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Restrictive Feedback is not immediately received.WHY WRITTEN COMMUNICATION: WHY WRITTEN COMMUNICATION HAS A GREATER IMPACT EASILY DOCUMENTED ACTS AS A RECORD.THREE MODES/NATURE OF WRITTEN COMMUNICATION: THREE MODES/NATURE OF WRITTEN COMMUNICATION INFORMATIVE WRITING (ANSWERS QUESTIONS)eg newspaper,brochures EXPRESSIVE WRITING(CONVEYS EMOTIONS)egeditorials,articles,novels,prose and poetry. PERSUASIVE WRITING(INFLUENCES THE READER OR ARGUES A POSITION/SITUATION)eg business letters claims and adjustments,advertisementsTHE ABC OF EFFECTIVE WRITING: THE ABC OF EFFECTIVE WRITING ACCURACY BREVITY CLARITYTYPES OF WRITTEN COMMUNICATION: TYPES OF WRITTEN COMMUNICATION LETTER WRITING ESSAY WRTING ARTICLES FOR NEWSPAPERS AND JOURNALS NOVEL,SHORT STORY AND POEMS BUSINESS MESSAGES.BASICS OF WRITING: BASICS OF WRITING PURPOSEFUL ECONOMICAL READER ORIENTEDPHASES OF WRITING: PHASES OF WRITING PRE-WRITING WRITING REVISINGPRE-WRITING: PRE-WRITING RESEARCH FOR INFORMATION CLUSTERING OF INFORMATION PROFILING OF AUDIENCEWRITING : WRITING LISTING AND OUTLINING OF THE MAIN IDEA MAKING OF THE FIRST DRAFTPOST WRITING/REVISING : POST WRITING/REVISING REVISING THE DRAFT PROOFREADING EVALUATINGMEANING OF DRAFT: MEANING OF DRAFT DRAFT MEANS A ROUGH OUTLINE OR SKETCH BEFORE GOING INTO A DETAILED FORM OF WRITING.COMPOSING THE FIRST DRAFT: COMPOSING THE FIRST DRAFT SHOULD WRITE FAST AND SAVE TIME FOR REVISION SHOULD FRAME SHORT SENTENCES . SENTENCES SHOULD HAVE SUBJECT AND VERB AND SHOULD MAKE SENSE. SENTENCES SHOULD STRESS ON IMPORTANT IDEAS. PREFER MORE USE OF ACTIVE VOICE DEPENDING ON THE SITUATION. SHOULD MAINTAIN PROPER TONE AND CHANNEL OF COMMUNICATION WHICH RESULTS FROM PROFILING OF AUDIENCE AND PROPER USE OF LANGUAGE. SHOULD TRY TO MAINTAIN A CONVERSATIONAL TONE BY MAINTAINING “YOU” ATTITUDE.To sum up, any form of communication should have the following:: To sum up, any form of communication should have the following: CLARITY CONCISENESS TONE READABILITY. For reader: is prior knowledge, reading skill, interest and motivation, for the text:content,style,design and structure)THANK YOU: THANK YOUFUNDAMENTALS OF BUSINESS WRITING: FUNDAMENTALS OF BUSINESS WRITING BYDR.N.R.CHANDPUROSE OF BUSINESS WRITING: PUROSE OF BUSINESS WRITING BUSINESS WRITING PRIMARILY SEEKS TO EXPRESS RATHER THAN IMPRESS. As historian Barbara Tuchman rightly said, “it takes two to complete the function of the written word. But this function can be largely met only when the writer keeps the written form simple, concise and brief”THREE MAJOR PURPOSES: THREE MAJOR PURPOSES GIVE OR SEEK INFORMATION MAINTAINING THE GOODWILL AND POSITIVITY THROUGH THE USE OF APPROPRIATE WORDS. WRITING TO PERSUADETYPES OF BUSINESS WRITING: TYPES OF BUSINESS WRITING LETTERS REPORTS PRESENTATIONS CIRCULARS NOTICES RESUMENATURE OF BUSINESS WRTING: NATURE OF BUSINESS WRTING ROUTINE OR NEUTRAL MESSAGES GOODWILL OR POSITIVE MESSAGES REFUSAL AND NEGATIVE MESSAGES.TWO APPROACHES OF BUSINESS WRITING: TWO APPROACHES OF BUSINESS WRITING DIRECT APPROACH(ROUTINE LETTERS, GOODWILL MESSAGES,etc) INDIRECT APPROACH(NEGATIVE MESSAGES, REFUSALS, REJECTIONS,PERSUASIVE etc)BUSINESS WRITING IS EFFECTIVE WHEN: BUSINESS WRITING IS EFFECTIVE WHEN THE CONTINUITY IS MAINTAINED THE MESSAGE IS SHORT AS IT ENDS UP WITH THE CLEAR UNDERSTANDING OF THE RECEIVER THERE IS CLARITY OF WORDS WHICH IN TURN GIVES A CLEAR MESSAGE.4S’s of effective business writing: 4S’s of effective business writing Shortness (Brevity) Simplicity(Impressive) Strength(Convincing;carries importance) Sincerity (complete, concrete and consistent)7cs of effective communication: 7cs of effective communication Strategies for effective communication---7C’s of business communication: 7C’s of business communication Clear: simple language and correct use of words meaningful and technical. Concise: brevity; clause reduced to phrase and phrase to a single word.eg Mr. Singh who was a newcomer to the city, mentioned earlier in this report, proved to be a very able administrator. Simplified version:Mr.Sing,a newcomer to the above-mentioned city, proved to be a very able administrator. Correct: the amount, number, figures should be accurate along with the grammar, spelling and punctuation. Courteous: Use of words like may and please but not their overuse, maintaining a positive tone. Conversational: easy to understand, common and simple words but not the outdated one. Complete: The letters or messages should not carry incomplete meaning or should not have incomplete sentences. Eg in a resume “ I have received award for singing.” Convincing: especially in persuasive letters or messages.7cs of effective communication: 7cs of effective communication7C’s OF BUSINESS COMMUNICATION: 7C’s OF BUSINESS COMMUNICATION CREDIBILITY (helps build trust) COURTESY (helps improve relationship) CLARITY (helps easy understanding) CORRECTNESS (helps build confidence) CONCRETENESS (reinforces confidence) CONSISTENCY (helps maintain stability) CONCISENESS (saves time)MESSAGES SHOULD CARRY IMMEDIATE GRATIFICATION: MESSAGES SHOULD CARRY IMMEDIATE GRATIFICATION THIS RESULTS FROM “YOU” ATTITUDE USE OF SIMPLE WORDS(NO FLOWERY LANGUAGE) Eg, “I don’t know anyone who is more efficient than you are.” corrected version: “you are one of the most efficient people I know” CORRECT USE OF TECHNICAL WORDS-eg “fixed assets”, “current liabilities”, “site” MESSAGES SHOULD BE EMPATHETIC AND RECEIVER FOCUSSED which is achieved by the use of appropriate words eg debt, failure, complaint,deceive,cheat, instead use outstanding bill, overdue payment SHOULD USE WORDS LIKE “PLEASE” & “MAY”How to achieve the “YOU” attitude: How to achieve the “YOU” attitude Empathize with your reader. Place yourself in his/her position Highlight your reader’s positive gain or actions in the situation Adopt a pleasant tone as far as possible Avoid negative words and images. Do not use words which insult or accuse the reader. Offer some helpful suggestions if possible Use words which are familiar, clear and natural.You attitude: You attitude Using you- attitude-/you view- point means that the sender gives primary consideration to the receiver”s views at the time of composing or sending messages /this is necessary to achieve a common understanding between the two persons. So to use the you-view point you have to first analyse the receiver of the message who will decode it properly and efficiently. No two receivers are alike ,so you must learn sufficiently about the feelings or thinking of the other party. ‘s point of viewSlide 33: Specially you must analyse four areas of the receiver---- Knowledge==what is his education ,experience,and what level of education/high education or low or middle level/whether the education and experience are linked with the message. Interests—analyse the interests of the party==what are his CONCERNS/NEEDS Does the receiver have any particular MOTIVE/IS HE ASKING FOR ANY PARTICULAR OUTCOME?Slide 34: For example a man in charge of production will be much concerned about technical aspects if the machine repair is going on.A manager will bother about –cost and time factor.so before writing to the manager or the production engineer you are to think.Slide 35: Attitude of the receiver is to be examined carefully and then only message should be sent. You are to ask and know what are the values,beliefs,biases,viewpoints the receiver has. What words or symbols will make an impact/impression on the receiver. What ideas can be used effectively to communicate to the receiver.Slide 36: Emotional reaction of the receiver is too very important.you have to measure and anticipate this aspect. Will the receiver become happy or angry if he gets this message? You viewpoint examples=== I-VIEWPOINT===I think our report is excellent You viewpoint==your wrote an excellent reportSlide 37: I VIEW POINT====You simply do not understand what I am speaking. YOU VIEW POINT---Perhaps an example will help make the point clear to understand. I view point==We offer 3 kinds of service for the public. You view point==choose the service plan that best suits youSlide 38: You should never use this type of paper. That type of paper does not work well. You must correct all five answers by noon.. All five answers must be corrected by noon We offer MP3 players with 50,75 or100 gigabytes of storage capacity Select your MP3 player from the 3 models We are pleased to announce 3 new flights of King Fisher Now you can avail 3 new kingfisher flightsAudience centered approach: Audience centered approach So the you attitude is more an audience centered approach== Because the needs of the receiver or the customer or the stakeholders are looked after and the steps are taken. The more you know the people the better you communicate. So we can use carefully you attitude in communication in –persuasive,negotiating writings, Sales letters,negative letters,proposals,resumes also Thank youListening skills / session-4: Listening skills / session-4 Difference between listening and hearing varieties/Types of listening Process of listening Benefits/ advantages of listening Barriers to listening How to develop good listening skills and remove barriers solutionsListening skills: Listening skills One of the best ways to persuade others is with your ears—by listening to them. Dean RuskDifference between listening and hearing: Difference between listening and hearing Listening requires careful attention[focus on content not delivery] Listening is not just hearing phonetic sounds Listening is like gardening; Which requires =levelling,sharpening,assimilation[refer “effective communication” by Asha Kaul]Varieties of listening: Varieties of listening Listening to a poem Hearing a plane flying in the sky Listening to the fisherwoman at your doorstep requesting you to purchase fish The police Inspector listening to a woman lodging an FIR against a youth for misbehaviour. Listening to a teacher in the classroomSlide 44: A father and mother listening to their school boy son regarding his progress from school progress report. Listening to a speech in a public meeting Your brother lost his job.He is having a discussion with father and mother. The manager of a company listening to the employees. PRO listening to the staff in a crisisProcess of listening[5 stages]: Process of listening[5 stages] Selecting/sensing a stage—the listener selects his areas /points of interests and listens and converts into a message The interpreting stage-he decodes the message/.here he faces barriers like language/semantic[MEANING OF WORDS],psychological problem,emotional problem,or environmental barrier to decode the message. The evaluating stage—a great deal critical listening takes place at this place. Tprocess: process The responding stage---the listener is ready to respond.this is a feedback stage which is important for a speaker. The memory stage—final stage of listening ,effective listening enables the listener to store facts and ideas in his memory.it is found that most listeners are able to store only 10 to 25% of a talk only.Types of listening: Types of listening Passive-looking and hearing but not listening Marginal—boring listening/superficial listening Projective—discriminating listening,/selecting portions, screening and accepting important aspects only. Sensitive/empathic/relationship listening---listening with sympathy, a doctor to a patient, a police man listening to a man injured in accident and writing the F.I.R/a troubled person talking about his problem Active/critical listening– the judge listening to the party in his chamber or court roomSlide 48: Active/critical listening---advocates in court,the media,politicians,salesman, listen and respond as per emotional,political,intellectual. Spiritual needs, These focus on 3 important aspects as Aristotle said—Ethos ,pathos,and logos Ethos=credibility,pathos==emotion,logos=evidenceAdvantages of listening: Advantages of listening It breaks up the barriers between people We can understand each other better It is cost saving It prevents miscommunication of objectives and priorities among people It also saves time.otherwise you would contact many times. Listening helps to know organisations Helps in making better policies,,brings success in open-door marketing,increases confidence.Slide 50: Listening power of the leader in a corporate world or Organisation brings more administrative and human resource development in the office, Experts and psychologists say managers should develop good and tolerant listening skills to make them successful in the office . For managers marginal listening is harmful. Service providers/ after sale service sections/sale counters have to listen critically and with empathy to customers to enhance the image of their company.Advantages and benefits: Advantages and benefits Good listening helps a manager tackle and pacify complaining employees Listening helps administration to tackle sensitive situations before they become explosive Good listening is good communication and brings better productivity Listening forms a bond of respect In the movie Chak de – the listening skills of leader Sahrukh Khan be examined, in 3 Idiots the listening skills of the friends keep each other in team spiritbarriers: barriers Lack of interest Ego that blocks good listening Imperfect past/present tense used in conversation Fear preconceived ideas stressHow to remove barriers and develop good listening skills: How to remove barriers and develop good listening skills Positive attitude Concentration-- Interaction Question answer sequencesTo develop good listening skills: To develop good listening skills Focus on content not delivery Maintain eye contact Avoid emotional involvement Listening is hearingunderstandingjudging Be attentive Focus your mind and listen for main ideas Listen creatively Good listeners listen with their facesEffective listening skills for retail counters/sales: Effective listening skills for retail counters/sales Absorb what you listen or hear from the customers. Anticipate where the customer is leading or what is his desire may be. Analyse properly and interprete the conversation with the customer and try to decode and get the feedback for action. Assimilate and menatally summerise in your memory to help the customer Appreciate the message/conversation you had with him and thank him for sharing time in your retail counter, in paralanguage and non-verbal communication for better businessNon verbal communication-- session --3 : Non verbal communication-- session --3 Body language-how it is important in work settings, body language helps to understand power and office politics,how it reflects leadership qualities,,assertiveness,,managers use body language to acquire power and use it non-verbally.,body language helpful in meetings, To know deception of people,know office life,kinesics help you understand people from various cultures. negotiation,presentations, marriage negotiations, In security and control—traffic signals/traffic policeTypes of Non-Verbal communication: Types of Non-Verbal communication Types— Kinesics—facial expression,postures, gestures Proxemics—the communication of space and proximity Chronemics—the effect of time on communication Oculesics—eye contact Haptics—the communication of touchTypes of non-verbal communication: Types of non-verbal communication Paralanguage/ paralinguisics or vocalics--- variation in --pitch,speed,pauses,volume,that convey meaning Appearance and artifacts—the physical characteristics,the dress/attire and accessories such as perfume,jwelleryNon-verbal communication: Non-verbal communication Body language Gestures Postures Gazes Looks Handshakes spatial distance Kinesics Proxemics chronemicsNon verbal communication ---words have limitations, non-verbal communication has no limitation.: Non verbal communication ---words have limitations, non-verbal communication has no limitation. The gazes/facial expression/ in eyes/dress/look—[confident, favourable/credible/honest/formal/ informal/sincere. /nervous/ Gestures and postures ,spatial distance Smiles/welcoming/ critical/ sarcastic/ Hand movements and hand shakes=firm grip/winner grip/you win I win grip/ Styles of walking Voice modulationHANDSHAKE ANALYSIS: HANDSHAKE ANALYSIS Handshake is a minimum courteous way of greeting or saying hello to someone you meet.at that time you say good morning or good afternoon or can say namaste nonverbally. The handshakes express implicit non-verbal feelings strongly in many ways=== Power grip—here the starter or initiator extends the right hand to grasp the right hand of the other person with full grip and to convey that-I will win ,you will lose—it is a non-verbal messageSlide 62: The distance between the 2 people shaking hand is -14 to 18 inches.this is a negative style. The second style is-winner grip./it is control oriented/.it expresses leadership./distance is 18 to 24 inches the non-verbal message sent is—I am not going to lose easily ,but at the same time I am not going to cause you any harm.this expresses sufficient self-confidence. The 3 rd style is Friendly- grip hand shake.both shake hands warmly and it lasts longer. Message may be—you will win, and I will also win this--.this is relationship oriented.the distance is-18 to 24 inchesSlide 63: The forth style of handshake is—loser-grip—message is—I will lose you will win,so I want to avoid you.the interpersonal distance maintained is—24 inches and maximum may be 36 inches. If you have a sweaty palm it is better to go for a namasteAs I grow older,I pay less attention to what men say, I just watch what they do.-Andrew Carnegie : As I grow older,I pay less attention to what men say, I just watch what they do.-Andrew CarnegieHE THAT HAS EYES TO SEE AND EARS TO HEAR MAY CONVINCE HIMSELF THAT NO MORTAL CAN KEEP A SECRET. IF HIS LIPS ARE SILENT HE CHATS WITH HIS FINGERS: HE THAT HAS EYES TO SEE AND EARS TO HEAR MAY CONVINCE HIMSELF THAT NO MORTAL CAN KEEP A SECRET. IF HIS LIPS ARE SILENT HE CHATS WITH HIS FINGERS NON VERBAL COMMUNICATIONNon-verbal communication: Non-verbal communication Body language=kinesics Various types of gesture ,posture ,facial expression, personal appearance, physical contact are called kinesics. Body language contributes greatly to the process of communicationProxemics : Proxemics The study of the use of space on the ground for communication is called proxemics.or we can say---proxemics is the study of how we communicate with the space around us. The use of space for handshake ,pat on the back, arms around the back for intimate whisper and closely engaging looks are some examples of proxemics .Non-verbal communication: Non-verbal communication Each communicator maintains a particular distance or personal territory around himself or herself in four ways of keepnig distance Intimate distance===18 inches or less Personal distance=18 inches to 4 feet[normal conversation with the close friends or with Boss Social distance is maintained within 4 to 12 feet/it is mostly formal meetings in this distance. Public distance is extended beyond 12 feet.communication is more formal here than social distance.sometimes society meetings prabachana, association meeting are held in this distanceparalanguage: paralanguage = paralanguage refers to all vocally-produced sound that is not a direct form of linguistic communication. Thus paralanguage refers and includes utterance that have strong signifying traits this kind of communication is a type of non-verbal communication\\\ : \\\ Para means near or beyond, hence paralanguage refers to something beyond or addition to language itself.para language has two basic components—voice qualities such as pitch, volume, and word stress –vocalisation or noises without linguistic structures such as ---crying,laughing, grunting.Slide 71: paralanguageSlide 72: Voice qualities carry both intentional and unintentional messages when you say– I am glad to meet you..the voice may be very warm , or marginal without much joy.it creates an impression on the listener Vocal cues or vocalisation renders personality traits through the vocal reactions like—ohhh, huuumm. Intonation, pitch of sound from you.—oh, ah,um,ok,Slide 73: So paralanguage is a kind of non-verbal communication through certain sounds expressing like or dislike, appreciation or disappreciation through emotional touch They are of following categories Tone--[direct,commanding,loud,harsh,soft, disguised,gentle,comforting,pleasing,sharp,nasal, etcSlide 74: Pitch---high or low Intensity---loud or soft Articulation---precise or imprecise Rhythm—smooth or jerky ----------------------------------------------- So non-verbal cues or communication primarily expresses feelings,it is a kind of impression management.people believe more in actions than words as Greek Philosopher Demosthenes said-action is 1 st part of oratory, 2 nd part of oratory and also 3 rd part of oratory.Non-verbal communication : Non-verbal communication In Organisations—the significance=== Words and actions contradict each other and we distrust words whereas subconsciously we believe non-verbal communications.once we become professionals in organisations we come across both verbal and non-verbal communications and find contradictions between them.It becomes very difficult to cope with. So non-verbal communications are more acceptable and believable than verbal interpersonal transactions.IF A MEETING IS GOING ON WE CAN USE BODY —FINGER SIGNAL FOR SILENCE,FINGER ON LIPS ALSO FOR SILENCE ,RAISING HAND TO SPEAK WITHOUT CREATING SOUND, CALLING SOMEONE BY HAND MOVEMENT,,EXPRESSING ANGER OR QUERRY THROUGH EYE MOVEMENTS,: IF A MEETING IS GOING ON WE CAN USE BODY —FINGER SIGNAL FOR SILENCE,FINGER ON LIPS ALSO FOR SILENCE ,RAISING HAND TO SPEAK WITHOUT CREATING SOUND, CALLING SOMEONE BY HAND MOVEMENT,,EXPRESSING ANGER OR QUERRY THROUGH EYE MOVEMENTS, Non-verbal signals throughPresentation skills [session-5]: Presentation skills [session-5] Presentation skill requires self confidence and mental alertness There are two types of speakers who present ;1. fearless and ready to present.2 fearful and nervous. these speakers pick up late. Speaking before an audience is an opportunity to express an opinion or a point of view he can capture the audience by dint of his power of speechPresentation skill: Requires Positive attitude , appropriate verbal content, good voice modulation, instilling enthusiasm Presentation skillPresentation skills: Presentation skills 6 great helpers; Why - purpose of presentation Who - is my listener, status, knowledge,age education Where- at workplace,at home,where would he be when he receives your message When-same as above What- on what you are to speak.what do you want to communicate How= the medium=projector etcHow to achieve success in presentation: How to achieve success in presentation 7steps to a successful presentation Decide your objective-with concrete ideas Manner of presentation-formal ,informal which will meet the demands of the audience Preparation of the script-with home work that will boost self confidence Aids to help- visual, handouts, feedbackforms-5 this will create interest competence, increase retention7steps to successful presentation: 7steps to successful presentation 6 rehearse- that will bring perfection ,bring more confidence 7 presentation- at last you share informationTips to improve presentation skills: Tips to improve presentation skills Identify various presentation purposes Use various methods to capture your audience”interest Devise effective presentational formats Use various methods to improve your delivery Apply knowledge and skills to handle presentation nervesSlide 83: Use appropriate facial expression,eye contact,and body language Use appropriate tone of voice Practice reading the text Remain calm and carry on if there is any technical difficulty like power failure, or ppt does not work.Slide 84: Capture interest of the audience and link to their interests,get them involved,ask them questions ,walk among your audience Be clear about your purpose of presentation Think about beginnings and endings Use font size 24 as a mimnimum for ppt In a light room use dark coloured text against light backgroundSlide 85: Get useful feedback At the end of every presentation get into the habit of reflecting on what you presented Then get a feedback from your audience You can distribute a feedback form at the end .Slide 86: Think of A BEGINNING A MIDDLE AN END WHEN YOU ARE GOING TO MAKE A PRESENTATION ABOVE POINTS SHOULD BE NOTEDSlide 87: REMEMBER THE FOLLOWING ASPECTS DURING A PRESENTATION AUDIENCE TOPIC/SUBJECT MATTER/THEME TIME FACTOR EQIUPMENT YOU ARE USING FEEDBACK OF THE AUDIENCE TAKE CARE OF YOUR VOICE IN VERBAL PRESENTATION YOUR NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION/BODY LANGUAGEconducting meetings,agenda,minutes seminars[session-10]: conducting meetings,agenda,minutes seminars[session-10] Planning a meeting Meeting process Evaluating meetings Minutes Planning a seminar,a conference.Planning a meeting: Planning a meeting A meeting is a discussion between two or more people To decide a policy, to decide a course of action It may be a formal or informal one Meetings are organised after a notice .or informationmeetings: meetings Process; Notice is served,place, date of meeting time and topic of discussion are mentioned. Agenda;this is called agenda in detail from starting to end the programme is called agenda An agenda is a meeting plan detailing matters to be discussed put in a permanent written formagenda: agenda Copies of the agenda are sent to members of the committee or association well in advance along with minutes of previous meeting an agenda clearly indicates; Purpose of the meeting, problem to be discussed, other information at hand to make the meeting successful Example of an agenda;An agenda: An agenda SUN MICRO SYSTEM COMPANY, BANGALORE. Executive body meeting 6.8.2010 1 .call to order 2 roll call. 3 approval of minutes of previous meeting 4 business arising from minutes 5 chairperson to speak at the startSlide 93: 6 subcommittee to submit report 7 discussion on Overseas affairs 8 vote of thanks. 9 adjournment of the meetingminutes: minutes Minutes are the details if discussion and resolutions made in a meeting. It is confirmed in the next meeting The secretary records the minutes in the resolution and gets it signed by the president.Seminars and conferences: Seminars and conferences Seminars are organised by colleges institutes at state, national,international level. Topics are approved by authorities approving/sanctioning Fund is provided by many agencies, companies govt etcconferences: conferences Conferences are organised by institutes ,societies ,companies like seminars These are agencies of communicationG.D[session-9]: G.D[session-9] GROUP DISCUSSION; Qualities looked for g.d- leadership, Knowledge of the subject Analytical abilities Clarity of thought Conviction and flexibilityG d.=leadership: G d.=leadership Quality of leadership is highly necessary for retaining the discussion and reaching the goal or target What should a leader do= Taking initiative,ability to give direction,taking the group togather,listening, goal fulfilment.g.d=knowledge of the subject: g.d=knowledge of the subject Presentation of details,error free presentation, G,d=analytical ability; Use of arguments,citing appropriate examples, logically and effectively relating arguments to the subject matter .G,d=clarity of thought: G,d=clarity of thought In g.d. Clear idea on the subject of discussion shows that the participant has grasp of the subject. For this he has to Distill essentials Abandon and sidetrack peripherals to concentrate on the core issue.g.d.=conviction and flexibility: g.d.=conviction and flexibility What ever is stated should be said with conviction and arguments should continue accordingly. Conviction and flexibility go hand in hand.one should be ready to rectify his mistake or wrong statement if made.g.d=follow the principles of communication: g.d=follow the principles of communication In g.d. many members become leadspeakers whereas some lag behind. They pick up the thread late and want to speak but are not allowed. This is against principles of communication.all should participate.Strategy for g.d.: Strategy for g.d. Keep it short and simple Give hints and points instead of descriptions Make equal contribution=all should evenly participate. Make periodical conclusions to keep g.d. warm and alive and retain the focus on the subject Do not speak loudly .do not speak fast. Give opportunity to others to participate.DONTS/DOs: DONTS/DOs NO LOUD SPEAKING NO ACTIVE HAND MOVEMENTS KEEP YOUR LEGS UNDER THE CHAIR FIRMLY KEEP YOUR HANDS ON YOUR LAP=RIGHT ON LEFTG.D=AN ANALYSIS.: G.D=AN ANALYSIS. Group discussion and interviews are a part and parcel of communication..It is a rigorous test of personality, knowledge of the subject, analytical ability ,quality of team building.therefore participation and active interaction are very important in careers of management and companies.PERSUASIVE COMMUNICATION—session-7: PERSUASIVE COMMUNICATION—session-7 Informative and persuasive communication Formal Informal persuasion process BarriersPERSUASIVE SPEAKING : PERSUASIVE SPEAKING Persuasive Informative The speaker makes his ideas clear on focussing on a subject; It may be informative or it may be persuasive. Examples; topics of information=Olympic games, child care, dowry torture, etc.Informative and persuasive speaking: Informative and persuasive speaking Examples of informative speaking as above are different from same topics focussing on persuasive intention. On a particular topic like health care /child health care information may be given on steps by govt/ngos /organisations in this area. At the same time listeners may be requested to take necessary steps to improve child health in various areas in the country.this is a social issue Persuasion in conversation –it is possible as above.Persuasive and informative speaking: Persuasive and informative speaking Informative speaking is speaking on/for a general purpose.= report of effects of bad child health care, child labour, dowry deaths. Persuasive speaking is a specific purpose. People should take steps ,collect funds for child health care, N.G.O S /CLUBS ,YOUTH FORUMS should take positive steps to redress these social evils. This is persuasive speaking.Formal/informal persuasive speaking : Formal/informal persuasive speaking Fly in YOUR AIRLINES=INDIGO. MATRIMONIAL SITES ads ---Power,love, respect---the legendary Bullet now powered with a better performing unit construction engine—ROYAL ENFIELD Your resume can change the way you live your life=TIMESJOBS.COM These are examples of informal persuasion requesting customers to adopt their product.Informal persuasion: Informal persuasion Informal persuasion is an everyday activity that relates to the way you interact with co-workers,family members, customers through e-mails memos, team meetings.so it is verbal and written. FORMAL persuasion is less common and is used in customer letters and proposals as well as formal presentations to your customers and co-workers.both verbal and written.process: process Persuasion is all around you in small and large ways /you persuade others ,they persuade you.trying to affect decision of others is persuasion,buying clothes,, a car, a washing machine is persuasion.the process is from request to influencing and accepting your decision.Slide 113: In interview, you persuade to prove you are fit candidate Inteam meetings-you try to impress members with your views,skills,projects In memos-/letters you explain your co-worker the subject mentioned. Clients-you assist clients in achieving their goal and answer their questions.it is an interactive process.Slide 114: So persuasion is a process that affects how someone thinks,acts or feels.persuasion involves change,-good or bad.and it can create resistance to work with positive attitude in the face of resistance is persuasionADVERTISEMENTS: ADVERTISEMENTS Iphone4 Multi-tasking,better sreen,HD video,slimmer,sexier—it’s the iPhone perfected GET GOOD STUFF WITH NOKIA N 97 MINI,GOLD EDITION 18 carat gold-plated luxury with matching headset /pesonalise your home screen with live widgets ,contacts and more/download games and apps at the Ovi Store MARUTI SUZUKI---Way of Life SAMSUNG—TURN ON TOMORROWThree strong bases for oral communication: Three strong bases for oral communication Ethos=credibility in your speaking Pathos=using emotion to influence Logos=using evidence to support your point Since times of great Greeks Aristotle, and Cicero writers on Oral communication have told us that good oral communication rests upon the above 3 bases.A.I.D.A=master formula: A.I.D.A=master formula A=ATTENTION I=INTEREST D=DESIRE A=ACTION You never know till you reach them how accessible they are,but you must approach each of them.This is the key to persuade customers.GLOBAL COMMUNICATION AND TECHNOLOGY—session-16: GLOBAL COMMUNICATION AND TECHNOLOGY—session-16 Trends in Technology in Global context Throughout the modern world and in the Business world the term Globalisation is well known It has connected the world from east to west north to south. This is enabled by THE MAGIC OF I. T. The growth of information Technology is very fast and vastTrends in Technology in the Global context: Trends in Technology in the Global context Information Technology is revolutionising business and professional communication systems and methodologies ,making the system and task of communication and exchange of information easier more effective and more economically efficient. The present trend is an exciting alternative to the traditional one.HISTORY OF Technological Developments: HISTORY OF Technological Developments Telegraph. Telephone, train, telex machine, aeroplanes=past developments In 1960 computer revolutionised communication system Fax,e-mail, Internet, brought new technology. Voice mail,teleconferencing, videoshooting,video conferencingTypes of modern communication modes: Types of modern communication modes Package tracking—senders and receivers often want frequent updates when packages are in transit.Handheld devices like FedEx PowerPad enhance customer service by letting delivery personnel instantly upload package data to the Fed Ex network. Corporate Blogs---Web-based journals of companies offer advice,answerChallenges to the organisation made by new technologies of I.T.: Challenges to the organisation made by new technologies of I.T. Managing information in the organisation As future Business leaders all employees are trained in new technologies to manage the information.DAYS OF SAVING THROUGH CARBON COPIES IS GONE. Managing information outside the organisation; Managing news mediaTechnology and Communication: Technology and Communication Managing corporate news=press releases conferences Managing INFORMATION THROUGH COMPANY SPOKESPERSONS managing crisis communication Interviews Letters to the Editor Talk ShowsINFOCRAT: INFOCRAT So taking into consideration the technological developments and the role it plays in managing Communication experts forcast the emergence of INFOCRAT not beurocrat and Tecnocrat .. With his Laptop. And all humanbeings will be human processors of information in the global context. Globalisation is made easier by these techonological inventionsGlobal communication and business: Global communication and business Global markets Global products Global monetary convenience Global job facility Global companies So in global context it is possible only by business communication.and modern technologies.NEGOTIATION SKILLS—session-6 What is negotiation: NEGOTIATION SKILLS—session-6 What is negotiation Everybody negotiates not just only trade unions,diplomates ,terrorists or businessmen.You negotiate when you ask for a pay rise,for a new job, for a new apartment, to purchase a plot , dresses commodities in big bazaar or Pantaloon. Any time you want something from somebody then you are in the process of negotiationNegotiation skills: Negotiation skills It is a skill or process by which people with different or even opposing needs can arrive at a fair agreement Though both sides want to win ,their best interests are protected and served by generating a mutually acceptable option. This is a NegotiationNegotiation process: Negotiation process Four stages of negotiation Preparation Discussion Proposal Agreementpreparation: preparation Before meeting the party for negotiation one must know and plan the outcome, collect information about the party.Should plan alternative options like BATNA, ZOPA, Batna=Best Alternative to a Negotiated Agreement Zopa=Zone of possible AgreementDISCUSSION: DISCUSSION The two parties sit for discussion and put their own proposals.there may be conflicts and differences .But both sides try to reach an amicable settlement otherwise the Negotiation will fail.Proposal/counter proposal: Proposal/counter proposal You make your own proposal with a request The other party makes a different proposal. Negotiation goes on .At last a settlement is made.Agreement: Agreement Conflicts and disagreements are transformed into mutual agreement These are the steps of Negotiation These steps are= Bargaining,Investigating, managing Conflicts,collecting information about the other party, understanding them,KEY CONCEPTS OF NEGOTIATION: KEY CONCEPTS OF NEGOTIATION Batna=best alternative to a negotiated agreement Zopa=zone of possible agreement Reservation price=the least possible point at which you will accept a negotiated deal called walk-away price. Value creation through trades= the trading of goods that have very modest value to the other party is quite valuable to you and you accept it.TYPES OF NEGOTIATION: TYPES OF NEGOTIATION Distributive negotiation Integrative negotiation DISTRIBUTIVE =While selling a car both parties are unknown to each other.Only money is important.one may gain the other may lose. Relationship is not important.Integrative negotiation: Integrative negotiation In integrative negotiation relationship or reputation is important not money. Both parties try to protect the interests of employees and owner.Longterm relationship is given importance.Multiparty and multiphase negotiation: Multiparty and multiphase negotiation Some negotiations go through phases and deal is done at last . Some negotiations have many parties as shareholders. It is multiparty.Some Negotiation tactics and deal: Some Negotiation tactics and deal Set a positive tone at the beginning Review the agenda Discuss your expectations regarding process of negotiation Offer information If the other side is informal be informal .Identify opportunities to create value.Tactics of deal and negotiation: Tactics of deal and negotiation Determine a stisfactory outcome Identify your BATNA,and improve your good chances Alter the process in your favour.Do not propose very high or irrational price Do not show overconfidence. Do not be emotional. Or you will be TRAPPEDBarriers to a good negotiation: Barriers to a good negotiation Lack of trust Diehard bargains Potential enemies Difference in gender or culture Communication problemsSteps to close a deal: Steps to close a deal Signal the end Allow flexibility but not much.Always it should be acceptable to your terms but see that it does not slip away from your hands Discourage the other party from seeking more concessions Express your desire to accept the total package without any change.Closing negotiation: Closing negotiation Write down all terms and conditions THANK YOU.Types of Communication [session-2]: Types of Communication [session-2] Verbal communication Non verbal communication Verbal communication= by discussions,meetings seminars conferences,group discussions,telephone, mobile phones, T.V.channels,conversations,face to face talks.[ called Dyadic communication]NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION: NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION Body postures,gestures.=facial expression,voice touch ,smell, eye contact,sounds By use of space Sign language. Written communicationCommunication Tree==: Communication Tree== 1--Verbal- 3-oral/speech/ by use of words 4--Audio-sounds 5--Written—linguistic signs,symbols/writing/by use of words Verbal messages/clues/cues are not so effective.but persuasive verbal clues are effective/verbal clues are not so spontaneous 2--Non-verbal— Kinesics-gestures/postures/body language Proxemics/spatial communication 6--Visual signs, posters, advertisements traffic signals Words are not used Non-verbal clues/cues are more spontaneous, more effective,express feelings betterCommunication networks in an organisation: Communication networks in an organisation Formal interpersonal communication in an organisation= By meetings,telephone,e-mail,intercomes, notice to staff, By seminars, conferences,interviews ,press meetings Formal communications are planned. Are recordedFormal organisational communication flow chart and Heirarchy of officers : Formal organisational communication flow chart and Heirarchy of officers Chief Managing Director General manager[HR] G.M[FINANCE ] Chief Finance officer PRO manager[hr] manager[f] legalofficer Accounts officer manager[pr] Accountant security officer Supervisor Dy.supervisorSlide 147: Downward communication—CMD TO GMS GMS TO PRO PRO TO SUPERVISOR TO ACCOUNTANT UPWARD---accountant to finance officer Gm to CMD PRO to GM Lateral/horizontal communication—gm to gm/ manager[f] to manager[hr] diognal—cross communication—gm to pro to finance officer to accountant to supervisorInformal interpersonal communication: Informal interpersonal communication In an organisation= Workers discuss in tea stalls, lobby, over phone,e-mails. These are informal meetings It is positive It is not planned It is not recordedInternal communication=: Internal communication= Can be= Instructing,reviewing,teaching, Guiding,controlling, sharing ideas, Leading Verifying, Directing supervisingCommunication network in an organisation for external communication: Communication network in an organisation for external communication To banks,insurance companies. Investors For trade and industry Press release,interview, conferences,seminars Work order, supply order. Sales, promotion,marketing,launching a new product, Bargaining,negotiationsOutside communication : Outside communication Communication through persuasion influence, Meeting customers, striking a deal Call centre work, helpline work,Key to successful interpersonal communication: Key to successful interpersonal communication Carefully choose location for communication Minimise interruption Speak effectively choose appropriate language Ask questions ,send appropriate nonverbal cues[signals for action] Listen very carefullyINTERCULTURAL [end term] COMMUNICATIONsession-18/19: INTERCULTURAL [end term] COMMUNICATIONsession-18/19 Throughout the business world the word Globalisation is well known. Globalisation has brought international markets,money,products, materials, Technologies to our door. It may be from U.S.A. Europe, Africa or Asian Countries.In this process of communication and interaction naturally various people and regions bring with them their own cultural habits ,peculiarities, non-verbal methods of communication, negotiation,, sense of time, place and bargaining.Intercultural communication: Intercultural communication What is Culture BACKGROUND TO intercultual communication National cultural variables Individual cultural variablesWhat is Culture: What is Culture As the meaning of communication is difficult to define so also the term culture.I t stands for behaviour,, characteristics , food, dress, festivals of a people or group of people..Therefore verbal and non-verbal communication modes of one culture must be also different from each other.The language words spoken and written are also different.Background to intercultural communication: Background to intercultural communication Intercultural communication principles guide the process of exchanging meaningful and unanbiguous information across cultures and cultural boundaries.In a way it preserves mutual respect, and minimise antagonism.For this culture is a shared system of symbols, beliefs attitudes, values.Globalisation, international business and intercultural communication: Globalisation, international business and intercultural communication Now in the background of international business the role of I.T. Companies, their sale and purchase, business deals, agreements be examined. T hey use mobilephone ,S.M.S. ,VOICE MAIL, TELEPHONES. E-Mail, teleconferencing, for the Business. And it is done as per norms, cultural variables in behaviour,NATIONAL Cultural variables: NATIONAL Cultural variables In education=International students have to take help of foreign languages. Kinesics and proxemics= body gestures. Whispers, embrace, keeping proximity or distance are to be studied. A German generally keeps distance but a Pakitani , an Indian will move very close to his fellow students. This may create misunderstanding.Slide 159: An Arabian talks loudly AN Italian also. But an American does not like loud speaking. Welcome a Japanese by bowing,an Escimo by rubbing the nose. An American welcomes with a HANDSHAKE So verbal and non-verbal communication varies from country to country.National cultural variables: National cultural variables Polychronic society=Asians and Africans,Chinese,Arabians,Japanese Monochronic society=Europe Monochronic are called Low Contexr=cultures=Israel,Austalia,U.S.A., Europe,Canada,=people here speak directly. They mean what they say. Polychronic cultures are called High context cultures.National cultural variables: National cultural variables In Polychronic cultures people speak indirectly. People here value relationship harmony,cultural demands of their society.Decisions depend on time situation context,place. So the social norms, religious beliefs language, trade and commerce rules of that country politics and political concepts decide business relations.Individual cultural variables: Individual cultural variables Time[chronemics],space[proxemics]food, acceptable dress ,manners, Verbal and non-verbal communication which are very different from each other play a great role in cross /intercultural communication Individual countries follow their own norms So tolerance ,understanding other cultures is the foundation to good international cultural communication.How to communicate across cultures: How to communicate across cultures Recognise and study cultural differences in own country among ethnic groups=religious groups then one can understand other cultures Avoid drawing conclusions for an entire cultural group based on only a few examples Should know that mis –communication is mainly due to misunderstanding in culture rather than grammatical mistakes. Avoid judging others on the basis of your own cultural normsHow to communicate across cultures: How to communicate across cultures Get as close as possible to all stakeholders in International business Focus on social protocol as much as business protocol Identify some opinion leaders and get their support. Avoid arrogance.Be humble. Develop multi channels to contact various levels at Govt offices with good communication experts.CORPORATE COMMUNICATION/session -11: CORPORATE COMMUNICATION/session -11 What is corporate communication Internal corporate communication External corporate communication Planning and strategies for effective corporate communication Crisis communication Role of Public Relations officer in crisis Effective strategies for managing crisisWhat is corporate communication: What is corporate communication Do but take care to express yourself in a plain, easy manner, In well-chosen,significant and decent Terms, And to give a harmonious and pleasing Turn to your Periods; Study to explain your thoughts,and set them in the truest Light, Laboring as much as possible, Not to leave them dark nor intricate, But clear and intelligible. Don QuixoteWhat is corporate communication: What is corporate communication Corporate communication is the communication issued by a corporate/organisation/body/institute to all their public /public[s]/stakeholders. There can be ;=Internal corporate communication[to employees, stakeholders,[share and stock holders] External corporate communication= [to agencies,channel parteners media,govt,industries /industry bodies institutions ,educational institutions and general public etc.What is corporate communication: What is corporate communication Mr Cees B.M and van Riel in their famous book Essentials of Corporate Communication say that corporate communication means a set of activities involved in managing and orchestrating all inernal and external communication aimed at creating favourable starting points with stakeholders on which the Company depends.What is corporate communication: What is corporate communication Corporate communication consists of the information shared by a variety of specialists and generalists in an organisation/ organisations.Here communications flow vertically and horizontally,formally and informally linking all employees of the organisations which are networks of people who communicate with each other.Internal corporate communication: Internal corporate communication Communication is the lifeblood of an Organisation.It is the medium through which the Company/companies large or small access the vital resources they need for daily operation and transactions. In the company /organisation for daily operation employees play a great role..The Brand name. Reputation, and Image of the company is upheld not only by external communication but also by internal communication .Internal corporate communication: Internal corporate communication What corporate communication encodes and promotes= Strong corporate culture,coherent corporate identity, reasonable corporate philosophy,genuine sense of corporate citizenship, an appropriate and professional relationship with press, including quick and timely communication during Crisis understanding communication.Internal corporate communication : Internal corporate communication The employees have to learn better communication tools and techniques. The Organisation has to hold and organise periodical internal events for the staff, manage corporate publications for employees and partners. Corporate communication is all about managing perceptions of company values. And positive corporate Image. It is important how a company communicates with its employees, extended audiences, the press, the customers and sophisticated approach to Global communication.External corporate communication: External corporate communication Corporate communication is a science and art of perception management. Communication with Press,/media ,print media,=by press release,press conferences ,organising events,meeting with media professionals External events=to involve vendors,suppliers,distributors, channel partners related to product launching,important new initiatives,External corporate communication: External corporate communication Company spokesperson is important in promoting the company .He is to be in regular contact with external parties .He is to be in touch with Website of the company, manage publications of the company, and manage print media. This is to be done along with Brand name Reputation, and of Image of the company.Image of a Company: Image of a Company Image is a specific collection or configuration of perceptions about the company in the minds of observers.This Image may be called Corporate Image.It may be described as the net result of the interaction of a person on the ideas, beliefs feelings and impressions on the company and their products.Types of corporate communication: Types of corporate communication Management communication=aim is to Develop integrated communication both internal and external. Develop a shared vision of the company among the employees Establish and maintain trust in organisation leadership Initiate and manage process of change as and when necessaryManagement communication: Management communication Strengthen relation between employer and employees Promote Image,Reputation Brand of the companyMarketing communication: Marketing communication Those in charge of marketing look after communication for sales ,purchase, related services,related peomotions public relations.Advertisement is an important dept of marketing communication.Organisational corporate communication: Organisational corporate communication They are in contact with shareholders,investment analysts,regulators and legislators Public relation, public corporate advertising, internal communication affairs.Reputation,brand,image : Reputation,brand,image Brand means a mixture of attributes symbolised in a Trademark of the company .If managed properly this Brand stands for values and influence of the Company. Reputation=Overall assessments of the Organisation/Company by their stakeholders. Reputation stands for=social image=financial image=product image= recruitment imageStrategies and planning for effective corporate communication: Strategies and planning for effective corporate communication Involve public relation officer in effective advertising,video shows Crisis management with news media, Special events at key locations Proper planning building product value communicating with shareholders ,stakeholders and clientsPublic Relation/advertising,/ role of pro/crisis communication-session-12: Public Relation/advertising,/ role of pro/crisis communication-session-12 Generally considered a special dept of PRO,who protects the Organisation/company or individuals of the company ,the reputation ,image thereof in crisis which is periods of govt investigation ,criminal allegation, a media enquiry,or violation of environmental regulation . Legal,ethical and financial crisis are the types of crisis to be dealt with effective communication skills.Effective strategies by PRO to meet crisis: Effective strategies by PRO to meet crisis Quick response to the case.To media Open disclosure to shareholders/stakeholders Good listening to them Responding to committees Guiding the company properly. This needs appropriate communication. Crisis communication is also crisis management Continue as usual the Business transactions of the companyRole of pro : Role of pro Pro is to look after the image and reputation of the company Timely response to problems,. Good and continuous business flow Timely meeting with press,govt organisations, stakeholders. Strike first the enemy do not wait to be hit. Maintain connectivity with outside organisationsStrategies for good communication: Strategies for good communication Develop good and open communication with employees. Guard the reputation of the employer Streamline communication process Maintain information security Support multichannel communication Show empathy to people involved Manage employees issues Encourage them to give new ideas,proposals and implement if possible This is Social responsibility at the corporate sectorsLeadership communication and team communication –session-8: Leadership communication and team communication –session-8 All the world is a stage And all men and women are merely players. They have their exits and entrances. And one man in his time plays many roles. Shakespeare What IS Leadership communication: What IS Leadership communication Winston Churchill said =of all talents bestowed upon men none is so precious as the gift of oratory. Communication is the Lifeblood of an Organisation.And communication is the central link and chief means which binds everyone together.The aim of Interpersonal and Organisational communication is to ensure that every one understands both internal and external issues facing the Organisation.Who is a leader: Who is a leader A Leader is a great communicator A visionary=knows where you are all going A motivator Listener a counsellor Teacher Inspirator Coach Teamleader Mentor influencerLeadership communication: Leadership communication 3 steps of leadership communication Developing leadership messages Delivery of leadership message Sustaining the leadership messageDeveloping leadership message: Developing leadership message It may be defined as a communication from the Leader that covers a key organisational or business issue .This includes Vision and Mission of the Organisation and is rooted in the cultural values of the Organisation The main purpose of a leadership message here is to build TRUSTLEADERSHIP MESSAGE/COMMUNICATION: LEADERSHIP MESSAGE/COMMUNICATION The Organisation has to see how effectively the message of the leader is communicated to employees and stake holders.communication methods may be by meetings.seminars ,e-mails,mobile phone, video, face-to-face meetings with employees. This is how message of the Leader is developped and channelised to all concerned.Leadership message/communication: Leadership message/communication The message emerging from a leader whom we trust is called leadership message.It is rooted in the culture ./guidelines of the company.=Traits of Leadership message reflect =significance,cadence,values, and consistency Significance of the communication/message which may speak about the big issues relating to future or present performance/people/product/services of the company.Leadership communication: Leadership communication SO EVERY ONE OF THE ORGANISATION CALLED TEAM MEMBER HAS A ROLE TO PLAY. communication belongs to everyone,each one must show his core competency and responsibility. It is not only the work of PRO. Finance officer,Marketing Executive but every one who is getting messages,and insructions from their Leader.Delivery of leadership message: Delivery of leadership message The leader must declare to all what he wants to communicate.It has to be sent properly to all concerned.He has to understand his audience who will receive his message. He is to find out what the audience wants.He is to know their expectations, Find out key way to communicate=how it is to be presented= verbal/nonverbal,written/modern technology.proper planning necessary.Sustaining the Leadership message: Sustaining the Leadership message Only preparing and delivery of the message will not make the Organisation grow .The leadership message has to be kept in minds and perceptions of all stakeholders and partners and clients. Regular interaction,getting constant feedback, developping human touch,to continue cultural aspects of the company as great leaders like Mother Teresa and Churchill did. Be a teacher and a coach,true to your beliefs,recognise achievements,and deliver discipline.4 types of Leadership communication: 4 types of Leadership communication The expert The Transformer. The Coach. The visionary. The Leader has to deliver many Roles as a man plays in his lifetime in the stage of life.TEAM COMMUNICATION: TEAM COMMUNICATION Every organisation grows only with team work as per guidelines ,cultural background of the company and Leadership Message. The leader has to build a team for a project.team members have to be acquainted with each other.communicate,plan distribute assignments, Prepare work documents, be communicative collaborative, understand their individual roles, social roles, message of the leader, Planning and strategies are necessary It should be a productive team work.7 steps to effective team communication: 7 steps to effective team communication To ensure that your team achieves the target and goal/objective efficiently and effectively you need to follow the following 7steps= Communicate openly and freely with your team members. Develop agreement on processes and procedures. Communicate team goal[s] clearly to team members.Team communication: Team communication Motivate team members to have goal-oriented interaction and communication Cultivate a co-operative supportive,friendly and cordial atmosphere Ensure an equitable distribution of team participation Develop a shared leadershipPreparing Business documents/messages: Preparing Business documents/messages Process=Whether in oral or written communication or message one has to plan, organise, draft, edit and proofread for an effective communication. One must also keep in mind 7cs of effective communication. Must know principles of communication. Must be aware of legal and ethical aspects while communicating any message.Preparation of business messages: Preparation of business messages In oral or written communication good planning is necessary.inspite of latest modern technologies one has to be very careful in business documents like request letter, request or order by phone ,voicemail.supply order, quotation , tender, sale,purchase, preparation of invoice etc.5 planning steps to communicate well: 5 planning steps to communicate well Know your purpose analyse your audience Choose your ideas Collect data to support your ideas Finally prepare and organise you message or writing.Know your purpose of sending the message: Know your purpose of sending the message Before preparing a message one must know why he is writing or speaking/delivering the message may be by letter, verbally by phone or by email.It may be oral or written It should have a purpose. Message is to instruct,to order,to warn, to criticise, draw attention, to influence, to persuade ,to inform, to educate. Cancellation order,supply order,request letter,verification letter. Job offer letter.Purpose of a message: Purpose of a message Negotiation letter.marriage invitation, company festival ,good will letter. Letter to govt etc. One must be very careful and prepare it.Analyse your audience: Analyse your audience Who is your audience,his or her age ,status, country,.He /she is known or unknown to you.How will the party react to your message ,it will be positive or negative. Know the cultural background. choose your ideas: choose your ideas As the golden rule is to be audince oriented one has to choose his ideas properly. The ideas depend on the type of communication you are sending.if it is a refusal letter you are to refuse and modestly say you are very sorry your company could not help him. But you will be waiting for any future relation and collaboration..If you are working in a Bank or Hotel and a customer asks for a query about home loan /hotel tarrif then first you thank him/her for choosing your company.Ideas in a message: Ideas in a message Then only you should write or speak about rates/facilities available in the bank or hotel. Collect data to support your ideas.check name/names,address place, exact location, job/service of the party..send company brochure.advertisement samples,product sample if company permits.Now go for encoding the message after organising: Now go for encoding the message after organising Direct request/good news/bad news/ Indirect one Use the direct message when the party is positive and responsive to you. Start message with the topic.less persuasion is necessary with such responsive customers.Message organisation: Message organisation Indirect approach in the message= If the party is reluctant not positive to you you tell him or write to him indirectly. Begin politely appreciating his relation with you.give product details afterwards. Go to the main topic after one or two paragraphs. Send a positive tone in the message BEGINNING , MIDDLE AND CONCLUSION: BEGINNING , MIDDLE AND CONCLUSION First impression lasts long.a good beginning is half done. The opening paragraph should be complete, concise and courteous in communication. Middle should contain details of the message End be positive and very polite.Developing and revising short Business messages===SESSION-15: Developing and revising short Business messages===SESSION-15 After initial steps of identifying the purpose of writing a message, analysing the customers/audience,choosing/selecting the ideas /subject/topic of message and after proper organisation you should start writing /speaking /delivering or sending a message. So the first step is good beginning with a paragraph conveying courtesy and a positive tone.Beginning and ending of preparing a message: Beginning and ending of preparing a message It is not what you tell them that counts .It is what they remember from your message,that is important. So the golden rule is focus on what the audience or customers want. They will remember if you make it relevant,interesting,credible and intelligible. Follow 7cs of effective communicationOpening paragraph: Opening paragraph Choose opening for sending or encoding appropriate message. Start first with good news if you are sure that the customers are responsive or positive.And begin the Topic or main idea straight. Call a spade a spade. It should be Direct approachOpening paragraph: Opening paragraph make the opening concise ,considerate, clear, and courteous . Make first paragraph comparatively shorter. be positive in communication Avoid/eliminate empty or unnecessary information. Be informal or conversational Check structure of oral sentences or written one. Check if you are giving complete informationClosing paragraph: Closing paragraph ACCORDINGLY CLOSING PARAGRPH SHOULD BE ALSO POSITIVE AND COURTEOUS Example=negative=I am sorry we can not be more encouraging at this time. ,positive=We wish you success in your career inspite of recession Wordy expression=as far as we are concerned Informal and positive= we believe Despite the fact that=\althoughSlide 216: Do a study of the effects of= study/research Send us your cheque today=to keep your account in good order please send the cheque for rs 50000/ In six months time=in six months .specific examples=examples .exact opposites=oppositesThe company gave consideration to your problem=the company considerd your proposal.Drafting /preparing a message: Drafting /preparing a message Composing first draft is always time taking and difficult. First get the information written down on a piece of paper. Think if it is matching your main idea Edit and write. Then read the proof by editing making changes if necessary. Then make final draft5 steps as pointed out earlier be followed properly for composing a message: 5 steps as pointed out earlier be followed properly for composing a message Know your purpose Analyse your audience Choose your idea Collect information Now organise the message.5steps to compose effective messages: 5steps to compose effective messages Message be simple,avoid jargons Be informal Be direct Speak in active voice Be personal Ref=book=1 .making business writing happen. By=Ralph Brown 2 chapter 6 Herta A. MurphyADVERTISING and Persuasive strategies-[session-12]: ADVERTISING and Persuasive strategies-[session-12] Advertising is a persuasive skill. The company /organisations now –a-days spend huge money on promotional schemes for marketing their products. Advertisements are presented by the following mediums= T.v.radio.mobile phone,cinema. Posters.,banners, magazines,journals,newspapers,e-mail, internetCharacteristics/ purpose of advertisements: Characteristics/ purpose of advertisements Catching attention Stimulating interests Arousing desire Supplying convincing details Motivating actionAdvertising : Advertising Beoadly speaking advertising is a form of communication.we communicate with the customers,,clients ,shareholders about our Brand,varieties of products,market position, areas of marketing. Role of media=newspapers, magazines t,v. radio, are main sources of media ads. Media ads now-a-days are colourful ,full of animation.aggressive.They present sports persons,film stars. Corporate tycoons as their brand ambassadors.media: media The media used for advertising are newspapers,megazines,radio, t.v., direct mail, sms,email.mobile phone. The choice of medium depends on the answers to the following questions;= a.To whom is the advertisement being addressed. What are the contents of the message. How much money is available for the purposeMediums of media: Mediums of media T.v=a t.v advertisement must be accompanied by effective visuals or say visual effects and appropriate sound effects.presently filmstars.sports stars are presenting the ads for catching public eyes . Magazine=an advertisement in magazine must use a harmonious blend of colours and suitable print types and good quality papersNewpapers: Newpapers It is a leading medium of advertisements, reporting events,information to the public,.Through it one can reach millions of people in the morning easily every day. This is the cheapest medium of advertisement.But the newspaper reader does not see the newspaper after one day. So language of a newspaper should be very effective and persuasive.Radio./Bill Boards: Radio./Bill Boards Radio is an old form of media.It is only by voice that a radio plays the role of educating, persuading ,coaching and influencing. Radio jockey.radio chocolates in F.M.radio make good contributions to ad world. Billboards==This is the Principal form of outdoor Advertisements These are big posters in central places like Markets,cinema area, Big bazar areas, Street furniture= bus shelters, newsracks, telephone booths, traffic stands, traffic barriers, post boxes, street lamps, public washing places.Out of home advertisements: Out of home advertisements Transit advertisings= ads on moving trains,buses,taxis,,. autorikshaws, Alternative ads=ads in stadiums,gas pumps,bike stands, rest areas, This is nontraditional ads which consumers do not expect. Digital billboards Digital advertisements in mobile phones,sms,e-mail ,internet This is online advertisementHistory of Advertisements: History of Advertisements , History of ads= Started in June 1836 in French newspaper LA PRESSE In 1940 French advertising company Havas first started an ad agency. Egyptians used PEPYRUS TO MAKE SALES MESSAGES AND POLITICAL PROPAGONDA and ,DISPLAYS ON WALL POSTERS.Indian rock paintings are 4000 years old. they conveyed many messages.Benefits of Advertisements: Benefits of Advertisements Success and profit will come to company Reputation, brand name and image protected,enhanced More business More customers Market expantion.= will increase relation between customers and Brand. Can modify attitudes of customers by good advertisements Advertisements are persuasive ways for good marketing,research, consumer analysis . Ref=books=contemporary advertisements by William F Arens [ 2]What is in a name-advertising and the concept of brands –by John Philip Jones and Jan S.Slater Visit website on AdvertisementsOffice communication-1=communication within the organisation : Office communication-1=communication within the organisation by verbal methods like telephonic interactions,promotion of products, seminar talks, Or by written letters formal/informal=or by e-mail A formal letter has following 7 parts Heading Date Address Salutation=sir,dear sir Body of letter=message Complementary close= yours sincerely signatureOptional elements in a message: Optional elements in a message While writing a letter or a message some optional points are also added; Reference no=your ref. no/our ref. no. Subject= bank loan you have applied/job application Identification mark= name of the signatory[ yours sincerely ,Ramdas Agarwal.]Office communication=internal: Office communication=internal By notice Memos Circulars Voice mails Fax E-mail / Cell phones Presentations Face to face discussion=DYADIC COMMUNICATIONInternal office communication: Internal office communication intercom Seminars/conferences telephonenotices: notices A notice is an information A warning A call ===EXAMPLE 1== Indian oil industries ltd,Singhal House 12,Ashok Road,New Delhi-110001. 14, February.2009 Staff Welfare Association Executive Meeting.NOTICE: NOTICE The second meeting of the executive committee will be held at 5.p.m on Wednesday,26Oct09 in Hall no 6,Singhal House.The Agenda is given below. Agenda Minutes of previous meeting Cafeteria report Celebration of holi New subscription rate of members request for donations Grant of house building loans to new members Any other matter with the permission of the chair Vote of thanks Gokul Shilpe, Secretary Copy to all membersMinutes: Minutes Indian oil Industries Ltd Singhal House 12,Ashok Road New Delhi-110001 Staff welfare association Minutes of the second meeting of the Executive Committee held at 5p.m. on.Monday.26.oct.09 at Hall no 6, Singal House. Members presentminutes: minutes Members present= Mr.A.K.Dasgupta,Ramesh Saxena, Asish Chandra,Sonam Sahani, Arati Mahapatra,Gokul Silpe Members absent=K. S.Duggal Minutes of the previous meeting; The Minutes of the previous meeting held on3.7.09 were taken as read,adopted and signed by the Chairmanminutes: minutes 2.02 cafeteria report= The sales Report of the cafeteria was received and approved. suggestion of the Manager to serve mini meals during lunch time was accepted on a trial basis for three months. 2.03 Celebration of Holi It was decided to organise a feast and informal get-together at 7.p.m on 4 march after celebration of Holi. A sum of RS.2500/ was approved for this. MrA.K.Dasgupta,Chairman Gokul Silpe,secretarytelecommunication: telecommunication Communication in business and industry using telephone ,cell phone, intercome has been common these days.We can see the widespread use of telemarketing for insurance,accident policies mediclaim/health insurance by ICICI Lombard,TataAig,Royal Sundaram,Max,Birla Aviva etc.In BPO companies mainly business is by telemarketingInternal communication : Internal communication Telephone,intercome ,mobilephone teleconferencing are very effective and quick modes of telecommunication. top Boss can call any employee within seconds and discuss business. Horizontal or perpendicular communication can be therefore carried on by mobile phone,telephone,intercome. A G.M can talk to the accountant and get data. Two or three dy g.ms can talk to each other and then go to the g.m.this can be by intercome/mobile phone, e-mailInternal communication modes: Internal communication modes All companies communicate with their employees . An effective and strategic internal communication system creates a congenial working atmosphere and good company relation and culture between employer and employees. E.R.[employee relation]Experts generally try to infuse in their corporates= Efficiency,shared meaning of co-operative communication,satisfaction,connectivityFormal and informal channels for internal communication: Formal and informal channels for internal communication The employee relation experts therefore see that communication structure is maintained /sustained strongly by formal and informal modes of communication = Formal=notice,circulars,office orders,memos ,appoinment letters. Warning messages,,product launching,negotiation,sale ,purchase, talk show,e-mails press releases..meetings,g.d,seminars,conferences. Informal=mobile phone,land phone, e-mail, dyadic communication,g.d.,meetings,E-MAILSFor better internal Corporate climate=4 activities: For better internal Corporate climate=4 activities Effective corporate climate can be brought by proper implementation of 4 types of communicational activities= Structure=the formal and informal channels through which internal messages are conveyed. Flow=the process through which internal communications move vertically,horizontally,and laterally in the company. Content=the specific content of the communication[idea,purpose,subjectmatter] Climate=the emotional atmosphere of the company/organisation. Ref pages 180 -200 of essentials of corporate communication by CEES B.M.Office communication=external: Office communication=external Communication outside an organisation means transactions with external agencies..Modern modes by technological systems have made the process speedier and easier. The modes are=letters,fax,direct mail, e-mail, internet, websites,telephone, advertising, teleconferencing, e.d.i[electronic data interchange],video conferencing,mobile phones,External organisational communication=modes: External organisational communication=modes Letters=qoutations Tenders Sale ,purchase letters Negotiations Supply orders Settlements Invoice Call letters Appointment letters etc.tender: tender Tender is a formal offer made by a person or group of persons or organisation to supply goods or carry out a work or construct a work with a stipulated price and stipulated time. Offer is published in newspapers for the public to know and apply in the prescribed format/forms which can be purchased from the office.Process of filing a tender: Process of filing a tender First one has to purchase a tender form from the concerned office/railways/p.w.d/telcome dept/atomic energy dept/ /govt educational institutions etc Then to submit the papers/documents= Documents=E .M.D [earnest money deposit ],proof of financial stability showing bank account details,authentic certificate of previous work done,tender: tender Submit the tender in a sealed cover submit it in stipulated time and place Sealed tenders are opened in the presence of all bidders on a particular date and time as declared in the newspaper advertisementStrategies for effective advertisements: Strategies for effective advertisements Tatget audience=it is the central force. Target product concept=Tata, sony sansui, maruti, ford,know their customer target,This is brand concept. Target communication media= which media,how much space, budget, which brand ambassador =cinema world,sports world, politics etc Target advertising message =be creative,know the culture of the audience, know appropriate timing, know if it is informational or transformational advertising. Research and analysis also necessary.Role ofP.R.O.in advertising: Role ofP.R.O.in advertising Pro has to play vital role= Co-ordinate Analyse Know the audience Keep contact with media Timely action Know the budgettenders: tenders Meaning or purpose of a tender= To get some work done or hired To get some service or services To get assurance of quality with lowest qouted price.Elements of a tender: Elements of a tender Authentic proof of the financial soundness of the bidder authentic proof of ability and competence of the bidder with past work done. Plan of work to be executed in phases as per terms and conditions as mutually agreed. Resources management in terms of availability of technical and support systems.Other modes of letters/notices: Other modes of letters/notices Quotations are invited by notice or in the newspapers. Quotations are submitted as per time and dates mentioned in the notice. Lowest price is accepted. Supply orders are usually purchased in govt offices /organisations through quotations . Letters/notice for this purpose are fully formal letters. Appointment letters are also a formal type sent to candidates from outside after they are selected.Communication by telecommunication: Communication by telecommunication Telephone Mobile phones Tele conferencing=it is by video links that participants communicate with each other E.d.i=electronic data interchange makes it possible for the employees to make business transactions among different organisations or parties using a network of computers. M.n.cs, Infosys,.tata,reliance B.P.OS DO SUCH BUSINESS.Communication by telecommunication: Communication by telecommunication E-mail ,internet, and websites= Homeshop 18 ICICI Lombard Tata A.I.G AVIVA L.IC. Royal Sundaram Alliance Insurance company Air and Train tickets All 24 hour helplines are examples of communication by telecommunication by organisations with outside customersCommunication by advertising: Communication by advertising Advertising is a powerful medium of persuasive communication With celebrities like Tendulkar Dhoni, Maradona or by Amitabh Bacchan// film stars promotions are done It is by media and digital mediums It is also by postersOther modes of external communication: Other modes of external communication Talk shows Press conferences Interviews Press releases4 aspects /targets of external communication: 4 aspects /targets of external communication Measuring communication=measuring how well communications work between the organisation and other clients. Developing a toolkit to attract customers for sale ,purchase, promotion of their products, and negotiations if any. Marketing a budget to match the targets For products and services= consultancy,attracting customers,making big events for launching new products,promotions,4 targets: 4 targets Presenting celebrities in event shows,t.v. shows, in websites, Organising Fashion shows Exhibitions Therefore an Organisation has a structured system of communication in these days of Information Technology by formal and informal communication,by modern and traditional ,and digital modes,by Brand Name,Reputation. And Image.by also formal and informal functions and parties.by paying good perks to the employees. By maintaining good upward,downward,lateral and diognal internal communication hierarchy. Organise C.S.R PROGRAMMES[Corporate Social Responsibility] examples= scholarships awarded by Birla house, NIIT, Aptech,Arena Animation Golden awards ,Ruchi masala awards to matric toppers,social welfare programmes by TATA,Infosys ETC.REPORT WRITING: REPORT WRITING Nature of a Report=meaning=what is a report Types of Reports. Characteristics of a good report Preparing a reportNature of a report: Nature of a report A report is a form of written business communication/professional communication.It may be required and prepared for internal or external use.It is structured written document containing one issue or many issues depending on the nature of the report whether it is a short report or long report.Nature of a report: Nature of a report A short report generally covers one problem but a long report covers many problems. A report contains investigation and necessary remedies. A report is used for the study of existing problems,procedures, and practices in an organisation. These are extensively used by govt offices,corporate houses, industries and Business sectors.Nature or what is a report: Nature or what is a report So a Report is a professional document as a formal communication written for a specific purpose conveying authentic information to a well defined audience in a completely impartial and objective manner and containing recommendations if required.TYPES OF REPORTS: TYPES OF REPORTS Reports can be classified into two categories; Informational reports. Analytical reports. Again these can be subdivided into various types like= Formal reports Informal reports ProposalsInformational reports: Informational reports These reports are essentially based on facts and therefore easy to prepare or write.Describing market trends of two products or narrating an event or explaining how a machine works or how its parts can be dismantled and again reset form parts of an informational report.Informational report: Informational report To organise or write such a report one has to follow the following points or process or principles= Topicalisation=choose a topic Chronology=maintain sequence or order of events serially. Spatial sequence= paragraph and space sequence Categorisation= make category of problem/problems Geographical distribution =area wise descriptionAnalytical reports: Analytical reports Analytical reports are investigating reports based on scientific methods of constructing the report and coming to a conclusion or decision and suggesting remedies. To organise such reports one has to follow following process= Logical arguments Conclusions recommendationsproposals: proposals Some analytical reports are called proposals A report by an expert committee recommending to improve traffic problems in a city is a proposal in the form of a report. A proposal has 3 parts Introduction with summary of the problem Detail description of remedy Conclusion showing advantages to come.Formal and informal reports: Formal and informal reports Many reports are called in many names like Progress reports Project reports Inspection reports Final reports Service reports Special reports Audit reports Operation report Business reportSlide 270: Verification report=first bank loan Enquiry report=police cases,office cases,satyam case Surveyor report=in motor insurance,home loans Commission report=in mob firing . Police excess,wine death cases,Khandamal death case Letter report.=it is similar to business letter format.It may be analytical regarding pollution problem in a company or informational without suggesting remedies.Characteristics of a good report: Characteristics of a good report Suggests decision to solve problems Targets particular problem is not emotion bound,does not express feelings Follows scientific and systematic methods Professional approach in writing Provides accurate and complete information Use of appropriate language Provides and acts as an instrument to growth and health of the companyHow to write a report: How to write a report 3 keys to follow; Choice of form= formal ,informal,informational,analytical,proposal ,letter report .choice of length=big report or short report .approach=direct or indirectWriting a report: Writing a report For formal report follow the following= Cover-title page, letter of authorisation,a letter for transmitting the report, table of contents, list of illustrations included in the report, an executive summary, text of the report=with introduction ,body and conclusion with recommendations if any,at the end bibliography of all references and appendixes.Index.Writing a report: Writing a report First planning Then prepare a draft collecting all information Rewrite Prefer plain words and avoid jargons Approach the problem with an impartial and objective attitude. .avoid foreign words and phrases Use active voice Maintain logical sequence of the problem taken up Make final draft deleting empty expressions. THANK YOUDaily Business letters/messages: Daily Business letters/messages The Electronic Revolution is changing the way we communicate and these changes include formats and conventions of preparing or organising messages..In the future all communication or messages may be prepared and sent by and through personal computer; and digital mediums like mobile phones,s.m.s, videoconferencing,,e.d.i[electronic data , interchange,fax ,e-mail, internet,and websites.Business letters: Business letters Traditional and electronic methods In traditional or conventional methods we use covers or envelopes.We are careful about the design ,appearance and size of envelopes. Stationary and envelopes=We convey non verbal impressions by the design and appearance of our envelopes.so we are to be very careful in this regard.Quality of stationary: Quality of stationary To build a good image of your company good quality paper ,envelopes should be used. Most letter envelopes are of the size of 11 or 14 inches by 4 or 8inches .Colour is white,cream or grey. letterhead=the name ,address, zip code, name of dept,nature of business, name of branch office,telephone no,e-mail, website, 24 hour Helpline no, fax no are generally printed on the cover.stationary: stationary Some companies use optional details on the envelopes like= logo or trademark. A slogan, firm name with starting date. Address and as described above optional elements should be carefully written down. On the envelope we should write= Name,and title of receiver, name of dept,name of the Organisation or company,name of Building,street and House/shop no,post office,pin /zip code, city,town,state and Country .mail option like Regd post /speed post should be writtenStandard parts of a letter: Standard parts of a letter Heading/letterhead Date Inside address salutation Body of letter Complementary close signatureOptional parts of a letter: Optional parts of a letter Subject line Reference line Postscript/n.b memo You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.