Lecture2

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GROUNDWATER HYDROLOGY AND CONTAMINANT TRANSPORT CEVE 518 P.C. de Blanc C.J. Newell:

1 GROUNDWATER HYDROLOGY AND CONTAMINANT TRANSPORT CEVE 518 P.C. de Blanc C.J. Newell Hydrologic Cycle and Water Distribution Soil Horizons Aquifers Soil Texture Porosity and Density Saturation and Water Content Hydraulic Head

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2 1. Hydrologic Cycle and Water Distribution

Hydrogeology: What is it?:

3 Hydrogeology: What is it? Hydrologic cycle – circulation of water in the environment Hydrogeology examines the relationships of geologic materials and flowing water

Slide 4:

4 Global Hydrologic Cycle Domenico and Schwartz, 1990.

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5 Basin Hydrologic Cycle Charbeneau, 2000.

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6 Basin Hydrologic Cycle – GW/SW Interaction

Artesian Zone of Edwards Aquifer:

7 Artesian Zone of Edwards Aquifer The artesian zone is a complex system of interconnected voids varying from microscopic pores to open caverns Located between two relatively less permeable layers that confine and pressurize the system Underlies 2100 square miles of land

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8 Global Hydrologic Cycle – Schematic Domenico and Schwartz, 1990.

Slide 9:

9 Basin Hydrologic Cycle – Schematic Domenico and Schwartz, 1990.

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10 Basin Hydrologic Cycle – Quantitative Representation I Basin Aquifer Surface/ Soil Domenico and Schwartz, 1990.

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11 2. Soil Horizons

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12 Charbeneau, 2000.

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13 Figure 15.1

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14 3. Aquifers

Aquifers:

15 Aquifers Definition: A geological unit which can store and supply significant quantities of water. Principal aquifers by rock type: Unconsolidated Sandstone Sandstone and Carbonate Semiconsolidated Carbonate-rock Volcanic Other rocks

Occurrence of Ground Water:

16 Occurrence of Ground Water Ground water occurs when water recharges the subsurface through cracks and pores in soil and rock Shallow water level is called the water table

Recharge:

17 Recharge Natural Precipitation Melting snow Infiltration by streams and lakes Artificial Recharge wells Water spread over land in pits, furrows, ditches Small dams in stream channels to detain and deflect water

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18 Example Layered Aquifer System Bedient et al., 1999.

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19 Other Aquifer Features

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20 Leaky confined aquifer : represents a stratum that allows water to flow from above through a leaky confining zone into the underlying aquifer Perched aquifer : occurs when an unconfined water zone sits on top of a clay lens, separated from the main aquifer below Leaky and Perched Aquifers

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21 4. Soil Texture

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22 Bedient et al., 1999.

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23 Well sorted fine sand Poorly sorted silty fine to medium sand Particle Size Distribution Bedient et al., 1999.

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24 Particle Size Distribution Charbeneau, 2000.

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25 4. Porosity and Density

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26 REV – Representative Elementary Volume Charbeneau, 2000.

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27 REV – Scale Effect Freeze and Cherry, 1979.

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28 Types of Porous Media Freeze and Cherry, 1979.

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29 Bedient et al., 1999., Typical Values of Porosity

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30 6. Saturation and Water Content

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31 Charbeneau, 2000. Soil Moisture Held by Capillary Pressure

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32 Moisture Content in Capillary Zone Charbeneau, 2000.

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33 7. Hydraulic Head

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34 Pressure and Elevation Heads - Laboratory Freeze and Cherry, 1979.  = pressure head z = elevation head h = total head

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35 Freeze and Cherry, 1979.  = pressure head z = elevation head h = total head Pressure and Elevation Heads - Field

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36 Two Confined Aquifers with Different Heads Charbeneau, 2000. Groundwater will tend to flow from the top aquifer to the bottom aquifer. We can ’ t make any conclusion about horizontal head gradients from this picture.

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37 Horizontal and Vertical Head Gradients Freeze and Cherry, 1979.

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38 Horizontal and Vertical Head Gradients Freeze and Cherry, 1979.

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39 Hydrologic Cycle and Water Distribution Bedient et al., pp. 1-6 Domenico & Schwartz, pp. 9-21 Soil Horizons Bedient et al., pp. 15-18 Charbeneau, pp. 5-6 Aquifers/Soil Texture/Porosity and Density/Saturation and Water Content Bedient et al., pp. 18-23 Charbeneau, pp. 2-12 Hydraulic Head Bedient et al., pg. 24 Domenico and Schwartz, pp. 58-59 Freeze and Cherry, pp. 18-25 Lecture 2 Reading Assignments Note: Only reading in Bedient et al. is required . Other reading assignments are highly recommended and contain extended explanations that might be helpful for your understanding of the material.

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