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Slide 1:

PRODUCTION CONSTRAINTS AND STRATEGIES TO BRIDGE YIELD GAP IN COWPEA Rahianath E.K. PAK 9162

Introduction :

Introduction India will require about 38 million tones of pulses by 2017-18 to avoid protein deficiency. Current domestic production levels 23.68 million tones from an area of 14.56 million hectares. Chick pea, pigeon pea, black gram, green gram, peas, are some of important pulses grown in India. Even though cowpea is minor pulse crop in India, it is one of the important pulse crops in South India. In India cowpea growing in an area of 3.9 m ha with a production of 2.21 m tones.

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Karnataka accounts 12% of area under pulses in the country. The important pulses grown in Karnataka are red gram, green gram, Bengal gram, horse gram, black gram and cowpea. Cowpea stands fourth in Karnataka among all pulses with an area of 1.90 lakh hectare with a production of 0.95lakh tones. Cond……..

Cowpea :

Cowpea Center of origin – central Africa . Mainly cultivated in India and Africa. In India major cowpea growing states are- Rajasthan, Gujrath, Karnataka, Tamil nadu, Kerala and Andhra Pradesh. It contain important essential amino-acids which is lack in other pulses - methionine, cystein and cystyne. They fit in to the crop rotation and crop mixtures.

Cond……..:

Cond…….. Cowpea will produce some yield even under marginal and most neglected conditions with least input. Helps to restore soil fertility The productivity of cowpea in Karnataka is as low as 420 kg ha -1 as compared to national productivity of 625 kg ha -1 .

Cowpea production - yield gap in Karnataka:

Cowpea production - yield gap in Karnataka Yield in kg ha -1

Production constraints for cowpea:

Production constraints for cowpea 1. Agro- ecological constraints C ultivation on marginal and sub marginal land. Unpredictable and poorly distributed rainfall. Lack of soil fertility. Seasonal constraints. 2. Biological constraints. Inherent low productivity. Susceptibility to pest and diseases. Flower shedding. Tendril formation. Lack of widely adaptable high yielding verities. P roblems related to varietal improvement.

Cond……….:

Cond………. 3. Abiotic stresses . Drought. Heat or cold. Photoperiod. 4. Management constraints . Lack of timely availability of quality seeds of improved varieties. Poor nutrient management. Problems related to cropping system – intercropping. 5. Socio- economic constraints . Poor transfer of technology system. Poor net returns. Poor acceptability of specific vareities .

Strategies to bridge yield gap:

Strategies to bridge yield gap Varietal selection. Proper cultivation practices. Weed management. Nutrient management. Management of flower shedding. Rhizobium application. Disease and pest management. Water management practices. Post harvest management practices.

Slide 10:

Strategies to bridge yield gap in cowpea

Slide 11:

Selection of suitable varieties

Cowpea verities suitable to Karnataka:

Cowpea verities suitable to Karnataka (Parameshwarappa and Lamini., 2005) Gulberga

High yielding varieties of cowpea:

High yielding varieties of cowpea Varieties Number of pods 100 seed weight C-152 9.76 9.26 Kanakamani 13.90 11.45 Krishnamany 7.41 8.54 V-16 10.10 6.99 V-240 12.90 8.59 GC-3 14.58 9.69 Pusa phalguni 12.33 6.39 CD (0.05) 1.68 0.79 (Anitha et al ., 2004) KERALA

Slide 14:

Effect of date of sowing, seed rate and spacing on cowpea yield

Effect of date of sowing, seed rate and spacing on yield:

Effect of date of sowing, seed rate and spacing on yield Date of sowing Seed yield (kg ha -1 ) Seed rate Row spacing S 1 30 cm S 2 45 cm mean D1- Second fortnight of June P1-20 kg ha -1 935 807 871 P1-25 kg ha -1 1016 913 964 P1-30 kg ha -1 1056 825 940 mean 1002 849 925 D2- First fortnight of July P1-20 kg ha -1 672 575 623 P1-25 kg ha -1 681 755 718 P1-30 kg ha -1 756 612 684 P1-20 kg ha -1 703 647 675 D3- Second fortnight of July P1-20 kg ha -1 496 555 525 P1-25 kg ha -1 586 495 541 P1-30 kg ha -1 491 494 492 mean 524 515 519 CD (0.05) Sowing time 72.89 spacing 65.52 seed rate NS (Kuberadatta., 2006 ) Dharwad

Effect of date of sowing (summer) on cowpea yield:

Effect of date of sowing (summer) on cowpea yield Date of sowing Seed yield (kg ha -1 ) 1999 2000 pooled 15 th February 1589 1651 1621 2 nd march 1809 1801 1805 17 th march 1563 1423 1493 2 nd April 962 1134 1048 CD (0.05) 79 126 294 (Patel et al ., 2003) Gujrath

Effect of date of sowing (Kharif) on cowpea yield:

Effect of date of sowing (Kharif) on cowpea yield Treatment Green pod yield (q ha -1 ) 23 rd June 122.80 3 rd July 70.64 13 th July 49.25 23 rd July 30.94 3 rd August 15.12 CD(0.05) 7.47 (Singh and Kumar., 1998) Panthnagar

Slide 18:

Effect of nutrient management on cowpea yield

Effect of integrated nutrient management on cowpea yield:

Effect of integrated nutrient management on cowpea yield Treatments Yield (g plot -1 ) Control 15.24 FYM 21.45 100 % NPK 23.09 150 % NPK 24.42 100 % NPK + FYM 24.84 150 % NPK + FYM 26.79 CD (5%) 2.74 Anand (Pandya et al., 2007)

Effect of different nitrogen levels on cowpea yield:

Effect of different nitrogen levels on cowpea yield Treatments Yield (q ha -1 ) 1992 1993 No nitrogen 92.20 89.58 22.5 kg N ha -1 141.02 136.02 30.0kg N ha -1 153.25 147.49 37.5kg N ha -1 160.66 161.78 CD (0.05) 4.65 4.99 AGRA (Sharma et al ., 2005)

Effect of phosphorus and bio-fertilizers on cowpea yield:

Effect of phosphorus and bio-fertilizers on cowpea yield Treatments Pod yield t ha -1 1999 2000 mean P (kgha -1 ) 0 11.85 12.05 11.95 40 12.80 13.16 12.98 60 13.62 14.25 13.93 80 15.16 15.34 15.25 CD (0.05) 0.76 0.92 Bio-fertilizers None 11.36 11.45 11.40 Rhizobium 12.45 12.64 12.54 PSB 13.35 13.67 13.51 Both 14.82 15.10 14.96 CD (0.05) 0.93 1.02 (Chattopadyaya and Dutta ., 2003) West Bengal

Slide 22:

Treatments Green pod yield (t ha -1 ) 2005-06 2006-07 Sulphur levels (kg ha -1 ) 0 10.19 9.3 40 10.94 10.11 CD 5 % 0.37 0.32 (Rana and Thuan., 2010) IARI Effect of Sulphur on cowpea yield

Response of cowpea to phospho-gypsum application:

Response of cowpea to phospho-gypsum application Treatments main Control Phospho -gypsum (250 kg ha -1 ) Trivandrum, Kerala (Manoramathampatti et al., 2007)

Effect of micronutrients on cowpea yield:

Effect of micronutrients on cowpea yield Treatments Yield in Kharif (kg ha -1 ) 2001 2002 Pooled yield (kg ha -1 ) T 1 Control 424.77 413.16 418.97 T 2 - 0.5% FeSO 4 at 25DAS 447.26 576.58 511.92 T 3 - 0.5% FeSO 4 at 45DAS 469.31 542.66 505.99 T 4 - T 2 + T 3 475.27 582.75 529.01 T 5 - 0.5% ZnSO 4 at 25DAS 435.92 576.58 506.25 T 6 -0.5% ZnSO 4 at 45DAS 469.28 567.33 58.30 T 7 –T 5 + T 6 475.80 545.76 510.77 T 8 -T 2 + T 5 526.85 647.50 587.17 T 9 -T 3 + T 6 616.33 582.75 599.54 CD (0.05) 64.89 123.61 67.06 (Anitha et al ., 2005) Pattambi, kerala

Effect of organic manures on cowpea yield:

Effect of organic manures on cowpea yield Organic manure Yield (t ha -1 ) FYM 9.85 Poultry manure 10.73 Neem cake 10.65 Vermi-compost 8.61 Coir-pith compost 8.20 control 6.2 CD (0.05) 1.002 (Geetha et al ., 2010) Trivandrum

Slide 26:

Effect of Rhizobium on cowpea yield

Effect of Rhizobium on cowpea yield:

Effect of Rhizobium on cowpea yield Treatments Yield per plant (g) See yield (kg ha -1 ) Non-inoculated 5.24 1158 Inoculated 5.98 1298 CD (0.05) 0.18 45 (Yadav et al ., 2005) Hissar

Slide 28:

Effect of weed management practices on cowpea yield

Effect of weed control on cowpea yield:

Effect of weed control on cowpea yield Treatments Rate (kg a.i ha -1 ) yield (kg ha -1 ) Atrazine and alachlor + diuron 0.8+0.8 800 Atrazine and alachlor + diuron 1.0 +0.8 1200 Atrazine and alachlor + diuron fb SHW 0.8+0.8 1622 Atrazine and alachlor + diuron fb SHW 1.0 +0.8 1666 Atrazine and alachlor + diuron fb fluazifop 0.8+0.8 fb 0.4 1044 Atrazine and alachlor + diuron fb fluazifop 1.0 +0.8 fb 0.4 1085 CD 5% (Lado and Hussaini., 2010) Nigeria

Slide 30:

Effect of water management on cowpea yield

Effect of irrigation on cowpea yield:

Effect of irrigation on cowpea yield IW:CPE ratio Seed yield (kg ha -1 ) 1999 2000 pooled 0.6 1271 1349 1310 0.8 1521 1527 1524 1.0 1650 1631 1640 CD (0.05) 84 69 53 (Patel et al ., 2008) Gujarath

Effect of water harvesting structures on yield of rainfed Cowpea:

Effect of water harvesting structures on yield of rainfed Cowpea Practices Grain yield (kg ha -1 ) farmer‘s practices 572.2 Ridges and furrows 662.8 Bunding 627.8 R & F and mulching 715.9 Bunding and mulching 688.9 Coimbatore (Ramesh and Devasenapathy., 2007)

Effect of thio-urea application on cowpea productivity under rain fed conditions:

Effect of thio-urea application on cowpea productivity under rain fed conditions (Purushothaman et al., 2004) Kerala

Slide 34:

Management against flower shedding

Effect of growth regulators on yield:

Effect of growth regulators on yield (Patel et al., 1999) Dharwad

Slide 36:

Effect plant protection measures on cowpea yield

Slide 37:

Nigeria (Adesina., 2011) Effect of nematode control on cowpea yield

Effect of neem products as seed coating against heterodera cajani:

Effect of neem products as seed coating against heterodera cajani Treatments Observation after 45 days No. of cysts per plant %reduction over check Neem seed 17.6 57.7 Neem seed kernal 10.3 75.2 Neem seed coat 21.6 48.1 Neem seed cake 15.3 63.2 Check 41.6 - CD (0.05) 3.1 - (Vijayalekshmi., 2003) IARI

Biological control on pulse beetle:

Biological control on pulse beetle CLP- citrus leaf powder HPP- hot pepper powder ALP- Acacia leaf powder GP- ginger powder OLP- Ocimum leaf powder MWA- Mahagony wood ash PMD- Primiphos methyl MBP- mahagony leaf powder (Ravinder.,2011) Rajasthan

Extent of mosaic virus diseases in cowpea:

Extent of mosaic virus diseases in cowpea varieties % incidence RC-201 23.33 KBC-1 34.50 DCP-11 35.00 TC-201 39.02 KM-4 44.00 KM-1 53.55 C-152 56.66 (Mahalekshmi et al ., 2008) GKVK

Management of cowpea mosaic virus diseases:

Management of cowpea mosaic virus diseases Treatments Treatment details 15 DA first Spray (%) 15 DA second Spray (%) %reduction over control T 1 Seed treatment with Imidacloprid at 5g\kg 50.7 67.20 13.8 T 2 Lambda cyhalothrin @ 0.5ml/l at 30 and 45 days (2) 48.4 70.6 15 T 3 Nimbicidine @ 5ml/l at 30 and 45 days (2) 53.8 69.30 11.6 T 4 dimethoate spray @ 1.75ml/lit at 30 days and nimbicidine @ 5ml/l spray at 45 days (1+1) 51.5 63.33 17.8 T 5 Ferfect viricide @ 2ml/l at 30 and 45 days. 64.5 73.30 2.1 T 6 T 1 + T 2 35.55 42.60 42.9 T 7 T 1 +T 4 15.40 25.80 65.10 T 8 Rhizobium (375g/ha) + Carbendazim 2gm/kg + fenelvarate (1.5ml/lit). 50.60 64.40 16.4 T 9 Control 61.60 79.2 - CD at 5% 8.061 5.382 (Shilpashree., 2006 ) DHARWAD

Slide 42:

Practices to maintain viability during storage

Effect of containers and treatments on seed quality during storage:

Effect of containers and treatments on seed quality during storage Treatments Storage period in months 0 Ger% MC% 2 Ger% MC% 4 Ger% MC% 6 Ger% MC% Containers C 1 - Cloth bag 98 9.5 95 10.0 90 10.5 74 11.3 C 2 - G.I.drum 98 9.5 98 9.6 93 9.7 90 9.2 C 3 - Polythene bag 98 9.5 97 9.2 94 9.5 90 9.7 Seed treatments C 1 + malathion 98 9.5 97 10.9 95 10.5 94 12.0 C 2 + malathion 98 9.5 93 10.0 93 9.8 92 9.6 C 3 + malathion 98 9.5 96 9.4 85 9.9 93 9.8 (Usha et al ., 1990) GKVK

Effect of different bio-products in protecting bruchid infestation in cowpea seed during storage:

Effect of different bio-products in protecting bruchid infestation in cowpea seed during storage Bio-products Dosage %by weight %infested seeds at 60 days Melia dubia 1 41 2 42 4 47 Eucalyptus citriodora 1 18 2 14 4 12 Cympopogon flexuosus 1 47 2 0 4 0 No tretment - 100 (Usha et al ., 1990) GKVK

conclusion:

conclusion C-152, KM-1,KM-4, KM-5, KM-6 , KBC-2 are some of important varieties suitable for Karnataka. 2 nd fortnight of June and 2 nd march are the best sowing time for Kharif and summer cowpea respectively. Integration of 150% NPK along with FYM, 40 kg sulphur ha -1 and micronutrients like FeSO 4 , ZnSO 4 at 45 DAS will give significantly higher yield 100% NPK.

Cond…:

Cond… Scheduling of Irrigation at IW:CPE ratio of 1 is ideal for cowpea. Application of thio-urea at vegetative stage is suitable for drought amelioration under rain fed condition. Seed treatment with Imidacloprid at 5g kg -1 , dimethoate spray @ 1.75ml lit - 1 at 30 days and nimbicidine @ 5ml l -1 spray at 45 days is the best management against cowpea mosaic virus. Growth regulators like NAA 500 ppm, TIBA 25 ppm, Urea 2% , or GA 50 ppm will control flower shedding in cowpea .

Future line of work:

Future line of work Efforts should be pursued towards developing high yielding varieties of cowpea that are also endowed with yield stability under different climatic conditions. Develop improved short duration varieties that can escape drought will be important. The application of biotechnology to cowpea to enhance yield through improved insect and disease resistance . Verities suitable for intercropping and separate package of practice recommendation for inter cropping. Improved transfer of technology.