Sports Nutrition web

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Sports Nutrition: 

Sports Nutrition Katie Armfield, Dietitian Vanderbilt University Medical Center

What’s in it for me?: 

What’s in it for me? Benefits of Optimal Fueling: Improved strength, speed, and stamina Delayed fatigue Enhanced healing of injuries and/or illness Improved Performance!!

What we will cover today…: 

What we will cover today… Formula to estimate your calorie needs Macronutrients- carbohydrates, protein, fat, and water Micronutrients- vitamins, minerals Menu options Pre and post exercise meals The real scoop on supplements

How many calories do I need?: 

How many calories do I need? You need sufficient calories to fuel your body and perform at your best Most athletes underestimate their calorie needs Calorie Formula- Body weight (in pounds) x 23 calories The only nutrients that provide calories are carbohydrates, protein, and fat

Carbohydrates: 

Carbohydrates The primary fuel for most types of exercise and the most important nutrient for athletic performance Carbohydrates should be eaten at all meals and before and after exercise Low-carbohydrate diets are NOT appropriate for athletes!!

Carbohydrates: 

Carbohydrates Recommended level- 7-10 g/kg per day At meals, carbohydrates should take up 2/3 of your plate Foods containing carbohydrates: bread, rice, pasta, cereals, crackers, fruits, juices, vegetables, dried beans/peas

Protein: 

Protein Used for building and repairing muscles, red blood cells, hair, and other tissues Used for energy when carbohydrates are not available Protein from food or a protein supplement acts the same in the body Food is the easiest, most effective, and least costly way to meet protein needs!

Protein: 

Protein Recommended level- 1.2- 1.8 g/kg per day Athletes get enough protein for muscle growth and repair in an average mixed diet Extra protein not needed by the body is burned for energy or stored as fat

Protein: 

Protein 'Although athletes’ protein needs are slightly higher than non-athletes’, research shows that most athletes can eat enough protein without using additional supplements or following a high-protein diet.' Protein is found in meat, poultry, dairy products, eggs, nuts, tofu, and beans

Fat: 

Fat Helps sustain prolonged exercise Source of stored energy, burned mostly during low-level activity and when other sources are not available Fat should comprise no more than 20-25% of our total calories Healthier fat choices: nuts, seeds, olive oil, canola oil, fish, avocados, and olives

Vitamins and Minerals: 

Vitamins and Minerals Needed to regulate processes in the body- used to utilize energy from carbohydrates, protein, and fat Calcium- builds bones, length, and strength Helps your muscles contract and nerves function Found in dairy products, calcium-fortified orange juice, dark green vegetables, dried legumes

Vitamins and Minerals: 

Vitamins and Minerals Iron- aids in energy metabolism Deficiency can lead to weakness and reduced resistance to infection Iron is found in lean meats, eggs, legumes, whole grains, green leafy vegetables Vitamin C increases the body’s ability to absorb iron

Hydration: 

Hydration Athletes need to be hydrated before, during, and after practice and competition to achieve optimal performance Early fatigue is a sign of dehydration and thirst is not an adequate indicator of fluid needs Athletes need 11-14 cups of total fluid per day

Hydration: 

Hydration Before Exercise: Drink 12-24 oz of fluid 2 hours prior to exercise and 15 minutes before activity drink another 8 oz of fluid During Exercise: Drink 8-10 oz of cold water every 15 minutes during exercise to delay fatigue After Exercise: Drink 2 cups of water for every 1 pound of sweat lost

Benefits of Water: 

Benefits of Water Athletes lose concentration, coordination, and endurance capacity when they don’t replace water lost from sweat Water helps regulate body temperature Helps maintain proper muscle tone by giving muscles their natural ability to contract and by preventing dehydration Rids the body of excess salt and other wastes

Up Your Fluid Intake: 

Up Your Fluid Intake Drink on a schedule, not just when you are thirsty Gulps are better than sips to increase your fluid intake Try to avoid caffeine, carbonation, and fruit juice just prior to exercise *Beverages that contain alcohol are diuretics and cause water loss

Alcohol: 

Alcohol Alcohol has a negative effect on all physical activity. This includes practice, lifting, conditioning sessions, and games. Alcohol depletes your vitamin and mineral stores Alcohol can cause stomach ulcer formation Alcohol destroys brain and liver cells There is NO upside to drinking alcohol for athletes!!

Nutrition Break Down: 

Nutrition Break Down Rich in carbohydrate (60%) Moderate in protein (15-20%) Low in fat (20-25%) How does this information translate to your plate?

Breakfast: 

Breakfast Whole grain waffles with maple syrup Handful of walnuts Granola cereal with skim milk Whole-wheat toast with fruit spread Orange Juice Sandwich Oatmeal Canadian bacon Fruit cup Whole grain english muffin with peanut butter Fruit smoothie Graham crackers Fresh fruit

Lunch: 

Lunch Bean burrito, baked chips and salsa, and 100% fruit juice Grilled chicken sandwich, baked potato with veggies, iced tea, fruit cup Turkey sub on whole-grain bread, baked chips, apple, water Rice with vegetables and black beans, garden veggie salad, fruit cup, skim milk

Dinner: 

Dinner Spaghetti with tomato sauce and sliced veggies, spinach salad, milk Vegetarian pizza, water, tossed salad, whole-grain roll, apple crisp Chili with beans and rice, mixed berries, whole wheat crackers, 100% fruit juice Grilled fish fillet, large green salad with vinaigrette, steamed veggies, iced tea

Snacks: 

Snacks Whole grain bagel with peanut butter Grapes or other fresh fruits Pretzels Sliced turkey on whole grain crackers Light Popcorn Peanuts Cottage cheese Trail Mix Breakfast bars, sports bar String cheese

Pre-exercise Meals: 

Pre-exercise Meals High carbohydrate meal/snack that is low in fat and well tolerated 2-3 hours prior to exercise (to allow for stomach emptying) Decrease carbohydrate and calorie content of the meal/snack, the closer to exercise it is consumed Include some lean protein to enhance satiety and alleviate hunger

Pre-exercise Meals: 

Pre-exercise Meals Examples: 3 hours before: bagel with turkey and veggies, banana, 1 cup low-fat yogurt, pretzels, Rice Krispie treat, 2 cups skim milk 1 hour before: banana, 1 cup Mini Wheats or small turkey sandwich, 16 oz. sports drink

Post-exercise Meals: 

Post-exercise Meals 'Recent research shows carbohydrate and protein eaten within 30 minutes of a workout is an effective time to restore amino acids and carbohydrates in the muscles, preparing athletes for the next workout.' Restores muscle and liver glycogen to minimize fatigue

Post-exercise Meals: 

Post-exercise Meals Goal- carbohydrate intake within 30 minutes of exercise and another high carbohydrate meal/snack 2 hours later Intake of ~0.5 grams of carbohydrate per pound body weight Include some protein in post-exercise meals

Post-exercise Meals: 

Post-exercise Meals Examples: 16 oz sports drink, 1 Powerbar 32 oz sports drink, 1 banana 2 cups skim milk, 4 graham crackers Bagel with 2 Tbsp peanut butter Baked potato with refried beans and salsa

Supplements: 

Supplements Questions to ask: What claims have been made about the supplement? Is there any scientific basis to these claims? What is the supplement made of? Is it pure? Does it work? Is it allowed?

Ergogenic Aids: 

Ergogenic Aids Ergogenic- the potential to increase work output Can be dangerous to your health- now and later No scientific evidence for many of the claims May have unknown, serious side effects Placebo effect

Supplements: 

Supplements BOTTOM LINE: If you are consuming a balanced diet, there is no added value in any type of nutritional supplement Remember: If it sounds too good to be true, then it probably is.

Questionsor Comments: 

Questions or Comments

Resources: 

Resources www.gssiweb.com www.eatright.org www.sportfuel.com

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