Pharmacology

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By: kokooo (140 month(s) ago)

it is a great pp

Presentation Transcript

Pharmacology : 

Pharmacology Drugs that Affect the Endocrine System

Topics : 

Topics Pituitary Drugs Parathyroid/Thyroid Drugs Adrenal Drugs Pancreatic Drugs Reproductive Drugs Sexual Behavior Drugs

Functions : 

Functions Regulation Control

Glands : 

Glands Exocrine Secrete enzymes Close to organs Endocrine Secrete hormones Transport via bloodstream Require receptors

Slide 5: 

Nervous Endocrine

Mechanism of Action : 

Mechanism of Action

Hypothalamus : 

Hypothalamus

Hypothalamic Control Pituitary : 

Hypothalamic Control Pituitary

Posterior Pituitary : 

Posterior Pituitary

Anterior Pituitary : 

Anterior Pituitary

Anterior Pituitary : 

Anterior Pituitary

Anterior Pituitary : 

Anterior Pituitary

Pituitary Hormones : 

Pituitary Hormones

Thyroid : 

Thyroid

Thyroid : 

Thyroid

Hypothyroidism : 

Hypothyroidism

Hyperthyroidism : 

Hyperthyroidism

Parathyroid : 

Parathyroid

Parathyroid : 

Parathyroid

Calcium Regulation : 

Calcium Regulation

Pancreas : 

Pancreas

Pancreas : 

Pancreas Alpha cells: glucagon Beta cells: insulin

Pancreas : 

Pancreas

Glucose Regulation : 

Glucose Regulation

Adrenal : 

Adrenal

Adrenal Medulla : 

Adrenal Medulla

Adrenal Cortex : 

Adrenal Cortex

Anterior Pituitary Drugs : 

Anterior Pituitary Drugs Inadequate Growth Hormone Dwarfism somatrem (Protropin®) homatropin (Humatrope®) Excessive Growth Hormone Acromegaly Gigantism Surgical removal 1º octreotide (Sandostatin®)

Posterior Pituitary Drugs : 

Posterior Pituitary Drugs Oxytocin ADH Diabetes insipidus Nocturnal enuresis vasopressin (Pitressin®) desmopressin (Stimate®) lypressin (Diapid®)

Parathyroid Diseases : 

Parathyroid Diseases Hypoparathyroidism Inadequate calcium levels TX: increased dietary calcium Hyperparathyroidism Excessive calcium levels TX: surgical removal

Thyroid Disease : 

Thyroid Disease Hypothyroidism Hormone replacement levothyroxine (Synthroid®) Hyperthyroidism Thyrotoxicosis Surgical removal propylthiouracil (PTU)

Adrenal Cortex : 

Adrenal Cortex ACTH Hypersecretion Cushing’s Disease Surgical removal Inhibit adrenal secretion ketoconazol (Nizoral ®) Symptomatic tx: Antihypertensives ACTH Hyposecretion Addison’s Disease Replacement therapy Cortisone (Cortistan®) Hydrocortisone (SoluCortef®) Fludrocortisone (Florinef Acetate®)

Pancreas : 

Pancreas

Insulin Preparations : 

Insulin Preparations Regular Insulin Natural insulin Modified Insulin Increased duration of action NPH (neutral protamin Hagedorn) Natural plus protamin Lente Attached to zinc to prolong absorption

Oral Hypoglycemic Agents : 

Oral Hypoglycemic Agents Sulfonylureas  insulin secretion tolbutamide (Orinase®) chlorpropamide (Diabinese®) glipizide (Glucotrol®) glyburide (Micronase®) Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors Delay carbohydrate metabolism acarbose (Precose®) miglitol (Glyset®) Biguanides metformin (Glucophage®)  Glucose synthesis  Glucose uptake Thiazolidinediones Insulin effectiveness troglitazone (Rezulin®)

Hyperglycemic Agents : 

Hyperglycemic Agents Glucagon  gluconeogenesis D50W diazoxide (Proglycem®) Inhibits insulin release

Estrogens & Progestins : 

Estrogens & Progestins Estrogens used for post-menopausal hormone replacement therapy. estradiol (Estrace®) conjugated estrogens (Premarin®) estropipate (Ogen®) Progestin Diminish side effects of estrogen therapy Nausea, fluid retention, breast tenderness medroxyprogesterone acetate (Provera®) norethindrone acetate (Aygestin®)

Oral Contraceptives : 

Oral Contraceptives Combination of estrogen and progestin Loestrin®, Levora®, Nordette®, Ovocon®, Norinyl® plus many others Minipill: progestin only Micronor®, Nor-Q.D.®, Orvette® Prime side effect:  risk of thromboembolism

Uterine Stimulants & Relaxants : 

Uterine Stimulants & Relaxants Stimulants (Oxytocics)  uterine contraction Indication: Induce labor Postpartum hemorrhage oxytocin (Pitocin®) ergonovine (Ergotrate®) Relaxants (tocolytics) Relax uterine smooth muscle Beta2 agonists terbutaline (Brethine®) ritodrine (Yuptopar®)

Infertility Agents : 

Infertility Agents Promote maturation of ovarian follicles clomiphene (Clomid®) urofollitropin (Metrodin®)

Male Reproductive Agents : 

Male Reproductive Agents Testosterone Replacement methyltestosterone (Metandren®) fluoxymesterone (Halotestin®) Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy Surgery finasteride (Proscar®)

Sexual Behavior : 

Sexual Behavior Most are side effects from other medications Antihypertensives & psychoactive drugs sildenafil (Viagra®)

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