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No. 37026INTRODUCTION: INTRODUCTION CITRUS A World leading fruit crop Third most important fruit of India after Mango and Banana Productivity is very low (9.3 t/ha) compared to major citrus producing countries ( 20-25) t/ha primarily due to citrus decline CITRUS DECLINE : CITRUS DECLINE In India, citrus decline first reported in Madhya Pradesh in eighteenth century Other terms: frenching, chlorosis, neglectosis and dieback Citrus decline is a syndrome, not a specific disease, but merely a term, that denotes the wasting away the growth or fruit production and may involve the ultimate death of the tree (Knorr, 1957).COMPARISON BETWEEN FRUIT YIELD & QUALITY OF HEALTHY AND DECLINING MANDARIN: COMPARISON BETWEEN FRUIT YIELD & QUALITY OF HEALTHY AND DECLINING MANDARIN Location Tree Volume (m²) Yield (kg) Juice (%) Rind Disorder (%) Nurpur H D H D H D H D Jacch 118.76 87.94 52 28 57 51 10 28 Bassa 122.27 94.72 66 36 58 52 11 22 Kotla 106.75 73.64 48 26 54 47 12 28 Indora Indpur 125.62 102.36 68 36 57 53 8 24 Indora 128.96 98.31 67 32 58 49 9 22 Moti 113.52 88.72 52 24 52 47 10 32 Mean 119.31 90.95 58 30 56 49 10 26 Source: Chandel et al . , 1998 H= Healthy, D= DecliningNEMATODE POPULATION AND SOIL NUTRIENT STATUS IN HEALTHY AND DECLINING MANDARIN: NEMATODE POPULATION AND SOIL NUTRIENT STATUS IN HEALTHY AND DECLINING MANDARIN Source:- Chandel et al. ,1998TYPES OF…: TYPES OF…Continue….: Continue…. In an affected orchard, few trees show wilting symptoms overnight and completely dry in 2 or 3 days Mainly due to virus infection (Tristeza etc.) QUICK DECLINESLOW DECLINE: SLOW DECLINE It is a gradual deteriorating process exhibiting loss of vigor, death of twigs and branches, reduction in yield and ultimate death in severe case Due to poor nutrient, soil status and nematodes infection ( Tylenchulus semipenetrans )SPREADING DECLINE : SPREADING DECLINE Within the past 10 - 15 years of declining condition has appeared in various groves. This condition is called spreading decline Due to Rodopholus similis = DECLINING = MARGINAL = HEALTHYFACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR CITRUS DECLINE: FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR CITRUS DECLINE CITRUS DECLINE ROOTSTOCK FUNGAL DISEASE VIRAL DISEASE BACTERIAL DISEASE INSECTS NEMATODES PHANEROGAMIC PARASITE EDAPHIC FACTORS INTERCROPSEFFECT OF ROOT STOCK ON SURVIVAL OF KINNOW: EFFECT OF ROOT STOCK ON SURVIVAL OF KINNOW ROOTSTOCK TREE SURVIVAL (%) AFTER YEAR 14 15 16 17 18 H D H D H D H D H D Jattikhatti 100 0 100 0 100 0 91.67 8.33 83.33 16.67 Karun Jamir 83.33 16.67 83.33 16.67 83.33 16.67 75 25 75 25 Shekwasha 66.67 33.33 66.67 33.33 66.67 33.33 66.67 33.33 58.33 41.67 Jambhiri 100 0 91.67 8.33 91.67 8.33 75 25 75 25 Pectinifera 50 50 0.67 58.33 41.67 58.33 41.67 58.33 41.67 58.33 Rough Lemon 83.33 16.67 83.33 16.67 83.33 16.67 75 25 66.67 33.33 Cleopatara 100 0 75 25 75 25 66.67 33.33 66.67 33.33 Source:- Josan and Thatai, 2008 2. DISEASES: 2. DISEASES 2.1 Phytophthora : Among the fungal pathogens, Phytophthora is most serious disease right from nursery to bearing stage 12 Phytophthora species responsible for foot rot, root rot, crown rot, gummosis, brown rot and damping off A trial conducted by G. Perrotta at University de Catania, Italy showed that higher population of Phytophthora found in winter (25 ْْ C best), lowest in late spring and summer due to high temperature and low soil moisture Epidemic occurred if inoculums level, more than 20 ppg with presence of rain and susceptible ripe fruits ppg= propogules per gram of soilCONTROL MEASURES EFFICACY OF VARIOUS FUNGICIDAL PAINT ON FOOT ROT DISEASE OF CITRUS: CONTROL MEASURES EFFICACY OF VARIOUS FUNGICIDAL PAINT ON FOOT ROT DISEASE OF CITRUS Source: Thind et al ., 2000Slide 16: 16 DISEASE ORGANISM VECTOR PRIMARILY VECTOR TRANSMITTED Tristeza Clotero Virus Taxoptera citricida Vein enation & woolygall Virus Taxoptera citricida Greening Candidatus Liberobacter asiaticum Diaphonia citri Leathry leaf Probably Virus Aphis gosspii PRIMARILY MECHANICAL TRANSMITTED Exocartis Viroid No vector Mosaic Probably Virus Aphid Multiple sprouting Virus No vector Xyloporsis Viroid No vector PRIMARILY BUD TRANSMITTED Psorosis Copillo Virus Natural spread reported Citrus blastomania Mycoplasma Vector not known Yellow corky vein Virus Vector not known Leaf curl Probably Virus Vector not known 2.2 VIRUS AND VIRUS LIKE DISEASESVIRUSES: VIRUSES TRISTEZA (Quick Decline): Name tristeza first suggested by Moreina in 1942, means sad appearance of diseased citrus tree First reported in India by Lal (1953) More than half of the world’s citrus destroyed by this (Walloce, 1957) Symptoms: Stem pitting and yellowing of seedlings Indicator plant - Acid Lime STEM PITTING SEEDLING YELLOWSlide 18: Name ‘Greening’ is not descriptive of the tree symptoms but only of the fruit of affected tree which remains green In India, first discovered in 1966 by Fraser and Singh Transmitted by Dodder, Infected bud wood and Citrus psylla (Capoor) Indicator plant - Sweet Orange HUANGLONGBING (CITRUS GREENING)INCIDENCE OF HLB IN SWEET ORANGE VARYING IN AGE : INCIDENCE OF HLB IN SWEET ORANGE VARYING IN AGE During a study at NRC for Citrus Nagpur indicated that incidence of HLB was more in sweet orange (9 to 31%) than Nagpur mandarin (1 to 6%). Older tree with poor health had high infection(31.3%). It was also noticed that <20% infection symptoms not appear. Source: Das et al. , 2005EXOCORTIS (VIROID): EXOCORTIS (VIROID) First reported in 1948 Exocortis (Exo= outside & cartis= pertaining to the bark) Transmitted through- infected bud wood Disease symptoms occurs below the graft union on root stock portionCITRUS BUD WOOD CERTIFICATION: CITRUS BUD WOOD CERTIFICATION *WHY ? For control of citrus viruses requirement of three related programme 1 . SANITATION:- To recover healthy plants from local varieties, generally operated by research institutes 2 . QUARANTINE :- Importing foreign varieties but avoiding new pest and disease 3 . CERTIFICATION :- To give guarantee that grower is planting healthy germplasm of highest horticultural qualitySlide 22: Therapy/STG Raising of desirable rootstock in insect free net house Importation of bud wood from foreign varieties *Virus indexing *Evaluation *Inspection Protected foundation block Virus Free plants Selection of local Superior mother plants Propagation & virus indexing Bud wood increasing block at nursery Virus free scion Large scale propagation under net house CERTIFIED PLANTS SCHEME OF CITRUS BUD WOOD CERTIFIATION PROGRAMMESlide 23: A. INDICATER PLANT DISEASES 1. Mexican Lime CTV , Vein nation 2. Sweet Orange (Pineapple) HLB , Psorosis,Ring spot 3. Etrong Citron Exocortis and other Viroids SEROLOGICAL 1. ELISA CTV, HLB Iodine kit HLB Diagnostic strip CTV C. ELECTRONE MICROSCOPY CTV D. MOLECULAR 1. r PAGE Exocortis 2 PCR CTV 1: VIRUS INDEXING METHODS 1.2 : BIODIAGONOSIS: 1.2 : BIODIAGONOSIS Indexing for CTV and GLa was done by using acid lime and sweet orange indicator plants respectively. A minimum of 3-5 plants was grafted with two side bud/graft. The inoculated plant were kept in glass house under controlled atmosphere condition (< 30˚C ) and type of symptom recorded. HEALTHY INFECTEDRESULT OF BIODIAGONOSIS FOR CTV and GLa: RESULT OF BIODIAGONOSIS FOR CTV and GLa Location No. of tree Condition of tree No. of tree with MARATHWADA T G T+G No TG chikalthana 5 S 1 1 2 1 Chankwadi 5 S 1 1 2 1 Dawarwadi 5 S 0 1 2 2 Daulatawad 5 S 1 1 3 0 VIDARBHA ROHNA 3 S 0 1 1 1 SATNAURI 3 AS 1 1 1 0 JALALKHEDA 3 S 1 1 1 0 SUNSUNDRI 3 S 0 1 0 2 Source: Ghosh et al., 2003 S= Symptomatic, A=Asymptomatid T=Tristeza, G= Greening.Slide 26: 1. Iodine kit (for HLB) Iodine kit successfully applied for on-site diagnosis of HLB in citrus tree. it is very rapid diagnosis tool with high accuracy. Principle : starch tends to be accumulated in infected leaf tissue because of a decrease in amylase activity. Iodine reacts with accumulated starch to develop dark brown colour. Indexing of HLB infection with Iodine Kit including iodine solution, piece of sand paper, polythene bag and pure water: Positive reaction (+) showing color turning to dark brown to black; Negative reaction (-) showing yellow . 6Iodine Kit : Iodine for HLB. SERADIAGNOSIS:2: DIAGNOSTIC STRIPS (for CTV): 2: DIAGNOSTIC STRIPS (for CTV) Recently developed technique in Taiwan. Globulins labeled with colloidal gold used as strips. Virus antibody and secondary anti-mouse antibody are fixed in lower and upper parts of a chromatographic paper strip, respectively. if two pink band appear-POSITIVE , if only one-NEGATIVE , no band- INVALID. Diagrammatic representation of diagnostic strip test for detecting CTV RESULT OF SERODIAGNOSIS: RESULT OF SERODIAGNOSIS Indexing of CTV was done by DAS-ELISA using CTV specific antibodies (Ingenasa, Spain) Co infection with T+G had 50% lesser value compared to sample infected with T alone. This indicates GLa some way inhibit concentration of CTV in host plants. Source:- Ghosh et al., 20032: SHOOT TIP MICRO GRAFTING: 2: SHOOT TIP MICRO GRAFTING STG is most reliable method to recover pathogen free citrus sapling from infected parental sources Preparation of root stock Preparation of citrus shoot Micro grafting of shoot tip Double graftingSlide 30: Figure:- STG Preparation of root stock Preparation of citrus shoot Micro grafting of shoot tip Double graftingCROSS PROTECTION TECHNIQUE: CROSS PROTECTION TECHNIQUE Cross Protection: It has been shown that if susceptible strain of a crop is inoculated with a mild strain of a virus, then the susceptible strain develops resistance against more virulent strains. This phenomenon is known as cross protection and has been used to reduce yield losses in citrus against citrus tristeza virus.Slide 32: 32 CONCLUSION Until and unless growers have access to virus free planting material, it would be very difficult to establish a profitable citrus industry in India. Therefore a sound citrus certification programme is the need of the hourSlide 33: Thank You You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.