Computer hardware lecture on 10-11-2009

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Prepared by: Awais AsifLecturer/DemonstratorNSMC UOG, Gujrat : 

Prepared by: Awais AsifLecturer/DemonstratorNSMC UOG, Gujrat Computer Software UNIVERSITY OF GUJRAT Department of Biochemistry Introduction to Computer Science

System Software : 

System Software System software consists of programs that manage and support a computer system and its information processing activities.

Three major functional categories of system software include: : 

Three major functional categories of system software include: System Management Programs System Support Programs System Development Programs

System Management Programs : 

System Management Programs Programs that manage the hardware, software, and data resources of the computer system during its execution of the various information processing jobs of users. They include: Operating systems Operating environments Database management systems Telecommunications monitors

System Support Programs : 

System Support Programs Programs that support the operations and management of a computer system by providing a variety of support services. Major support programs include: System utilities Performance monitors Security monitors

System Development Programs : 

System Development Programs Programs that help users develop information system programs and prepare user programs for processing. Major development programs include: Programming Language Translators Programming Environments CASE (Computer Aided Software Engineering)

Operating Systems : 

Operating Systems The most important system software package for any computer is its operating system. An operating system is an integrated system of programs that: Manages the operations of the CPU, controls the input/output and storage resources and activities of the computer system. Provides various support services as the computer executes the application programs of users.

Primary PurposesOperating System : 

Primary PurposesOperating System Maximize the productivity of a computer system by operating it in the most efficient manner Minimizes the amount of human intervention required during processing Helps your application programs perform common operations such as entering data, saving and retrieving files and printing or displaying output

Operating System Functions : 

15 Operating System Functions User Interface Resource Management Task Management File Management Utilities and Support Services An operating system performs five basic functions in the operation of a computer system. It provides:

User Interface : 

16 User Interface Command driven Menu driven Graphical user interface (GUI) Allows the end user to communicate with the operating system so they can load programs, access files, and accomplish other tasks. Three main types of user interfaces are:

Operating Environments : 

17 Operating Environments Enhance the user interface by adding a graphical user interface between end users, the operating system and the application package Examples include: MS Windows 95, Workplace Shell in OS/2 Warp, Windows 3.1

Resource Management : 

18 Resource Management CPU Memory Secondary Storage Devices Input/Output Devices An operating system uses a variety of programs to manage the hardware resources of the computer system. These include:

Memory Management Programs : 

19 Memory Management Programs Keep track of where data and programs are stored May also swap parts of programs and data between main memory and secondary storage Provides virtual memory capability, larger than the actual main memory of the primary storage unit

File Management : 

20 File Management File management programs of an operating system: Control the creation, deletion, and access of files of data and programs Keep track of the physical location of files on magnetic disks and other secondary storage devices

Task Management : 

21 Task Management Task management programs of an operating system: Manage the accomplishment of the computing tasks of end users Allocate CPU time to tasks and interrupt tasks being executed to substitute other tasks Multi-tasking capability where tasks of several programs can process at the same time

Popular Operating Systems : 

22 Popular Operating Systems MS-DOS OS/2 Macintosh System 7

MS-DOS : 

23 MS-DOS Single user Single-tasking operating system Add a GUI interface and multitasking capabilities by using an operating environment such as Windows 3.1 The most widely used microcomputer operating system:

Windows 95 : 

24 Windows 95 Graphical user interface (GUI) True multitasking Network capabilities Multimedia The new operating system from Microsoft

Windows NT : 

25 Windows NT Multi-user network operating system Installed on network servers to manage local area networks with high-performance computing requirements Multi-Tasking Network Operating System

OS/2 : 

26 OS/2 Multitasking operating system for advanced and compatible microcomputers Uses a GUI and has virtual memory capabilities

OS/2 WARP : 

27 OS/2 WARP Multitasking and virtual memory capabilities Telecommunications capabilities

UNIX : 

28 UNIX Popular operating system Available for micros, minis and mainframe computer systems Multitasking and multi-user system

Macintosh System 7 : 

29 Macintosh System 7 Multitasking and has virtual memory capabilities Uses a graphical user interface (GUI)

System Support Programs : 

30 System Support Programs Utility programs perform miscellaneous housekeeping and file conversion functions Performance monitors observe and record the performance and usage of computer systems to aid efficiency

System Support Programs (continued) : 

31 System Support Programs (continued) Security monitors observe and control the use of computer systems and provide warning messages and record evidence of unauthorized use of computer resources

Programming Languages : 

32 Programming Languages Machine Language Assembler Languages High-Level Languages Fourth Generation Languages Object-Oriented Languages Can be grouped into 5 major categories:

Slide 33: 

THANK YOU Any Questions No….. No… Don’t be relaxed Question mark is just coming with your Answers Have a Nice Day

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