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Effective Leadership : 

Effective Leadership Knowing yourself

Welcome : 

Welcome Programme Agenda Leadership is a huge subject area Management/Leadership – are they the same thing? Programme 16:00-19:30 Welcome A brief introduction to some of the theories Concepts of Leadership Leadership Characteristics Leaders and Managers Your Self Assessment – Personal Leadership Questionnaire Myers Briggs Analysis of Personality Blake and Moulton Analysis Walking the Plank

Programme Objective : 

To learn more about concept of Leadership To understand various theories defining Leadership To identify your own Leadership potential To learn about developing your own skills to become an effective leader Programme Objective

Leaders & Revolutionaries : 

Leaders & Revolutionaries Churchill Thatcher Lenin Mandela Mao Zedong Dr King Walesa Stalin Roosevelt Gorbachev Hitler Gandhi

Perceived Leader characteristics : 

Perceived Leader characteristics Inspiring Visionary Charismatic Dynamic Communicator Confident Single minded Change champion Unconventional Risk takers

Concepts of Leadership : 

Concepts of Leadership Leadership is the ability to direct a group of people in realising a common goal This is done by people applying their leadership attributes Leaders create commitment and enthusiasm amongst followers to achieve goals Leadership is achieved through interaction between leader, follower and environment

Effective Leadership : 

Effective Leadership Is measured at two levels: Change in attitude Change leading to achievement of specific goal

Leaders & Managers : 

Leaders & Managers Managers Passive attitude towards goal Involve people & ideas to drive at strategy or approach Prefer working with people Relate to people according to hierarchy of structure Avoid chaos Rely on hierarchy of set authority Leaders Personal & active attitude towards goal Operate from high risk position Intuitive and empathetic Singular attitude Not dependent on social indicators of identity More concern with people, process

Exercise 2 – Group Discussion : 

Exercise 2 – Group Discussion Leaders & Revolutionaries Review the following leaders Identify common traits Identify common style

Exercise 3 – Self Assessment : 

Exercise 3 – Self Assessment To help you assess your own leadership style Complete the following questionnaire Add your total score Note down your strengths and evaluate your opportunities for growth

Leadership Theories : 

Leadership Theories Trait Behavioural Contingency Situational Leader-Member Exchange Path-Goal Implicit

Trait Theories : 

Trait Theories Intelligence Verbal ability, perception, reasoning Charisma Decisiveness Enthusiasm Strength Bravery Integrity Honesty, Principled, Believable Self confidence Certain of your skills and competences

Validity of Trait Theory : 

Validity of Trait Theory Research has failed to: Prove the same traits apply at all times to all leaders Shows that the same traits always differentiate leaders from followers Fails to consider followers and situational factors Organisations who rely on the Trait theory, undertake specific psychometric analysis in the HRM processes Traits are good to know anyway – they identify your strengths and weaknesses and allow you to map them into your work environment Traits rely on situations too – certain situations need certain traits if the situations don’t arise neither does the leadership potential Leaders can only lead when people want to follow Page 24, Northhouse, Leadership, Theory and Practice, Peter G Northouse – CS1 – Exercise..?

Behavioural Theory : 

Behavioural Theory Emphasis is that the individual can be taught certain behavioural characteristics to make them a leader Initiating structure: define & structure behaviour pattern in achieving goal Consideration: trust, consideration and empathy for sub-ordinates Employee-Oriented Leader: with emphasis on interpersonal relationship Production-Oriented Leader: with emphasis on task Research concluded the most effective leaders were those with high degree of interpersonal relationships who achieved greater success in achieving goals We are as strong as the weakest link!

Exercise 4&5 – Leadership Style : 

Exercise 4&5 – Leadership Style Demonstrate that effective leader would have to employ different style for any given situation Autocratic Democratic Delegative

Bolman & Deal Leadership Model : 

Bolman & Deal Leadership Model Structural Framework – leader is a social architect Human Resource Framework – leader promotes decision making process Political Framework – leader creates necessary power & political network Symbolic Framework – leaders who inspire others to share the same vision

Exercise 6 – 4 Framework Approach : 

Exercise 6 – 4 Framework Approach Determine the degree in which individuals prefer working with people or tasks Structural Human Resource Political Symbolic

Blake & Mouton Model : 

Blake & Mouton Model Authoritarian-Obedience: task oriented with little attention to co-operation & collaboration Team Management: promote team working in achieving common goal Country-Club Management: build strong relationship with people with little attention to task Impoverished Management: no commitment to relationship or task

Exercise 7 – Leadership Style Questionnaire : 

Exercise 7 – Leadership Style Questionnaire Determine the style of leadership based on the Blake & Mouton Grid Country club management Authoritarian-Obedience Team management Impoverished management

Authority Compliance : 

Authority Compliance Heavy emphasis on task and job requirements People are tools for getting the job done Controlling, Demanding, Hard-Driving and Overpowering

Country Club Management : 

Country Club Management Low concern for Task Accomplishment High concern for interpersonal relationships Agreeable, eager to help, comforting, uncontroversial Gets things done by creating a positive climate

Impoverished Management : 

Impoverished Management The leader does not care about the task or personal relationships Goes through the motions Indifferent, non-committal, resigned, apathetic

Middle of the Road Management : 

Middle of the Road Management Leaders as compromisers Emphasizes lack of conflict, and try’s to attain some interpersonal contact Swallows conviction in the interest of “progress”

Team Management : 

Team Management Strong driver on both tasks and interpersonal relationships. Stimulates participation, acts determined, gets issues into the open enjoys working

Can leaders switch..? : 

Can leaders switch..? Oh, yes Paternalism/Maternalism = the benevolent dictator – acts nice but is only really interested in the outcome Opportunism = Uses any combination of the styles

Contingency Theories : 

Contingency Theories

Contingency Theories : 

Contingency Theories Autocratic – leader dictates decision to sub-ordinate Democratic – shares decision with sub-ordinate

Fieldler Model : 

Fieldler Model Three variables Leader-Member relations How the members feel about the leader Task Structure Is it structured, or unstructured Position Power Can leader reward/punish

Least Preferred Co-Worker Measure (LPC) : 

Least Preferred Co-Worker Measure (LPC) LPC_Calculation High LPC’s are motivated by relationships – in an organisation a high LPC looks after relationships first and then considers the task Middle LPC’s are socio-independent leaders, tend to be removed from the situation Low LPC’s are people who need to accomplish tasks, secondarily they try to get on with people – self esteem is measured on work output not friends!

Contingency Theories – Fiedler Model : 

Contingency Theories – Fiedler Model Leader-member Task structure Position power

No control over the student council : 

No control over the student council Tamara Popovich has been elected president of the student council at the local college she attends. She likes the other council members, and they seem to like her. Her first job as president of the council is to develop a new policy for student computer fees. Because this is the first year that computer fees are being assessed, there are no specific guidelines for what should be included in this policy. Tamara has no control over how they work. She has no way of rewarding or punishing them. In a leadership course Tamara took, she filled out the LPC questionnaire and her score was 98. How will Tamara do as president of the student council According to her LPC score, what are her primary needs How will these needs affect her ability to develop the new policy for computer fees How can Tamara change the situation to match her management style

Situational Approach : 

Situational Approach Directive are task centred behaviour The assistance of group members through giving directions, establishing objectives, setting times, defining roles Often asynchronous and one-way Supportive are relationship centred behaviour Synchronous and two-way Asking for input, problem solving, praising, sharing information, listening

Four Styles Identified : 

Four Styles Identified S1 – Directing = highly directive, low support What and How goals are achieved and supervision S2 – Coaching = highly directive, highly supportive What and How are still defined

Slide 42: 

S3 – Supporting = low directive but high supportive Day-to-day decisions are made by the subordinates, however, the boss is still there if needed S4 – Delegating = low directive, low supportive Gives ownership to subordinates and does not try to influence socio-emotional needs

Slide 43: 

Supportive Directive Delegating Supporting Coaching Directing

Situational Approach : 

Situational Approach Combines tasks & relationship behaviour Telling – high task, low relationship Selling – high task, high relationship Participating – low task, high relationship Delegating – low task, low relationship With different degree of individual maturity M1 – neither competent nor confident M2 – motivated but lack skills M3 – able but unwilling to follow leaders M4 – able & willing to do as asked

Implicit Theories of Leadership : 

Implicit Theories of Leadership Attribution – assumption made about others Leaders are consistent Take up difficult or unpopular tasks Determination and persistence leading to achievement of goal Charismatic – heroic attributes Self confidence Visionary & ability to share the vision Committed to vision Unconventional Change agent Sensitive to environmental aspects

Leadership Development : 

Leadership Development Know yourself & seek improvement Know your job Seek & take responsibility for your actions Make sound & timely decision Lead by example Look after your people Communicate with your people Help develop necessary character traits in your people Ensure everyone understand goals & expectation Train your people as a team Utilise full capabilities of your organisation

Exercise 8 – Leaders Walk : 

Exercise 8 – Leaders Walk Explore Leader/Follower Connection

Factors of Leadership : 

Factors of Leadership Follower – understand your team’s attribute Leader – understand own limitation Communication – do what you expect others to do Situation – apply style according to the situation

Environment : 

Environment Culture The way we do things Developed over period of time Shared expectation & image Part of organisation history Climate Shared perception & attitude Short term created by current leadership Influences employees motivation & satisfaction

Exercise 9 – Feedback Theatre : 

Exercise 9 – Feedback Theatre Help appreciate various ingredients and challenges a leader has to face in achieving goals and objectives

Leadership Process : 

Leadership Process Leadership & Power Coercive Reward Legitimate Expert Referent Politics & Power High politics results low motivation Create common goal Focus on downward influence Focus on results & solution

Leadership Direction : 

Leadership Direction Leaders should not command excellence, they should build excellence Involve those participating in developing solution Ensure the “6 W’s” Who will do what? Who does it involve? What is going to be done? When does it start? When does it end? Where will it take place? How will it take place? Why should it be done? What will happen if it’s not done? Effective execution Pre-determine task Supporting structure in place Allocate necessary resources

Exercise 10 – Space Jam : 

Exercise 10 – Space Jam Promote collaboration rather than competition, inclusion rather than exclusion, thoughtful development and coaching

Leadership Communications : 

Leadership Communications Environment Active listening Feedback Motivation

Leader-Member Exchange Theory (LMX) : 

Leader-Member Exchange Theory (LMX)

Path-Goal Theory : 

Path-Goal Theory

Content : 

Content Concepts of Leadership Trait Theories Behavioral Theories Leadership Models Contingency Theories Implicit Theories of Leadership Leadership Development Environment effecting Leadership behaviour Leadership Process