Crash Testing Of Cars

Category: Education

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By: gnmathew (95 month(s) ago)

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Slide 1:

Crash Testing Of Cars - A race of technology against fatality ….



introduction :

introduction Every year, over 80,000 people die on Indian roads; every five road accidents leave one dead. In recent years, cars have got much safer. One reason is that safety is now a selling point in new cars. Frontal collisions, offset collisions, cars hitting another vehicle or object in the traffic environment they are all tested using cars of different sizes.

Infrastructure :

Infrastructure Crash testing needs infrastructure that could best simulate the real road conditions, and capture the details required for crash analysis. The basic infrastructure, any crash testing facility would need are: A crash laboratory with an advanced high-tech crash barrier. An outdoor test track that accommodates research for different weather conditions. Highly advanced crash simulator Lighting system, which can provide up to 750,000 watts of illumination without glare to film tests in slow motion. The resulting pictures must be clear and dramatic. Equipment for advanced component testing. Supercomputers that crash tests non-existing cars. A system that propels vehicles to impact, accelerating full-size pickups up to 50 mph.


CRASH TEST DUMMIES Some test Dummies are used are: Hybrid III , EuroSID II

Slide 6:

Car Crash a Prototype Model

Slide 7:

-It is made to pull the vehicle with the wire and to run, and it is made to collide with the barrier or the vehicle. -As the car crash test system, the one of a general method. Impact to Barrier

Slide 8:

-It is made to pull with the vehicle wire and to run two at the same time, and the vehicle is made to collide with the vehicle. -It is possible to adjust to new standard by which the energy-absorption when the car with a different size collides mutually is evaluated and "Compatibility" (The NHTSA advocates it). Impact of Car to Car

What Dummies know?:

What Dummies know? Dummies provide vital clues to what happens in a crash. Our limb- by-limb anatomy guide explains how data is sourced. Head The head is made of aluminum and covered in rubber 'flesh'. Inside, three accelerometers are set at right angles, each providing data on the forces and accelerations to which the brain would be subjected in a crash . Neck Features measuring devices to detect the bending ,shear and tension forces on the neck as the head is thrown forwards and backwards during the impact . Arm Neither carries any instrumentation. In a crash test, the arms swing around in an uncontrolled way, and although serious injuries are uncommon, it is difficult to provide worthwhile protection against them.

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Chest (front impact) Hybrid Ill's steel ribs are fitted with equipment that records deflection of the rib cage in the frontal impact. Injuries result if forces exerted on the chest, such as from the seat belt are too great. Chest (side impact) The side-impact dummy, EuroSID II, has a different chest from the others and three ribs are instrumented to record compression of the chest and the velocity of this compression Abdomen EuroSID II is equipped with sensors to record forces likely to cause abdominal injury.


WORKING ELEMENTS IN DUMMIES Accelerometers : - Measure the acceleration in a particular direction. This data can be used to determine the probability of injury. Inside the dummy's head, there is an accelerometer that measures the acceleration in all three directions (fore-aft, up-down, left-right). There are also accelerometers in the other parts of the body. Load Sensors : - Inside the dummy are load sensors that measure the amount of force on different body parts during a crash. The maximum load in the bone can be used to determine the probability of it breaking. Movement Sensors : - These sensors are used in the dummy's chest. They measure how much the chest deflects during a crash.


TYPES OF CRASH TESTS Frontal Crash Test Side impact Test Offset Crash Test

Frontal Crash Test :

Frontal Crash Test Crashing the full width of a vehicle into a rigid barrier. Full width rigid barrier tests produce high occupant compartment decelerations. So they are especially demanding of restraint systems.

Side impact Test :

Side impact Test In the offset crash test the vehicle is travels at 64kph (40mph) and collides with a crushable aluminum barrier, which makes the forces in the test similar to those involved in a frontal offset crash between two vehicles of the same weight. The resulting crash forces place severe demands on the structure of the vehicle, particularly on the driver's side.

Offset Crash Testing :

Offset Crash Testing In the side test a sled (of about 1,368-kg) with a deformable "bumper" runs into the side of the test vehicle at around 31mph. The test simulates a car that is crossing an intersection being sides wiped by a car running a red light. Side impacts can be of two types: - perpendicular impact and angled impact .


SAFETY FEATURES Anti-lock Brake Systems Side Impact Bars/Side Door beams Three - Stage Protective Bumpers Roll Control Fuel Tank safety Seat Belts Air Bags Non-jamming Doors Collapsible Steering Head Restraints


ABSORPTION MECHANISM OF CRASH ENERGY As soon as car hits the barrier the seatbelt can then absorb some of your energy before the airbag deploys. Milliseconds later as the driver moves forward towards the airbag, the force in the seatbelt holding him back would start to hurt him, so the force limiters make sure that the force in the seatbelts doesn't get too high. Next, the airbag deploys and absorbs some more of your forward motion while protecting you from hitting anything hard.

Crash Test Ratings of the cars :

Crash Test Ratings of the cars Ratings for Frontal Impact Test No. of Stars Result 5 10% or lower chance of serious injury 4 11% to 20% chance of serious injury 3 21% to 35% chance of serious injury 2 36% to 45% chance of serious injury 1 46% or greater chance of serious injury In frontal crashes, the worst score on the following three criteria determines the star rating: - Head Injury Criteria (HIC) Chest deceleration


Ratings for Side-Impact Test No. of Stars Result 5 5% or lower chance of serious injury 4 6% to 10% chance of serious injury 3 11% to 20% chance of serious injury 2 21% to 25% chance of serious injury 1 26% or greater chance of serious injury In side-impact crashes, there are three criteria: Driver and passenger injury measures Head protection Structural performance

Slide 23:

Tata Indigo has passed European standards of full frontal and offset frontal crash tests. Tata has also recently tested Indica , Sierra and Safari successfully. Ford's Freestyle, a midsize SUV introduced for the 2005 model year, earned the highest rating in a 40 mph frontal test recently conducted by the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety.

Crash Testing Centers :

Crash Testing Centers Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS- U.S) Euro NCAP: Established in 1997 and now backed by five European Government New Car Assessment Japan: evaluates the safety of automobiles currently on the Japanese market. Australian NCAP (ANCAP): Australian and New Zealand automobile clubs supports Australian New Car Assessment Program (ANCAP). India has centres for crash testing at the Automotive Research Association of India (ARAI) and Society of Indian Automobile Manufacturers (SIAM) in Bangalore. Tata Motors’s is the only carmaker in India that has a crash-test facility located at huge plant in Pune established in 1996.

Conclusion :

Conclusion Crash testing leads to improvement of the safety systems. These systems again have to be tested for their workability during a crash. Hence crash testing plays a vital role in continuous improvement of the safety systems. Design changes in vehicles like the crumple zones and the location of engine block have been the results of evolution of crash testing.

Slide 26:

Therefore in future , crash testing could suggest many more design changes, which could further minimize the probability of injury during a crash



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