Slide1: What is often the first line of defense against deviance?
REPUDIATION (the attempt to maintain that nothing terribly unusual is happening).
What if repudiation doesn’t work? One may give ACCOUNTS. Slide2: Next, the individual is recognized as a doer of
banned behavior - i.e., what follows is LABELING.
3 Basic Ways Individuals Can Respond to Labeling:
1. Accept label as warranted.
2. Fight label.
3. Benefit from label. Slide3: WHO IS ON THE SIDE OF THE DEVIANT?
“the own” and “the wise”
4 TYPES OF STIGMA:
1. abominations of body
2. blemishes of character
3. tribal stigma
4. courtesy stigma
STRATEGIES TO MANAGE STIGMA:
try to hide or change
learn to live with it Slide4: The Functionalist Perspective
Deviance is viewed as contributing to the social order.
Deviance is functional because it strengthens the
bonds of an existing social order – i.e., it promotes
>> Other functions? Slide5: Merton’s Strain Theory
Relationship between cultural goals and
legitimate, structural means to achieve goals:
+/- +/- Slide6: Sutherland’s Differential Association Theory
Deviance is learned in interaction with others.
The learning includes techniques and
(Akers added the role of reinforcement –
one will engage in deviant behaviors
if a reward is expected). Slide7: Control Theory
Deviant acts result when one’s bond to
society is weak or broken.
Hirschi identified 4 dimensions of social
4. beliefs Slide8: Sykes & Matza’s Neutralization Theory
The line between conformity and
deviance is not always clear.
Techniques of neutralization:
1. denial of responsibility
2. denial of injury
3. denial of victim
5. appeal to higher loyalties Slide9: Labeling Theory
What is defined as deviance? Who is defined as deviant?
“primary deviance” = behavior that violates
a social norm but that does not affect
one’s sense of self
“secondary deviance” = norm violation that is a response to
the problems caused by the societal reaction to
primary deviance Slide10: Becker – deviance as a “master status”
“reintegrative shaming” = moral disapproval followed by efforts to bring offender back into
(Consistent with Restorative Justice)
“disintegrative shaming” = both the offense
and offender are labeled deviant Slide11: THE CONSTRUCTIONIST PERSPECTIVE
Roots in phenomenology (focus on
people’s subjective perceptions and
2 cognitive rules we use to organize information
and construct social reality:
1. the rule of consistency
2. the rule of economy
From this perspective, social problems are
conceptualized as a process of collective
definition – this entails “claims-making” activities. Slide12: The Social Disorganization Perspective (or The “Chicago School”)
Deviance can be explained by looking at the structure of the environment. Deviance is a natural by-product of rapid social change – the normative web of society is stripped of its power to control people (this is “social disorganization”).
Two by-products of disorganization:
1. In the short term, there is movement in the direction of deviance.
2. In the long term, there is movement in the direction of
normative reorganization. Slide13: Urbanization refers to the process of growing concentrations of people in cities.
Urbanism refers to the cluster of qualities and characteristics that distinguish the city from rural areas.
6 characteristics of urban life that are conducive to deviance:
1. Norm Conflicts
2. Rapid Cultural Change
6. Increase in formal social controls Slide14: SOCIAL CONTROL – DELIBERATE ATTEMPTS TO
2 BASIC PROCESSES OF SOCIAL CONTROL:
1. The internalization of group norms (comes
2. External pressures in the form of sanctions (negative and positive; formal and informal)
Slide15: COMMON INSTITUTIONS OF SOCIAL CONTROL:
Institution Agent Deviance Sanction
In what ways might social control agencies contribute
to deviance problems? Slide16: UNIFORM CRIME REPORTS (UCR)
THE CRIME INDEX INCLUDES 7 OFFENSES:
1. HOMICIDE – THE KILLING OF ONE PERSON BY ANOTHER.
2. FORCIBLE RAPE – ANY SEXUAL PENETRATION DIRECTED AGAINST ANOTHER PERSON AGAINST THAT PERSON’S WILL.
3. ROBBERY – THE TAKING OR ATTEMPTING TO TAKE ANYTHING OF VALUE UNDER CONFRONTATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES FROM THE CONTROL, CUSTODY,
OR CARE OF ANOTHER PERSON BY FORCE, OR
THREAT OF FORCE, OR VIOLENCE.
4. AGGRAVATED ASSAULT – A RECKLESS ATTACK WITH INTENT TO SERIOUSLY INJURE ANOTHER (WITH A WEAPON).
5. BURGLARY – THE UNLAWFUL ENTRY INTO A
BUILDING OR OTHER STRUCTURE WITH THE
INTENT TO COMMIT A FELONY OR A THEFT.
6. LARCENY-THEFT – THE UNLAWFUL TAKING OF PROPERTY FROM THE POSSESSION OF ANOTHER.
7. MOTOR VECHICLE THEFT – THE THEFT OR
ATTEMPTED THEFT OF A MOTOR VEHICLE.
THE UCR HOME PAGE IS FOUND AT: http://www.fbi.gov/ucr/ucr.htm Slide17: Street Crime Offenders (general or typical profile)…
Minority males with limited economic opportunity
Living in poverty
Having fragmented links to institutions of informal social control (e.g., family,
Socialized into criminal activities
Street Crime Victims – those who fit the profile of the offender are also those who are the most likely to experience victimization (poor, unemployed, minority, male, young) Slide18: For the most part, police work is reactive
(i.e., a reaction to crime that has already occurred), rather than proactive (i.e., preventing crime from occurring or stopping crime in
WHY? WHAT COULD CHANGE THIS? WHAT CHALLENGES DO POLICE OFFICERS FACE (IN GENERAL)? Slide19: VIOLENCE IN CLOSE RELATIONSHIPS
Home as a “comfort zone” – what does this mean?
Problem of defining behaviors as “abuse”
forgetting and minimizing
Rural Woman Abuse – What makes it difficult for
women in rural areas to seek help or to escape? Slide20: Elder Abuse might involve:
financial or material abuse
unsatisfactory living environment
violation of individual or
constitutional rights Slide21: White-Collar Crime – deviance “in the suites”
* Harmful to individuals outside the organization.
* Furthers aims of corporation.
* Supported or tolerated by top execs.
* New employees are encouraged to
participate in the deviance.
4 types: crimes against the company,
crimes against employees,
crimes against customers,
crimes against general public. Slide22: What makes white-collar crime likely?
* Structure of corporations – economic power;
workers may feel a lack of responsibility.
* Imperialism – corporations look for cheap labor and natural resources and end up exploiting people and land.
* Executives may use techniques that make them look innocent – e.g., denial of harm, appeal to necessity, transfer of responsibility, entitlement
* Reflection of society – some groups have the power to ensure that their activities are not defined as crimes; laws may not be enforced. Slide23: Theft of supplies and medicines by hospital
considered a fringe benefit of the job
nurses are socialized to accept the
norms of stealing supplies and drugs
OTHER EXAMPLES OF WORK ENVIRONMENTS WHERE WORKERS MAY TAKE SUPPLIES?
WHAT RATIONALIZATIONS ARE USED? Slide24: Deviance in Academe
Students - Cheating in college; e.g., plagiarism,
copying others’ work, fabricating bibliography OTHER EXAMPLES?
Students use techniques of neutralization to
justify the act of cheating.
Faculty – in research: plagiarism, stretching the value of academic work, referee process,
in teaching: failure to update course materials,
over-evaluation of students. OTHER EXAMPLES?
Slide25: Mental Disorder – An extreme condition that makes
a person incapable of functioning in daily life.
David Rosenhan (1973) – “On Being Sane in
Can the sane be distinguished from the insane?
“Pseudopatients” gained admission to
psychiatric wards and then acted “normally.”
Staff interpreted their behaviors through the “mentally ill” label.
This experiment demonstrated the power of the label.
Slide26: DICA – Disorders Usually First Diagnosed in
Infancy, Childhood, or Adolescence:
Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder – Inattention,
impulsiveness, hyperactivity. Symptoms: fidgeting,
Oppositional Defiant Disorder – Violations of informal
norms. Symptoms: short temper, defiance.
Eating Disorders – Pica and rumination disorder.
Tic Disorders – Involuntary, rapid motor movements.
Slide27: Elimination Disorders – Defecation and urination
into places not appropriate.
Identity Disorder – Distress over long-term goals,
friendship patterns, sexual orientation,
Reactive Attachment Disorder – Condition resulting
from abuse or neglect. Difficulty relating to others.
ARE ALL THESE CONDITIONS REALLY ‘ILLNESSES’?
UNDER SOME CONDITIONS, MIGHT THESE BEHAVIORS NOT BE CONSIDERED DEVIANT?
WHAT IS THE ROLE OF THE FAMILY? EXPOSURE TO MEDIA? SOCIAL CONTROL?
Slide28: schizophrenia – Characterized by withdrawal from
social interaction and an inability to perform
daily tasks; construction of imaginary world of
hallucinations and delusions; lack of
concentration or care about appearance.
depression – Characterized by the cognitive triad:
negative conception of self, negative interpretation
of life experiences, nihilistic view of the future.
hypomania – Reverse of depression. Perceiving a
significant gain in each life experience.
Slide29: phobia – Characterized by the anticipation of
physical or psychological harm in definable
anti-social personality disorder – Lacking a conscience. Slide30: Types of Suicide:
1. premeditated – Characterized by a person
having the intent to die, a plan to carry
this through, and eventual death.
2. ambivalent – The person is unclear about
whether he/she really wishes to die.
3. coercive – Suicide is a means of revenge;
a way to hurt somebody.
4. faux – The person does not want to die, yet
exposes him/herself to dangerous situations. Slide31: How do we know if it was a suicide?
The recording of a death as a suicide is
complicated by possible sources of error:
1. Concealment by social groups who
vary in their condemnation of
2. Misclassification by coroners and
What are some clues that it was a suicide?
suicide note, mode of death/circumstances, bio