Wireless Technologies and .11n

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IEEE 802.11 Technologies:

IEEE 802.11 Technologies Amer Hassan, Architect amerh@microsoft.com

The Vision – Dream Network:

The Vision – Dream Network “Pervasive Collaborative Computing” Faster and More Pervasive More Secure Ease At Home More Deployable and Manageable



Wireless Standards:

5 Wireless Standards IEEE 802.15.3 UWB, Bluetooth Wi-Media, BTSIG, MBOA WAN MAN LAN PAN ETSI HiperPAN IEEE 802.11 Wi-Fi Alliance ETSI-BRAN HiperLAN2 IEEE 802.16d WiMAX ETSI HiperMAN & HIPERACCESS IEEE 802.20 IEEE 802.16e 3GPP (GPRS/UMTS) 3GPP2 (1X--/CDMA2000) GSMA, OMA Sensors IEEE 802.15.4 (Zigbee Alliance) RFID (AutoID Center) IEEE 802.21, IEEE 802.18 802.19 RAN IEEE 802.22

Growing 802.11 Standards:

1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Growing 802.11 Standards 802.11 11a 11b 11c 11d 11e 11g 11h 11i 11j 11k 11n 11ma 11f 11u .11s, .11v, .11T,.11 r, .11p

Wi-Fi Industry Status:

Wi-Fi Industry Status Increased interest in cellular/Wi-Fi handsets. Choice split between .11a or .11g Price gap for .11g and .11a/g is decreasing rapidly; .11b only devices on steep decline Voice over Wi-Fi becoming reality with technical enhancements - WMM, .11i, .11k, .11r Security solutions acceptable (WPA2, PEAPv2); security deployment issues being addressed Hotspot roaming agreements identified as critical to carriers & ISPs Standardization started for 802.11n with 2 strong proposals

What is the situation?:

What is the situation? Have not Deployed Wi-Fi Have Deployed Wi-Fi Unable to justify ROI of a new infrastructure Justified ROI Saves on infrastructure & real estate Improves productivity in manufacture plants Allows flexible employee work practices Concerned 802.11 security is not adequate Compensates for limits of current technology Regulates access via VPN, looking for WPA2 Deployed secure technology EAP-TLS, .1X Concerned 802.11 standards unstable (11a, 11b, 11g…) Deployed what meets current needs Planning to upgrade to .11a then .11 n Concerned about managing another network & provisioning users Agrees management & diagnostic tools lacking Deployments are tightly controlled Not a show stopper compared to ROI Waiting for the benefits to outweigh the risks Looking forward to making strategic investments VoIP & video streaming New customer services & products

Slide 9:

Technology Wi-Fi WiMAX UWB Bluetooth 3GPP/2 RFID Zigbee LAN for Enterprise - - - - - - LAN for Home - - - - - - Home multiple A/V distribution - (audio streaming) - - - Backhauling and last mile Proprietary sol’n - - - - - Wide Area Mobility - - - - - Cable/device Replacement - - - - Mesh Networking Enterp/Home/N Neighbor-hood Mesh Home Mesh - - - - Sensor Networking - - - - - - Inventory Control - - - - Auto PC - - Potential Wi-Fi Scenarios

802.11 n and all that jazz… :

802.11 n and all that jazz…

What do Home users want?:

What do Home users want? Range: reliable wireless networking throughout the home High fidelity A/V: good Quality of Service for high quality audio and video Throughput! HDTV-720 in the US @ 16 Mbps (MPEG2) HDTV-1080 in Japan @ 20 Mbps (MPEG2) Next generation Media Center will support 2 concurrent video streaming, and by .11n ratification 4 concurrent streaming For 3 streams in the home, with picture-in-picture, and Internet access, 100Mbps UDP level throughput is easily consumed

Wireless outsold wired home networking gear for the first time in 2004:

12 Wireless outsold wired home networking gear for the first time in 2004 US Home Networking Purchases (in millions) Source: JupiterResearch Home Networking Model, 8/04 (US Only)

What do service providers need?:

What do service providers need? Highest possible consumer satisfaction… consumers will blame the Service Provider QoS is primary requirement – video and high throughput (mobile) data sessions Management capability to the devices Secure mobility support: Handoff & Mesh High rate for outdoor to indoor 150m operation

What would make IT Pro excited?:

What would make IT Pro excited? High return on investment High level of security Ease of deployment Manageability of clients and APs Diagnosis Highly available networking

Slide 15:

Applications and target markets Transmission characteristics Application Examples Type Rate Duration/ volume Audio/Video 1 HDTV and DV viewing for commercial & domestics use Constant (low jitter) 27 Mbps Hours Audio/Video 2 SDTV viewing for commercial and domestic use Constant (low jitter) 6 Mbps Hours Audio/Video 3 Video conferencing with VoIP Constant (low jitter) 2 Mbos < 1 hr Interactive 1 Interactive gaming, Internet Browsing, Email Variable 2 Mbps 1 hr Interactive 2 VoIP, Internet gaming Constant with intervals .2 MB/s 1 min – 1 hr Bulk transfer Flash downloads file transfer, media transfer Variable 30 Mbps 10 MB – 10 GB General applications set forth by the Wi-Fi Alliance

IEEE 802.11 Initiative: start of .11n:

IEEE 802.11 Initiative: start of .11n Develop next generation Wi-Fi capable of much higher throughputs, with a maximum throughput of at least 100Mbps, as measured at the MAC data service access point (SAP) Modifications to both the 802.11 physical layers (PHY) and the 802.11 Medium Access Control Layer (MAC) are allowed with baseline 802.11 & its amendments to support high throughput Evaluation metrics: throughput, range, network capacity, (peak and average power consumption), spectral flexibility, backward compatibility, and coexistence (3 channel models)

Slide 17:

Environment Setting Residential Intra-room, Room to room, Indoor to outdoor, Large multi-family dwelling Small/medium office Enclosed office, meeting room, classroom, bus, train Large office Cubes, offices, multistory office space Large space: indoor/outdoor Hotspots: airport, library, Convention Center, factory, hospital Channel models

Slide 18:

Requirement Description HT rate supported in 20MHz channel at least one mode of operation supports 100Mbps throughput at the top of the MAC SAP in a 20 MHz channel Works in the 5 GHz bands Protocol supports 5GHz bands (including those supported by .11a) .11a backwards compatibility Some of the modes of operation defined in the proposal should be backwards compatible with .11a .11g backwards compatibility in 2.4 GHz, some of the modes of operation defined in the proposal should be backwards compatible with .11g Functional requirements of .11n

Slide 19:

Requirement Description .11e QoS support The proposal must permit implementation of the 802.11e options within a .11n STA Spectral Efficiency The highest throughput mode of the proposal should achieve a spectral efficiency of at least 3 bps/Hz for the PSDU Control of support for legacy STA from .11n AP A .11n AP can be configured to reject or accept associations from legacy STA because they are legacy STA Functional requirements of .11n (cont)

Link Level Throughput & Range :

20 Link Level Throughput & Range Range 80 150 20 25 Throughput Business Infotainment Services throughput required in typical hotspot settings

.11 n proposals:

.11 n proposals 32 proposals, 4 complete (Sept 04, Nov 04) TGn Sync WWISE Motorola/Mitsubishi Qualcom Down select and merger (Jan 05) TGn Sync WWISE Further down select (March 05) Qualcom and Mitsubishi merged with TGn Sync


Roadmap Activity started in Q4 ‘02 Par/5 Criteria: March ’03 Functional Requirements: Nov ‘03 Usage Models: May ’04 Comparison Criteria: May ‘04 Proposals: Sept ’04 … convergence, plug fests, beta, … Ratification: Sept ’06 Wi-Fi Certification: Sept ‘06

Slide 23:

Key Points TGn SYNC WWISE Members Agere, Atheros Cisco, Intel, Mitsubishi Philips, Sony Toshiba, Qualcom, Nortel, Samsung, Marvel, Panasonic, Tohoku Univ, Nokia, Infocom Research, Sanyo Broadcom , TI, Airgo Networks, Conexant, Buffalo, Ralink, ETRI, HNS, Realtek, STM, TrellisWare, Winbond Electronics UDP data rate 200+ Mbps/40 MHz 100+ Mbps/20 MHz MAC basic technology accommodate both EDCA and HCCA accommodate both EDCA and HCCA Packet sizes 0 to 64KB PSDUs 0 to 64KB PSDUs IEEE 802.11n basics: 2 main proposals (TGn SYNC & WWISE)

Slide 24:

Throughput enhancement Features TGn Sync WWISE Bandwidth (M) 20MHz mode (M) 40MHz, whenever regulatory domain permits this extension (M) 20 MHz mode (O) 40 MHz mode MIMO-OFDM-SDM (M) 2 spatial streams @ 20MHz mode (M) 2 spatial streams @ 20MHz mode Higher code rate (R) (M) R= ½ , 2/3, ¾ , 7/8 (M) R= ½ , 2/3, ¾ , 5/6 Regular coding scheme (M) Convolutional code (M) Convolutional code Advanced Coding scheme (O) LDPC (O) LDPC Space Time Block Code (N) (O) (M) Mandatory (O) Optional (N) Not available

Slide 25:

25 Preamble + PLCP Header A-PSDU Perform aggregation Legacy Burst Preamble PLCP header MPDU Header MPDU Payload FCS Preamble PLCP header MPDU Header MPDU Payload FCS Preamble PLCP header MPDU Header MPDU Payload FCS SIFS SIFS PSDU1 PSDU2 PSDU3 Preamble + PLCP headers + SIFS will be saved Both proposals do some form of aggregation Some overhead will be induced to identify each MPDU

Slide 26:

TGn Sync WWiSE New control frames Y N New data frame Y N New mgt frame Y Y M(P)SDU Aggregation Y Y A-MSDU aggregation N Y Aggregation

Wish list!:

Wish list! Coexistence through Spectrum sharing Use of DFS, TPC, LBT, … Turbo coding Low gate count (200K), but IPR High gate count (800K), but no IPR Space-time block coding (Alamouti) Provides great performance Flexible architecture for closed loop Keep it simple!

Windows Wireless Strategy: Summary:

Windows Wireless Strategy: Summary Technology CY04-CY06 Investments Challenges WPAN: 802.15 (UWB), Bluetooth BT PAN module UWB Strategic exploration Few BT PAN products No IP over UWB spec WW regulations for UWB WLAN: 802.11 Security WPS Extensibility Diagnostics Group Policy Fragmented user experience Poor penetration in enterprise Multiple auth protocols Several .11n proposals WiMAX: 802.16 Strategic exploration Extensibility 802.16e roadmap

Call to action – drive best user experience!:

Call to action – drive best user experience! Usability: demand interoperability, and improved UIs for wireless technologies Security: demand Standards based security with 802.1X, PEAP & PEAP-SIM, and WPA1&2 Availability & coexistence: share spectrum with minimum interference amerh@microsoft.com

Backup slides: Wi-Fi Alliance and Certification:

Backup slides: Wi-Fi Alliance and Certification

Wi-Fi Alliance Mission Statement:

Wi-Fi Alliance Mission Statement Certify the interoperability of products and services based on IEEE 802.11 technology Grow the global market for Wi-Fi® CERTIFIED products and services across all market segments, platforms, and applications

New Certificate & Logo:

New Certificate & Logo Certificate inside packaging (optional) Logo on product packaging (mandatory) Helps retailers and consumers

Wi-Fi Alliance Roadmap:

33 Wi-Fi Alliance Roadmap Baseline Security QoS Applications Certification Program Releases IEEE Standard Releases Q1 Q2 Q4 Q3 2005 802.11e WMM Scheduled Access Public Access CE Phase2 2004 Extended EAP 2006 802.11h+d Simple Config Voice/Wi-Fi WCC 802.11j 802.11k CE Phase1 WMM Power Save

Worldwide Wi-Fi Semiconductor Revenues by Application, 2003 - 2008 ($M):

Worldwide Wi-Fi Semiconductor Revenues by Application, 2003 - 2008 ($M) Source: IDC brief: Worldwide WLAN Semiconductor Forecast and Analysis, 2004 – 2008.

Worldwide WLAN Semiconductor Revenues by Standard, 2003 - 2008 ($M):

Worldwide WLAN Semiconductor Revenues by Standard, 2003 - 2008 ($M) Source: IDC brief: Worldwide WLAN Semiconductor Forecast and Analysis, 2004 – 2008.

WLAN Chipset Pricing by Standard*:

WLAN Chipset Pricing by Standard* Source: IDC brief: Worldwide WLAN Semiconductor Forecast and Analysis, 2004 – 2008 . *Chart is estimate based on data in IDC Brief

2008 WLAN Semiconductor Revenues in Consumer Devices by Application (n = $611 M):

2008 WLAN Semiconductor Revenues in Consumer Devices by Application (n = $611 M) Source: IDC brief: Worldwide WLAN Semiconductor Forecast and Analysis, 2004 – 2008.

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