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CSIT431 Introduction to Operating Systems:

1 CSIT431 Introduction to Operating Systems Welcome to CSIT431 Introduction to Operating Systems In this course we learn about the design and structure of modern operating systems Textbook is Stallings, although Tanenbaum has some good cartoons Take a look at the syllabus

Operating System:

2 Operating System Exploits the hardware resources of one or more processors Provides a set of services to system users Manages secondary memory and I/O devices

Basic Elements:

3 Basic Elements Processor Main Memory referred to as real memory or primary memory volatile I/O modules secondary memory devices communications equipment terminals System bus communication among processors, memory, and I/O modules

Top-Level Components:

4 Top-Level Components

Processor Registers:

5 Processor Registers User-visible registers Enable programmer to minimize main-memory references by optimizing register use Control and status registers Used by processor to control operating of the processor Used by operating-system routines to control the execution of programs

User-Visible Registers:

6 User-Visible Registers May be referenced by machine language Available to all programs - application programs and system programs Types of registers Data Address Index Segment pointer Stack pointer

User-Visible Registers:

7 User-Visible Registers Address Registers Index involves adding an index to a base value to get an address Segment pointer when memory is divided into segments, memory is referenced by a segment and an offset Stack pointer points to top of stack

Control and Status Registers:

8 Control and Status Registers Program Counter (PC) Contains the address of an instruction to be fetched Instruction Register (IR) Contains the instruction most recently fetched Program Status Word (PSW) condition codes Interrupt enable/disable Supervisor/user mode

Control and Status Registers:

9 Control and Status Registers Condition Codes or Flags Bits set by the processor hardware as a result of operations Can be accessed by a program but not altered Examples positive result negative result zero Overflow

Instruction Cycle:

10 Instruction Cycle

Instruction Fetch and Execute:

11 Instruction Fetch and Execute The processor fetches the instruction from memory Program counter (PC) holds address of the instruction to be fetched next Program counter is incremented after each fetch

Instruction Register:

12 Instruction Register Fetched instruction is placed in the instruction register Types of instructions Processor-memory transfer data between processor and memory Processor-I/O data transferred to or from a peripheral device Data processing arithmetic or logic operation on data Control alter sequence of execution

Example of Program Execution:

13 Example of Program Execution


14 Interrupts An interruption of the normal sequence of execution Improves processing efficiency Allows the processor to execute other instructions while an I/O operation is in progress A suspension of a process caused by an event external to that process and performed in such a way that the process can be resumed

Classes of Interrupts:

15 Classes of Interrupts Program arithmetic overflow division by zero execute illegal instruction reference outside user’s memory space Timer I/O Hardware failure

Interrupt Handler:

16 Interrupt Handler A program that determines nature of the interrupt and performs whatever actions are needed Control is transferred to this program Generally part of the operating system

Interrupt Cycle:

17 Interrupt Cycle

Interrupt Cycle:

18 Interrupt Cycle Processor checks for interrupts If no interrupts fetch the next instruction for the current program If an interrupt is pending, suspend execution of the current program, and execute the interrupt handler

Multiple Interrupts:

20 Multiple Interrupts Disable interrupts while an interrupt is being processed Processor ignores any new interrupt request signals

Multiple Interrupts Sequential Order:

21 Multiple Interrupts Sequential Order Disable interrupts so processor can complete task Interrupts remain pending until the processor enables interrupts After interrupt handler routine completes, the processor checks for additional interrupts

Multiple Interrupts Priorities:

22 Multiple Interrupts Priorities Higher priority interrupts cause lower-priority interrupts to wait Causes a lower-priority interrupt handler to be interrupted Example when input arrives from communication line, it needs to be absorbed quickly to make room for more input


23 Multiprogramming Processor has more than one program to execute The sequence the programs are executed depend on their relative priority and whether they are waiting for I/O After an interrupt handler completes, control may not return to the program that was executing at the time of the interrupt

Memory Hierarchy:

24 Memory Hierarchy

Going Down the Hierarchy:

25 Going Down the Hierarchy Decreasing cost per bit Increasing capacity Increasing access time Decreasing frequency of access of the memory by the processor locality of reference

Disk Cache:

26 Disk Cache A portion of main memory used as a buffer to temporarily to hold data for the disk Disk writes are clustered Some data written out may be referenced again. The data are retrieved rapidly from the software cache instead of slowly from disk

Cache Memory:

27 Cache Memory Invisible to operating system Increase the speed of memory Processor speed is faster than memory speed

Cache Memory:

28 Cache Memory

Cache Memory:

29 Cache Memory Contains a portion of main memory Processor first checks cache If not found in cache, the block of memory containing the needed information is moved to the cache

Cache/Main Memory System:

Cache/Main Memory System

Cache Design:

31 Cache Design Cache size small caches have a significant impact on performance Block size the unit of data exchanged between cache and main memory hit means the information was found in the cache larger block size more hits until probability of using newly fetched data becomes less than the probability of reusing data that has been moved out of cache

Cache Design:

32 Cache Design Mapping function determines which cache location the block will occupy Replacement algorithm determines which block to replace Least-Recently-Used (LRU) algorithm

Cache Design:

33 Cache Design Write policy When the memory write operation takes place Can occur every time block is updated Can occur only when block is replaced Minimizes memory operations Leaves memory in an obsolete state

Programmed I/O:

34 Programmed I/O I/O module performs the action, not the processor Sets appropriate bits in the I/O status register No interrupts occur Processor checks status until operation is complete

Interrupt-Driven I/O:

35 Interrupt-Driven I/O Processor is interrupted when I/O module ready to exchange data Processor is free to do other work No needless waiting Consumes a lot of processor time because every word read or written passes through the processor

Direct Memory Access (DMA):

36 Direct Memory Access (DMA) I/O exchanges occur directly with memory Processor grants I/O module authority to read from or write to memory Relieves the processor responsibility for the exchange Processor is free to do other things

Direct Memory Access:

37 Direct Memory Access Transfers a block of data directly to or from memory An interrupt is sent when the task is complete The processor is only involved at the beginning and end of the transfer

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