imaginery to the maximum,emotional & feminine. b.Xin Chi Ji : warrior poet who is more like Su Shi in style,patriotic & is the poet with the most works preserved (600 poems)

Talented Writer’s:

Talented Writer’s Su shi (1037 – 1101), also known as Dong Po Jushi, was born in the Meishan Mountains in Sichuan. He was the son of a famous writer and was heavily influenced by his family. After pursuing an official career, Su shi devoted himself to revolutionizing state politics and administration. Su shi was extremely talented and his lively poems displayed his imagination and mastery of metaphors. Su shi didn't just talk about beauty, he expressed deep thoughts on society and life. Despite his poverty, he was the most outstanding writer of the Tang and Song dynasties and many Chinese writers considered his work as a. model.

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Qu Yuan is one of the most respected poets in Chinese history. He lived in the period of the Warring States (475BC—221BC). During this time, several states fought each other. Among them, Qin and Chu were the most dominant. Qu Yuan left behind an impeccable body of work, including the masterpiece "the Sorrow of Separation". It was the longest political lyric in the history of ancient Chinese literature. In it, Qu Yuan expressed his hope for a fair and moral king. "The Sorrow of Separation" was a new expressive form – very different from China's first poem collection "The Book of Songs". It helped launch a new era of realism and romanticism in Chinese poetry. He gave trees and flowers life-like qualities and created many fairies to symbolize his noble mind. Qu Yuan treated his readers to beautiful language and fancy metaphors, but also conveyed a nobility and deep love for his homeland .

Chinese Classical Drama Literature:

Chinese Classical Drama Literature Famous Playwright Guan Hanqing ♥ Guan Hanqing was one of the greatest playwrights in Chinese history. He lived during the Yuan Dynasty about 700 years ago. His classic work, The Injustice to Dou E, has been translated into a number of languages and achieved world-wide fame. ♥ Guan Hanqing was talented and versatile. He was good at writing poems, playing chess, and was a musical expert. He could play Xiao and Quin well and was a very experienced dancer. He used to work in the medical department for the royal family, but become disillusioned with medicine. He then turned his attention to writing plays, and displayed a great enthusiasm for it. There was a drama form, called Zaju, that was popular at the time. It reflected the reality of the society and received warm welcome by the people. Guan's plays did not aspire to entertain nobles but articulate the bitterness of the common people.

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♥ His accomplishment in folk language brought his work close to people's daily lives. Despite the low status of the actors, Guan Hanqing got along well with folk artists and acted on stage himself. He described his character in a play as "…a sound copper bean which can't be steamed or scrabbled ." ♥ In other words, his works were reflected the spirit of a fighter. The characters in the plays were upright, courageous and rebellious. The Injustice to Dou E was his masterpiece. ♥ Guan Hanqing's works encouraged common people to fight against oppression and greatly influenced the development of Chinese drama. Guan wrote 67 Zaju plays but only 18 remain. His writing, involving complicated characters, is unparalleled by other classic playwrights. ♥ Because of his achievement, Guan Hanqing is named "Ancestor of Zaju." He has been honored as the "Oriental Shakespeare" concerning his achievement in worldwide literature.

 The First Collection of Poems—the Book of Songs:

The First Collection of Poems—the Book of Songs ♥ In the 7th century BC, China's first collection of poems "The Book of Songs" made its debut. It included epics, satirical poems, ballads, love songs, battle songs, odes, seasonal rhymes, and work chants. The book was composed by several people and appeared a few hundred years before the famous "Epic of Homer" of the ancient Greeks. ♥The Book of Songs" includes 305 poems collected over a span of 500 years from the early years of Western Zhou (11th century BC) to the middle of the Spring and Autumn Period (7th century BC). ♥ The poems in the book were used for three purposes: they were sung at ceremonies, used for personal enjoyment, and used to express ideas on social and political issues. Later on, however, "The Book of Songs" became a popular textbook for the education of the nobility and studying the book was compulsory. ♥  "The Book of Songs" marked the starting point and eventual maturity of China's literary development. Its contents covered a wide range of subjects and dealt with all aspects of social life in early China.

Chinese Classic Novel:

Chinese Classic Novel A DREAM OF RED MANSION ♥ In the middle of 18th century, the time of Qianlong prosperity appeared a long fiction that sensed the coming declination of feudal dynasty and saddened for it in Chinese literature. That was Cao Xueqing's "A Dream of Red Mansions". ♥ "A Dream of Red Mansions" can be also named "The Story of A Stone". ♥ A Dream of Red Mansions" is an encyclopedia novel. ♥ The art value of "A Dream of Red Mansions" is an endless topic. Its language, construction, and the creation of characters reached the top of the Chinese classic novels.

EPICS:

EPICS The Life of King Gesar ♥ The Life of King Gesar is the only living epic in the world today. ♥ The Life of King Gesar appeared in years between 300 B.C. to 6th century. In the following 1,000 years, the contents of the epic had been enriched continuously thanks to the efforts of the folk artists. By the beginning of 12th century, The Life of King Gesar had developed into a matured and complete epic that was widely popular around the Tibetan areas. ♥ The story was set far in the distant past, when the common people of the Tibetan plateau were subjected to natural disasters and calamities across their lands. Demons and spirits run wild. The Goddess of Mercy, in the hope of helping the people, asked the Amitabha Buddha to send the son of the God of Heaven to the world to defeat the evil demons. ♥ Toiba Gawa, who later came to be known by the name Gesar, descended to the earth and became the king of the Tibetan people. Able to defeat the demons, aid the poor and benefit the common people, Gesar is portrayed as a combination of god, dragon and a fierce spirit known as nyan in Tibetan primitive religion. He was endowed with special characteristics and marvelous powers and abilities. Gesar suffered several trials. However, his invincible power and the protection of the God of Heaven allowed him to survived and eventually defeat the evil demons.

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♥ Throughout his life as a human, he worked to rid the common people of the scourges of their existence. At the age of five, he moved with his mother to the banks of the Yellow River. When he was eight, they were joined by the members of the Ling tribe. Winning a horse race against the finest warriors of the tribe at the tender age of 12, he was recognized as the chief of the tribe. He married Sengjam Zholmo. Gesar then led expeditions against the enemies of his tribal kingdom. He defeated the northern demons who had invaded the lands of the Ling Kingdom. ♥ The Life of King Gesar has been collected as a work composed of 120-odd volumes, with more than 1 million lines of verses, totaling over 20 million words. It is the longest epic known to the world, and has been called the Orient's Homeric Epic.

Women's Culture and Writing in the 1990s:

Women's Culture and Writing in the 1990s While women's writing in the 1980s is like a sailing boat on which intellectuals of both sexes co-worked to row from the dark side to the golden side pushing forward a great revolution, women's writing in the 1990s is like a fight out of a city of mirrors woven with illusions and dead alleys. In other word, large number of brilliant literary works by women in the 1980s brought forth a variety of writing styles by breaking through the unitary feminine style and Mulanian style (Mulan, a household name in China, was a girl dressed up as a boy and became a hero in war). Unfortunately, as a result of the natural superposition of women's marginal identity and that of intellectuals as a whole in those days, the potential women speech style was often taken advantage of and submerged by outstanding male writers.

Women's Culture and Writing in the 1990s:

Women's Culture and Writing in the 1990s Before the 1990s, in seeking the Mulanian writing style, or rather male or quasi male style, and trying to exert impact upon men's culture and writing rules, women writers let go the chance of becoming major broadcasters of women's culture and speech style. Also they consciously and unconsciously gave up the possibility of impacting or overthrowing the male chauvinism in culture by making use of their abundant experience. In the 1990s, however, writings by women were best characterized by women writers' consciousness of their own sex. But as was expected, once they came into the cultural world as an independent role, they were immediately confronted with rampart and resistance from men. What's worse is that they found themselves in a city of mirrors, which had long trapped them as members in the world of culture.

Images of Women in Chinese Literature:

Images of Women in Chinese Literature This is the first book on this subject in any language. This book consists of seven articles which describe and analyze images of Chinese women in a variety of genres, including folklore, poetry, fiction and drama, from early times to the present, in the works of both male and female writers. One of the main themes of this work is diversity; women in Chinese literature have a thousand faces and a thousand personalities, contravening the common perception of all Chinese women as frail and submissive in a supposed patriarchal culture.

Images of Women in Chinese Literature:

Images of Women in Chinese Literature Dr. Kang-i Sun Chang, Professor and Chair of the Department of East Asian Languages and Literatures at Yale University, says: "This new volume edited by Li Yu-ning is as exciting and important as Li's highly acclaimed book, Chinese Women Through Chinese Eyes (1992). This book brings together important essays by specialists in Chinese literature, and has a lot to tell us. It tells us how the issues of diversity and pluralism are essential to the study of women, and men, in literature. It also illustrates the close and complex interrelationship between Chinese literary constructs and its social structures, both in the modern and traditional periods. Highly recommended for students of literature, history, and women's studies."

Customs And Traditions:

Customs And Traditions CHINESE SPRING FESTIVAL ♥ Similar to the importance of the Christmas Day for the westerners, the Spring Festival is the most important celebration for Chinese people. ♥ Chinese Spring Festival has a long history, which is nearly four thousand years old. Initially, the festival had no name or fixed date However, people called Spring Festival "the age" according to the revolution period of Jupiter by B.C. 2100. Before B.C. 1000, people used "the year", which means "Great Harvest" representing the Spring Festival. ♥ According to the traditional custom, the Spring Festival lasts from the 23rd day of 12th lunar month to the 15th day of 1st lunar month, and the climax should be the New Year Eve and the first day of first lunar month. ♥ The ways of Spring Festival celebration are changing along with the standard of living. For instance, traveling has becoming a new fashion of Spring Festival celebration.

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CHINESE MARRIAGE CUSTOM ♥ Chinese marriage was systemized into custom during the Warring States period (402-221 B.C.). ♥ Due to the vast expansion and long history, there are different customs that are followed in different places, although they are generally the same. Visitors still get chances to witness traditional marriages in the countryside. ♥ In the ancient times, it was very important to follow the basic principles of Three Letters And Six Etiquettes, which were essential to marriage. Three letters include the Betrothal Letter, Gift Letter and Wedding Letter. SIX ETIQUETTES Proposing: If an unmarried boy's parents identify a girl as their future daughter-in-law, then they will find a matchmaker. Birthday matching: If the potential bride's parents do not object the marriage, the matchmaker will ask for the girl's birthday record for the time at which she was born. Presenting betrothal gifts: Once birthdays match, the bridegroom's family will then arrange the matchmaker to present betrothal gifts, enclosing the betrothal letter, to the bride's family. Presenting wedding gifts: After the betrothal letter and betrothal gifts are accepted, the bridegroom's family will later formally send wedding gifts to the bride's family.

SEATWORK!!:

SEATWORK!! A. Directions: IDENTIFY what is being asked. _______1. It was a girl dressed up as a boy and became a hero in war. What do you call this household name in China? _______2. He is a talented writer who expressed deep thoughts on society and life. _______3. This was the highest level of Tang poetry. The topics and styles of the poems were rich and varied. _______4. It. is generally woeful & over-indulgent in emotions until Su Shi added vibrance & energy _______5. Who said this, "This new volume edited by Li Yu-ning is as exciting and important as Li's highly acclaimed book, Chinese Women Through Chinese Eyes (1992).

SEATWORK!:

SEATWORK! ________6. It was systemized into custom during the Warring States period (402-221 B.C.). ________7. He was one of the greatest playwrights in Chinese history. ________8. It is the only living epic in the world today. It appeared in years between 300 B.C. to 6th century. ________9. This is the first book on this subject in any language. This book consists of seven articles which describe and analyze images of Chinese women in a variety of genres, including folklore, in the works of both male and female writers. ________10. It is a new form of poetry that has a score with its own particular music,& can be sang like a song, other than being recited

THANKS FOR LISTENING! :

THANKS FOR LISTENING! . Group 1 4- Meg Buendia 11- Anna Dy Echo 18- Diana Griego 25- Johanna Malamug 32- Chloe Parial 39- Paula Sulit 46- Nadine Zabala II- St. Monica

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