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Sports Are Social Phenomena : Sports Are Social Phenomena Sports are related to the social and cultural contexts in which we live Sports provide stories & images used to explain & evaluate these contexts Sports provide a window into culture and society SOCIOLOGY is a tool for studying sports in society : SOCIOLOGY is a tool for studying sports in society Sociology provides useful Concepts Theories Research methods These tools enable us to “see” behavior as it connected with history, politics, economics, and social life CULTURE : CULTURE Consists of the “ways of life” people create in a group or society These ways of life are created and changed as people interact with each other, as they come to terms with, and even struggle over how to Do things and organize their lives Relate to each other Make sense out of their experiences Slide 5: Figure 1.1 People create sports, and people can change them. But not everyone agrees that changes are needed. SOCIETY : SOCIETY A collection of people Living in a defined geographical territory United through a political system a shared sense of self-identification that distinguishes them from other people. SOCIOLOGY Vs. PSYCHOLOGY : SOCIOLOGY Vs. PSYCHOLOGY Psychologists study behavior in terms of attributes & processes that exist inside individuals Sociologists study behavior in terms of the social conditions and cultural contexts in which people live their lives Critical thinking about sports helps us : Critical thinking about sports helps us Identify & understand social problems and social issues associated with sports Look beyond scores to see sports as social phenomena Make informed choices about sport participation and the place of sports in our lives Transform sports in progressive ways SOCIOLOGY may lead to controversial recommendations : SOCIOLOGY may lead to controversial recommendations Sociological research may produce findings that suggest changes in the organization of sports and the organization of social life Those who benefit from the status quo may be threatened by these research findings Why study sports as social phenomena? : Why study sports as social phenomena? Sports activities and images are part of people’s lives Sports are connected with ideologies in society i.e., the “viewpoints” that underlie people’s feelings, thoughts, and actions Sports are connected with major spheres of social life such as: family, economy, media, politics, education, & religion Ideologies : Ideologies The sets of interrelated ideas that people use To give meaning to the world To make sense of the world To identify what is important, right, and natural in that world The characteristics of Ideologies are: : The characteristics of Ideologies are: They are never established “once and for all time” They emerge as people struggle over the meaning and organization of social life They are complex and sometimes inconsistent They change as power relationships change in society “Dominant Ideology” : “Dominant Ideology” Represents the perspectives and ideas favored by people who have power and influence in society Dominant ideologies serve the interests of people with power and influence Gender Ideology refers to : Gender Ideology refers to A set of interrelated ideas about masculinity, femininity, and relationships between men and women Dominant Gender ldeology consists of prevailing notions of “common sense” about maleness and femaleness in a group or society Racial Ideology refers to : Racial Ideology refers to A set of interrelated ideas that people use to give meaning to skin color and to evaluate people in terms of racial classifications Dominant Racial Ideology consists of prevailing ideas about the meanings of skin color and the characteristics of people classified in various racial categories Why study sports as social phenomena? : Why study sports as social phenomena? Sports are connected with major spheres of social life Family Economy Media Politics Education Religion Major Professional Organizations in the Sociology of Sport : : Major Professional Organizations in the Sociology of Sport : The International Sociology of Sport Association (ISSA) The North American Society for the Sociology of Sport (NASSS) The Sport Sociology Academy (SSA) in AAHPERD (American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation & Dance) Disagreements in the Sociology of Sport : Disagreements in the Sociology of Sport Scholars in the field see themselves as Sport sociologists concerned with sport science issues Sociologists concerned with social and cultural issues Scholars may see themselves as professional experts (interested in consulting and the application of knowledge to improve sports) critical sociologists (interested in social & cultural transformation), or knowledge builders (interested in using research to accumulate knowledge about social life) SPORT Is Defined by Some Scholars As Activities That Are : SPORT Is Defined by Some Scholars As Activities That Are Physical Competitive Institutionalized Motivated by a combination of internal & external rewards Institutionalization Occurs When : Institutionalization Occurs When Rules become standardized Official agencies enforce rules Organizational & technical aspects of the activity become important Learning game skills becomes formalized Play vs. Dramatic Spectacle : Play vs. Dramatic Spectacle Play involves expressive activity done for its own sake; it is often spontaneous and guided by informal, emergent norms Dramatic Spectacle involves performances to entertain an audience for the purpose of obtaining rewards An Alternative Approach to Defining Sports: : An Alternative Approach to Defining Sports: Determine what activities are identified as sports in a society Determine whose sports count the most when it comes to obtaining support and resources SPORTS are contested activities : SPORTS are contested activities This means that there are struggles over: The meaning, purpose, & organization of sports Who will participate and the conditions under which sport participation occurs How sports will be sponsored, and what the reasons for sponsorship will be You do not have the permission to view this presentation. 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