PUBLIC SPEAKING

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PUBLIC SPEAKING :

6/1/2011 1 PUBLIC SPEAKING BASIC SKILLS

A B C of PRESENTATION:

6/1/2011 2 A B C of PRESENTATION Body Language Voice Impression Audience Profile Fear Management Equipment Management Organizing Speech

BODY LANGUAGE:

6/1/2011 3 BODY LANGUAGE Do’s: Posture: stand up straight, feet slightly apart, one foot slightly in front of the other Gesture: use hands, fingers, body movements, and facial expressions to hold an audience’s attention. Eye contact: speaker is a lighthouse whose beam continually moves round the whole audience

BODY LANGUAGE:

6/1/2011 4 BODY LANGUAGE Don’ts: 1. Play with pen/paper/pointer 2. Jingling money in pockets 3. Fiddling with hair 4. Avoiding eye contact

VOICE:

6/1/2011 5 VOICE Do’s Speak up so the voice bounces off the back wall Take pause to make audience think. Count to three. Speed up to excite; slow down to emphasize Emphasize keywords

VOICE:

6/1/2011 6 VOICE Don’ts: Talking too softly Talking too loudly Monotonous, boring voice Using umms, errs, ‘you know’ Talking too fast Poor grammar Mispronouncing words High pitched voice Foreign accent/ regional dialect

STEP ONE: IMPRESSION :

6/1/2011 7 STEP ONE: IMPRESSION . Competency: 1. Speak from both knowledge and experience. 2. Do research 3. Cite authoritative sources 4. Use examples/ stories from personal experience 5. Organize speech 6. Use language ably and correctly 7. Practice your presentation

Likeableness:

6/1/2011 8 Likeableness 1. Smile 2. Direct eye contact 3. Analyze audience and share their feelings 4. Use gesture and facial expression 5. Be semi-formal 6. Dress simply and nicely 7. Open up slowly if you are nervous

Integrity and Forcefulness:

6/1/2011 9 Integrity and Forcefulness Integrity: 1. Be concerned about the impact of your words 2. Be straightforward, responsible and ethical. Forcefulness: 1. Be confident/self-assured or act to be so 2. Be enthusiastic 3. Be decisive

STEP TWO:AUDIENCE PROFILE:

6/1/2011 10 STEP TWO:AUDIENCE PROFILE Analyze: 1. Who are they? 2. How many will be there? 3. Why are they coming? 4. What do they know about the subject? 5. Why are they interested about the subject? 6. What is their relationship to you? Anticipate: 1. What five questions/comments/objections could you expect? 2. What would be your answers/responses/ defense like? 3. What questions do you hope you won’t be asked? 4. What question might be the most embarrassing? 5. What question would bring up a past mistake? 6. Do you have answers to these questions?

STEP THREE:FEAR MANAGEMENT :

6/1/2011 11 STEP THREE:FEAR MANAGEMENT Most common fears: 1. Fear of saying or doing something foolish 2. Failure of equipment 3. Not being able to find the right word in English Remedy: Preparation and Practice

STEP FOUR: EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT:

6/1/2011 12 STEP FOUR: EQUIPMENT MANAGEMENT Things to take: 1. Notes on index cards 2. Handout 3. Pointer/ Thin pen 4. Stopwatch 5. Markers 6. Water 7. Laptop Things to check: I. Computer projector: A. on/off switch B. focus C. position in room II. Small Table III. Personal: A. zips and buttons B. take keys and coins out of pockets C. take watch off

STEP FIVE: ORGANIZE SPEECH:

6/1/2011 13 STEP FIVE: ORGANIZE SPEECH What--- Good Organization : Helps you remember Helps them remember Helps them understand Helps you keep to the point Helps you reduce nervousness

Blue Print:

6/1/2011 14 Blue Print A speech has three parts: I. The Beginning II. The Middle III. The Ending

The Beginning:

6/1/2011 15 The Beginning Captures interest Relate subject to them Give purpose Be brief

The Middle:

6/1/2011 16 The Middle Have 3 or 4 main points --- they will not remember more than 4! Take 80%+ of the total time Have signposts and summaries

The Ending:

6/1/2011 17 The Ending Summarize main points Relate conclusion to them Do not start new ideas/points Be interesting Be brief

STEP SIX: Structuring Speech:

6/1/2011 18 STEP SIX: Structuring Speech Form a thesis statement Establish it with not more than 4/5 main points. Divide each point into sub-points/sub-subpoints/sub-sub-subpoints Back up each point with information/example/narrative/testimony

PRINCIPLE OF SUBORDINATION:

6/1/2011 19 PRINCIPLE OF SUBORDINATION More general I. Main point A. Subpoint 1.Sub-subpoint a. Sub-sub-subpoint Less general/important

RIGHT/WRONG OUTLINE:

6/1/2011 20 RIGHT/WRONG OUTLINE I. Computers can help you develop writing skills A. Using PCs can improve your schoolwork B. PCs can be useful for organizing class notes. II. Computers can help you keep better financial record. A. help you plan time management B. useful in personal life C. help organize research notes I. Computers can improve your schoolwork A. PCs can help you develop writing skills B. useful for organizing class notes C. organize research notes II. Computers can be useful in your personal life. A. PCs can help you keep better financial records. B. PCs can help you plan personal time more effectively.

SPECIMEN OUTLINE:

6/1/2011 21 SPECIMEN OUTLINE I. Bad eating habits threaten our well-being. A. Such habits endanger health. 1. Cause heart disease 2. shorten life span B. Such habits can damage self-image. 1. Obese people sometimes dislike themselves 2. They become depressed and frustrated

SPECIMEN STRUCTURE:

6/1/2011 22 SPECIMEN STRUCTURE Specific Purpose: To inform that welfare in America is inadequate, inefficient, and insensitive. Thesis statement: Our approach to welfare in America is inadequate, inefficient, and insensitive. Main point: I. Our approach is inadequate. Sub-points: A. We do not fund it sufficiently B. Some needy people are left out Main point: II. Our approach is inefficient. Sub-points: A. There are too many programs. B. There is too much duplication. C. There is too much waste of money. Main point: III. Our approach is insensitive. Sub-points: A. It creates dependence. B. It stifles initiative C. It robs people of self-respect.

Balance Time to Main Points:

6/1/2011 23 Balance Time to Main Points I. 20% time II. 30% time III. 50% time OR I. 30% II. 40% III. 30% OR I. 10% II. 20% III. 30% IV. 40%

FROM TS TO STRUCTURE:

6/1/2011 24 FROM TS TO STRUCTURE CIGARETTES SHOULD BE ILLEGAL WE SHOULD NOT EAT FAST FOOD HINDI MOVIES SHOULD BE BANNED WATCHING TV DESTROYS CREATIVITY DEATH PENALTY SHOULD NOT EXIST

STEP EIGHT: THE BEGINNING:

6/1/2011 25 STEP EIGHT: THE BEGINNING A good beginning is an excellent confidence booster. It is a FOUR-step process: 1. Get the attention and interest of your audience 2. Reveal the topic of your speech. 3. Establish your credibility 4. Preview the body of the speech.

GET ATTENTION AND INTEREST :

6/1/2011 26 GET ATTENTION AND INTEREST 1. Relate the topic to the Audience 2. Tell a story 3. Question the Audience 4. State the importance of your topic 5. Startle the Audience 6. Arouse the curiosity of the Audience 7. Begin with a quotation

SPECIMEN INTRODUCTION:

6/1/2011 27 SPECIMEN INTRODUCTION The doorbell rings. Instantly, Frances jumps up from where she has been sitting, spins around three times, and runs back and forth from the door to the sofa. Next she hops onto the sofa and begins bouncing up and down. Is Frances deranged? No, Frances is a canine companion, and she has just alerted her deaf owner to the fact that a visitor is at the door.

SPECIMEN INTRODUCTION:

6/1/2011 28 SPECIMEN INTRODUCTION Canine companions are dogs that have been trained to assist people who are hearing-impaired or physically challenged. Besides, answering door, their tasks include locking and unlocking wheelchairs, turning light switches on and off, and so on. According to Smithsonian magazine, 3,500 canine companions including 7,000 “seeing eye” dogs help guide blind people.

SPECIMEN INTRODUCTION:

6/1/2011 29 SPECIMEN INTRODUCTION I became interested in canine companions two years back when my elder sister , who was paralyzed in a car accident, received a canine companion named Lucky. Since then I have learned about the subject by watching Lucky, by talking with my sister, and by reading a number of articles and pamphlets.

SPECIMEN INTRODUCTION:

6/1/2011 30 SPECIMEN INTRODUCTION Looking at my sister’s case, I also perceived that any of us, due to an accident or illness, could one day be in a situation where we or someone we love might require the services of a canine companion

SPECIMEN INTRODUCTION:

6/1/2011 31 SPECIMEN INTRODUCTION So this afternoon I would like to tell you about canine companions--- how they are trained and the many benefits they provide for the people they assist.

Conclusion :

6/1/2011 32 Conclusion Conclusion has two functions: 1. Let them know you are ending 2. Reinforce their understanding/ commitment to the central idea. Some ways: In conclusion In closing Let me end by saying

Conclusion:

6/1/2011 33 Conclusion Other Ways: 1. Wrap it up 2. End with a quotation 3. Make a dramatic statement 4. Refer to the introduction

THE MIDDLE/ BODY OF SPEECH:

6/1/2011 34 THE MIDDLE/ BODY OF SPEECH Back up points/sub-points in any/ all three ways: I. Examples A. Brief B. Extended C. Hypothetical II. Statistics: A. Understanding B. Where to find III. Testimony : A. Expert testimony B. Peer testimony

EXAMPLE: BRIEF:

6/1/2011 35 EXAMPLE: BRIEF To illustrate advancement in creating artificial limbs: Changes in technology have made it possible for doctors to work wonders that once seemed impossible. Roger Charter, for example, lost both his feet when they were crushed in a truck accident. Now he has new feet--- made of a plastic alloy that duplicates a normal one. Not only can Roger walk normally, but he can run and play sports again!

Example: Extended:

6/1/2011 36 Example: Extended By telling stories you can illustrate some point (astonishing similarities between identical twins ): After 40 years of separation from his identical twin, James Lewis began his search for his long-lost brother. They had been separated a few weeks after birth and were adopted by different families. Upon meeting, they found that they had more in common that their first names. Both married a woman named Betty, been divorced, and remarried a woman named Sally. Both had similar jobs as deputy sheriffs, McDonald’s employees, and gas station attendants. Both had the same favorite subjects in school, were bad spellers, and suffered from migraine headaches and sleeping problems. All in all, they shared 27 matching characteristics. VERSUS: “The identical twins are a lot alike.”

Examples: Hypothetical:

6/1/2011 37 Examples: Hypothetical Describe an imaginary situation to focus your point (need for students to protect themselves against crime): You are tired. You are hungry. You’ve just spent a long day at University Library and you can’t wait to get back to your home. Glancing outside, you remember, how quickly it becomes dark. You walk quickly, trying to stop your imagination from thinking of murderers and hijackers. Can you remember a time when you felt this way? I would be surprised if you never have. The FBI reported last year that there were three murders, 1,400 burglaries, 430 assaults and 80 rapes here in Madison alone. Indeed, these statistics are quite alarming.

Statistics: Proper use:

6/1/2011 38 Statistics: Proper use Do’s: 1. Collect statistics from reliable source 2. Always mention the source in your speech 3. Explain what you see from the statistics Don’ts: Don’t overuse statistics and put them to sleep

Statistics: Where to Find:

6/1/2011 39 Statistics: Where to Find 1. The statistical Pocket Book, Bureau of Information, Agargaon, Dhaka. 2. The Guinness Book of World Records 3. www. census.gov./statab/www 4. www. fedstats.gov