Kotler_MM_13e_Basic_21

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Tapping Into Global Markets : 

Tapping Into Global Markets Marketing Management, 13th ed 21

Chapter Questions : 

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.  Publishing as Prentice Hall 21-2 Chapter Questions What factors should a company review before deciding to go abroad? How can companies evaluate and select specific foreign markets to enter? What are the major ways of entering a foreign market? To what extent must the company adapt its products and marketing program to each foreign country? How should the company manage and organize its international activities?

What is a Global Firm? : 

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.  Publishing as Prentice Hall 21-3 What is a Global Firm? A global firm is one that operates in more than one country and captures R&D, production, logistical, marketing, and financial advantages in its costs and reputation that are not available to purely domestic competitors.

Major Decisions in International Marketing : 

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.  Publishing as Prentice Hall 21-4 Major Decisions in International Marketing Deciding whether to go Deciding which markets to enter Deciding how to enter Deciding on the marketing program Deciding on the marketing organization

Four Stages of Internationalization : 

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.  Publishing as Prentice Hall 21-5 Four Stages of Internationalization No regular export activities Export via independent agents Establish sales subsidiaries Establish production facilities abroad

Top Global Firms Based in Developing Markets : 

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.  Publishing as Prentice Hall 21-6 Top Global Firms Based in Developing Markets America Movil Cemex China Mobile CNOOC Embraer Gazprom Haier Hisense Huawei Technologies Infosys Technologies Koc Holding Lenovo Group MMC Norilsk Nickel Mahindra & Mahindra

Regional Free Trade Zones : 

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.  Publishing as Prentice Hall 21-7 Regional Free Trade Zones European Union NAFTA MERCOSUL APEC ASEAN

Key Developing Markets : 

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.  Publishing as Prentice Hall 21-8 Key Developing Markets Brazil Russia India China South Africa

Desired Country Characteristics for Market Entry : 

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.  Publishing as Prentice Hall 21-9 Desired Country Characteristics for Market Entry Rank high on market attractiveness Rank low in market risk Possess a competitive advantage

Five Modes of Entry into Foreign Markets : 

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.  Publishing as Prentice Hall 21-10 Five Modes of Entry into Foreign Markets Indirect exporting Direct exporting Licensing Joint ventures Direct investment

Direct Exporting Methods : 

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.  Publishing as Prentice Hall 21-11 Direct Exporting Methods Domestic-based export department Overseas sales branch or subsidiary Traveling export sales representatives Foreign-based distributors or agents

Table 21.2 Global Marketing : 

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.  Publishing as Prentice Hall 21-12 Table 21.2 Global Marketing Advantages Economies of scale Lower marketing costs Power and scope Consistency in brand image Ability to leverage Uniformity of marketing practices Disadvantages Differences in consumer needs, wants, usage patterns Differences in consumer response to marketing mix Differences in brand development process Differences in environment

What Marketing Aspects Might Be Adapted for International Marketing? : 

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.  Publishing as Prentice Hall 21-13 What Marketing Aspects Might Be Adapted for International Marketing? Product features Labeling Colors Materials Sales promotion Advertising media Brand name Packaging Advertising execution Prices Advertising themes

Cultural Dimensions : 

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.  Publishing as Prentice Hall 21-14 Cultural Dimensions Individualism vs. collectivism Masculine vs. feminine High vs. low power distance Weak vs. strong uncertainty avoidance

Commandments of Global Branding : 

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.  Publishing as Prentice Hall 21-15 Commandments of Global Branding Understand similarities and differences in the global branding landscape Do not take shortcuts in brand building Establish a marketing infrastructure Embrace integrated marketing communications Establish brand partnerships

Commandments of Global Branding (cont.) : 

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.  Publishing as Prentice Hall 21-16 Commandments of Global Branding (cont.) Balance standardization and customization Balance global and local control Establish operable guidelines Implement a global brand-equity measurement system Leverage brand elements

Levels of Product Adaptation : 

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.  Publishing as Prentice Hall 21-17 Levels of Product Adaptation Production of regional product versions Production of country versions Production of city versions Production of retailer versions

Communications : 

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.  Publishing as Prentice Hall 21-18 Communications Communications adaptation Dual adaptation

Price Choices : 

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.  Publishing as Prentice Hall 21-19 Price Choices Set a uniform price everywhere Set a market-based price in each country Set a cost-based price in each country

What is a Gray Market? : 

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.  Publishing as Prentice Hall 21-20 What is a Gray Market? A gray market consists of branded products diverted from normal or authorized distributions channels in the country of product origin or cross international borders; dealers in lower priced countries sell products in higher priced countries

Whole-Channel Concept for International Marketing : 

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.  Publishing as Prentice Hall 21-21 Whole-Channel Concept for International Marketing Seller International headquarters Channels between nations Channels within nations Final buyers

Global Organization Strategies : 

Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.  Publishing as Prentice Hall 21-22 Global Organization Strategies World as single market Multinational Glocal

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