Emotion ppnt

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General and Educational Psychology  :

General and Educational Psychology Unit 5- Emotions in Health and Disease

Emotions :

Emotions The ‘ emovere ’ (Latin word )means to be “stirred up”. Anger, fear, surprise, joy, grief, love, affection, hope, anticipation, acceptance, disappointment, jealously and disgust are classified as emotion Emotions are usually aroused by external stimuli Emotional expression is directed towards the stimuli in the environment that arouses it. Motives are aroused by internal stimuli and are directed towards certain objects in the environment e.g. food, water.

What is Emotion? :

What is Emotion? Emotion is a strong feeling. It is a conscious stirred up state of the organism. Emotion is a disturbed glandular and muscular activity. It increases energy mobilization.

Definition of Emotion:

Definition of Emotion Emotion is defined as a subjective response that is usually accompanied by a physiological change and is associated with a change in behaviour .

Characteristics Emotions:

Characteristics Emotions Emotions are accompanied by the activation or an aroused state in the organism. Accompanied by physiological changes like gestures, muscular movements, and changes in facial expressions, changes in physiological reactions like blood pressure, heart beat, pulse rate and respiration. A lot of energy is released during emotion. Exception is grief, when the energy and activity level is reduced. Other activities like perception, learning, consciousness and memory are affected during emotion. Bodily and psychological changes take place during the emotion. ( e.g : confusion in perception, clouding of consciousness and blocking of memory)

Parts of an Emotion :

Parts of an Emotion The four parts of an emotion are; a subjective feeling, an emotional expression, a physiological expression and an interpretation.

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Subjective means existing within one’s own mind or thoughts. Subjective feelings are what you believe you are feeling. Others cannot directly see what you are feeling. Subjective feelings form a part of the emotion you experience before an exam. The second part of an emotion is the emotional expression e.g. you may express your feelings of fear in number of ways such as tensing your body, trembling, perspiring, urinating, and even vomiting. The third part of an emotion is physiological change or arousal. Adrenaline is released in the body during most emotions through the action of autonomic nervous system. The fourth part of an emotion is the interpretation of it by another person. A smiling person would be interpreted as happy person and a frowning person would be interpreted an unhappy

Primary and Mixed Emotions :

Primary and Mixed Emotions In the primary emotional states, there is generally only one emotion e.g. fear, surprise, saddened, disgust, anger, anticipation, joy and acceptance. Mixed emotions are those feelings which combine a number of primary emotions e.g. love, submission, awe, disappointment, remorse, contempt, aggression and optimism

Internal changes in Emotion :

Internal changes in Emotion The autonomic nervous system has two subdivisions-the sympathetic division and the parasympathetic division. The sympathetic division of autonomic nervous system prepares the body for emergency action during aroused states.

physical changes:   :

physical changes: Increase blood pressure and heart rate. Changes in the rate of respiration. Dilation of pupils. Increase in blood sugar Production of more energy. Decreased mobility of the gastrointestinal tract. Erect hair on the skin (goose pimples). Changes in the frequency of the brain waves. Muscular tensions Tremors

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Polygraph-Lie Detector It simply measures some of the physiological changes in emotion like alteration in heart rate, blood pressure, respiration and the galvanic skin response (GSR) i.e. changes in the electrical conductivity in a court of law.

External changes in Emotion :

External changes in Emotion Change in the voice. Emotions like fear and excitement are expressed externally by a smile or laughter. A tremor in the voice, denotes sorrow and sharp high pitch indicates anger Changes in the facial expression . Primary emotions like interest, enjoyment, surprise, disgust, anger, shame, and fear are expressed externally by facial expressions. Changes in the different parts of the body (Body language ). Like stiffness of the body, the way the person holds his head and the way he folds his hands are non-verbal expression of emotions.

Body language: Non-verbal Communication:

Body language: Non-verbal Communication Body language means communication through body movement such as facial expressions, postures and gestures. It is called a language because all of these movements send a message to another person along with anything that is said verbally.

Fight or Flight Syndrome or Emergency Theory :

Fight or Flight Syndrome or Emergency Theory the internal changes in emotions are useful to people who must fight or flee. the physical aspects of emotions help the organism survive in case of danger. The adrenal glands pour out adrenaline into the blood stream and extra strength or power is available for quick action.

Importance of Emotions   :

Importance of Emotions Emotions occupy a very important position in a person’s life they motivate many in their job endeavors. A person in love makes sacrifices for the object of his love. The love of their offspring spurs the parents to great sacrifices. Emotions have a stimulating effect. For example a person who is in a happy state of mind invariably makes others also happy and sees happiness around him. Similarly a person who is angry makes others angry. A soldier lays down his life for the love of his country. The ability to understand and interpret the emotional states of others is very important . Sometimes emotions are beneficial and at other times they are harmful.

Emotions and Disease :

Emotions and Disease Excess emotions not only have an inhibiting effect on the ability to think, but also have harmful effect on the body. Illness and excess emotions always go together. A branch of medical science has developed known as psychosomatic medicine. Many physical complaints are related to the patient’s psychological reactions to life. Emotion can interfere with the course of a disease even when it may not be a cause of the disease. Emotions work against the successful treatment of tuberculosis, diabetes, heart disease and epilepsy. Emotions need not be eliminated but should be controlled.

Development of Emotions :

Development of Emotions genetic and environmental Influences, maturation and growth social, cultural and environmental factors. The newborn child shows only general excitement as the only emotion. In the three months of child, distress and delight can be differentiated so that fear, disgust and anger are also apparent. At about 12 months, delight is differentiated into elation and affection. Jealously and affection for children distinguished from affection for adults appear between 12 th and 18 th months. Between 18 th to 24 th months, delight develops into joy.

Maturation and Learning in Emotional Development :

Maturation and Learning in Emotional Development Both maturation and learning play important roles in emotional development. As the infant grows, emotional responses as crying, weeping, smiling and laughing begin to appear. This is due to maturation. Many fears are learned. Children do not fear snakes, rats and other animals unless they are negatively conditioned to them.


THEORIES OF EMOTIONS James-Lange Theory: Felt Emotion is the Perception of Bodily Changes (1) We perceive the situation will produce emotion; (2) We react to this situation; (3) We notice our reaction.

The major objections to the James-Lange theory :

The major objections to the James-Lange theory The bodily changes are very often too slow and appear only after the psychological experience of emotion. The same bodily changes occur in different kinds of emotional experiences e.g. our heart beats faster when we feel happy and also when we are unhappy. Artificially inducing the bodily changes associated with an emotion (e.g. injecting a person with adrenaline) does not produce the experience of true emotion.

Cannon- Bard Theory: Felt Emotion and Bodily Responses are Independent Events:

Cannon- Bard Theory: Felt Emotion and Bodily Responses are Independent Events felt emotion and the bodily reactions in emotions are independent of each other; both are triggered simultaneously. Schachter –Singer Theory (Cognitive Appraisal Theory) The intensity of emotion depends upon the cognitive appraisal of the situation.

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THE NURSE AND CONTROL OF EMOTIONS As a nurse, you should be concerned with the expression and control of emotions In yourself In others

In Yourself :

In Yourself nurses are the central figure in health care. You will be much more poised and productive nurses should be emotionally controlled and mature in their behaviour . Try to understand yourself, your conflicts and your physical and emotional limits. Learn as much as you can, about the causes and physical reactions to emotions. Control stress in your life. Plan your work to avoid emergencies. Balance your work with play, exercise and social activities. Practice relaxation by meditation, listening to music, reading, dancing or sports. Use your sense of humour . Laughter with others and laughing at yourself can relieve tensions in your body. Try to control unreasonable and excessive external expressions of emotions. These external expressions tend to increase the intensity of emotional experiences of the individual. A desirable philosophy of life will enable you to avoid mental conflicts and emotional tensions.

Control of Emotions in the Patients  :

Control of Emotions in the Patients Help the Patient Feel Welcome and at Ease Understand his Negative Emotions Promote Positive Feelings Develop Empathy Psychosomatic Illness


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