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MBTI By Dr. Liza M. Gernal

MBTI Purposes:

MBTI Purposes Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) Instrument is used for a wide variety of purposes including the following: Self-understanding and developments Career development and exploration Organization development Team building Management and leadership training Problem solving Relationship counseling Education and curriculum development Academic counseling Diversity and multicultural training

The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator:

The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator ORB Chapter 4 3 Personality Types Extraverted vs. Introverted (E or I) Sensing vs. Intuitive (S or N) Thinking vs. Feeling (T or F) Judging vs. Perceiving (P or J) Score is a combination of all four (e.g., ENTJ) Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) A personality test that taps four characteristics and classifies people into 1 of 16 personality types Most widely used personality – assessment instrument in the world.

Meyers-Briggs :

Meyers-Briggs Extraverted vs. Introverted Extraverted individuals are outgoing, sociable, and Assertive. Introverts are quite and shy Sensing vs. Intuitive Sensing types are practical, prefer routine and order, and focus on details. Intuitives rely on unconscious processes and look at the “big picture” ORB Chapter 4 4

Meyers-Briggs :

Meyers-Briggs Thinking vs. Feeling Thinking types use reason and logic to handle problems. Feeling types rely ion their feelings and emotions. Judging vs. Perceiving Judging types want control and prefer their world to be ordered and structured. Perceiving types are flexible and spontaneous. ORB Chapter 4 5


Meyers-Briggs A Meyers-Briggs Score Can be a valuable too for self-awareness and career guidance BUT Should not be used as a selection tool because it has not been related to job performance! ORB Chapter 4 6

Myers-Briggs Type Indicator MBTI:

Myers-Briggs Type Indicator MBTI E xtraverted ____________ I ntroverted S ensing ____________ I n tuitive ( N ) T hinking ____________ F eeling J udging ____________ P erceiving Personal Preferences regarding: Interacting with outside work (E or I), Acquiring information (S or N), Making decisions (T or F) Taking action (J or P)

E – I Dichotomy: Source of Energy:

E – I Dichotomy: Source of Energy Most people who prefer Extraversion Prefer action over reflection May act quickly w/out thinking Are attuned to external environments Prefer to communicate by talking Learn best through doing or discussing Are sociable and expressive Enjoy working in groups Most people who prefer Introversion Prefer reflection over action May not take action at all Are attuned to inner world Prefer to communicate in writing Learn best through thorough mental practice and reflection Are private and contained Enjoy working alone or in pairs Which is worse: no interruptions or frequent interruptions?

What is your E – I preference?:

What is your E – I preference? Exercise When you are going to a large party, what do you do? What do you consider a large party or group?

S – N Dichotomy: Take in Information:

S – N Dichotomy: Take in Information Most people who prefer Sensing Emphasize the pragmatic Prefer facts & details/ specific information Are oriented to present realities Value realism Observe and remember specifics through 5 senses Build carefully and thoroughly to conclusions Trust experience Most people who prefer Intuition Emphasize the theoretical Prefer general concepts/ high-level plans Are oriented to future possibilities Value imagination See trends and patterns in specific data Use a “sixth” sense Move quickly to conclusions, follow hunches Trust inspiration Which is worse – no sense of the present reality or no sense of the future possibilities?

What is your S-N preference?:

What is your S-N preference? Exercise How did you decide whom to support?

T – F Dichotomy: Decision Making:

T – F Dichotomy: Decision Making Most people who prefer Thinking Are analytical Use cause-and-effect reasoning Solve problems with logic Strive for objective standard of truth Described as reasonable Search for flaws in an argument Fair – want everyone treated equally Most people who prefer Feeling Empathetic Guided by personal values Assess impact of decisions on people Strive for harmony and positive interactions Described as compassionate Search for point of agreement in an argument Fair – want everyone treated as an individual Which is worse: working in an environment that lacks logic or an environment that lacks harmony?

What is your T-F Preference?:

What is your T-F Preference? Exercise Little League Coach for the championship game and you can only take 11 of 13 players to the game What do you do? How do you choose?

J – P Dichotomy: Lifestyle:

J – P Dichotomy: Lifestyle Most people who prefer Judging Are scheduled/organized Strive to finish one project before starting another Like to have things decided May decide things too quickly Try to avoid last-minute stresses; finish tasks well before deadline Try to limit surprises See routines as effective Most people who prefer Perceiving Are spontaneous/flexible Start many projects but may have trouble finishing them Like things loose and open to change May decide things too slowly Feel energized by last-minute pressures; finish tasks at the deadline Enjoy surprises See routines as limiting Which is worse: “winging it” or adhering to a schedule?

What is your J-P Preference?:

What is your J-P Preference? Exercise Sending you on a vacation $5,000 What do you do? How do you go about it?

What IS your Type?:

What IS your Type  ? Today’s discussion gives you a self-estimate or assessment of your type Your MBTI results will report the preferences you choose on the Indicator Final type assessment requires agreement between self assessment and MBTI responses

Composite Type:

Composite Type  One letter from each dichotomy Sum equals more than the parts It represents the dynamic interactions among the preferences in your type No hierarchy among the types; each identifies normal and valuable personalities

Why should we care?:

Why should we care? Individual Benefits: Gain insights into personality Reduce your defensiveness when involved in a disagreement Increase your openness to feedback (clues) from what is going on around you Improve your ability to see others more accurately Enhance your ability to appreciate differences in yourself and in others Improve your ability to choose realistic goals

Why should we care?:

Why should we care? Staff Benefits: Appreciate others Make constructive use of individual approaches Allow for creative problem-solving; Different types approach problems in different, yet valid ways Understand and adapt to leadership’s management style Respect people’s work preferences Improve communication among supervisors, peers, employees, customers

Why should we care?:

Why should we care? Example Approach to staff meetings that accommodate both introverts and extraverts?

Communication Breakdown:

Communication Breakdown Ideal Leader is… Extravert: action-oriented Introvert: contemplative Sensing: pragmatic Intuitive: visionary Thinking: logical Feeling: compassionate Judging: planful Perceiving: adaptable Source: From Teambuilding Program (2 nd Edition) , E. Hirsh, K. W. Hirsh, S. Krebs Hirsh, 2003, CPP, Inc.

Understanding Type in “uncomfortable” situations:

Understanding Type  in “uncomfortable” situations Potential Pitfalls Characteristics when under stress or “uncomfortable” (out of Type  ) Examples Overcrowded schedule may force you to exhibit more judging traits than you may prefer Team projects may force you to work as an extravert; brainstorming, talking through problems vs. thinking them through on your own Concrete information may be more valued more than “gut-feeling” approach Staff meeting may focus on everyone’s involvement first, when you would prefer to address the task first.

To Take to the Office with You:

To Take to the Office with You With similar types on a team: The team will understand each other easily and quickly Will reach decisions quickly, but will be more likely to make errors due to not taking in all viewpoints May fail to appreciate gifts of the “outlying” types With a variety of types on a team: Longer to establish communication between the members of the team Less likely to overlook possibilities and details Longer to reach consensus Source: From Teambuilding Program (2 nd Edition) , E. Hirsh, K. W. Hirsh, S. Krebs Hirsh, 2003, CPP, Inc.

Occupational Trends by Type:

Occupational Trends by Type  ISTJ Management Administration Law enforcement Accounting ISFJ Education Health care Religious settings INFJ Religion Counseling Teaching Arts INTJ Scientific or technical fields Computers Law ISTP Skilled trades Technical fields Agriculture Law Enforcement Military ISFP Health care Business Law enforcement INFP Counseling Writing Arts INTP Scientific or technical fields ESTP Marketing Skilled trades Business Law enforcement Applied technology ESFP Health care Teaching Coaching Childcare worker Skilled trades ENFP Counseling Teaching Religion Arts ENTP Science Management Technology Arts ESTJ Management Administration Law enforcement ESFJ Education Health care Religion ENFJ Religion Arts Teaching ENTJ Management Leadership Source: From Introduction to Type and Careers , A.L. Hammer, 1993, Consulting Psychologists Press

Determining Your Type:

Determining Your Type  MBTI  Response Sheet NOT necessarily your “true type” If several unanswered questions, be aware the results may not be as accurate Preference Clarity Not how well-developed you are! How consistently you reported a preference How accurate the results are You must verify results by reading and accepting the profile

Influences on Self-Reporting:

Influences on Self-Reporting Stress or boredom Personal, work, other Currently at a cross-roads Literally unable to identify own preferences Institutional, supervisory, family, “should’s” Not a “shoes-off” environment Conference meeting setting – Difficult to set aside business frame of mind Personal misunderstanding of or “values laden” concept behind word pairs used

Influences on Self-Reporting:

Influences on Self-Reporting Societal values May cause over-reporting of particular Types  Vary among cultures In U.S., overall cultural values favor ESTJ Type   Extraversion Sensing Thinking Judging Thereby, US societal values may cause over-reporting of the Type …. Also true for workplace values

Want to complete the MBTI?:

Want to complete the MBTI  ? Optional Results are confidential unless you decide to share 15-20 Minutes

Responding to MBTI Questions:

Responding to MBTI  Questions Relaxed setting Don’t “think” too much about any one question; your initial reaction is most useful If you do not understand a word, you may skip the question Both choices may be attractive to you; pick the BEST fit

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