Deviance

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What is often the first line of defense against deviance? REPUDIATION (the attempt to maintain that nothing terribly unusual is happening). Forms: 1. Bracketing 2. Normalization 3. Attenuation 4. Balancing What if repudiation doesn’t work? One may give ACCOUNTS.

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Next, the individual is recognized as a doer of banned behavior - i.e., what follows is LABELING. 3 Basic Ways Individuals Can Respond to Labeling: 1. Accept label as warranted. 2. Fight label. 3. Benefit from label.

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WHO IS ON THE SIDE OF THE DEVIANT? “the own” and “the wise” 4 TYPES OF STIGMA: 1. abominations of body 2. blemishes of character 3. tribal stigma 4. courtesy stigma STRATEGIES TO MANAGE STIGMA: try to hide or change learn to live with it

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The Functionalist Perspective Deviance is viewed as contributing to the social order. Deviance is functional because it strengthens the bonds of an existing social order – i.e., it promotes social solidarity. >> Other functions?

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Merton’s Strain Theory Relationship between cultural goals and legitimate, structural means to achieve goals: Goals Means + + + - - + - - +/- +/-

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Sutherland’s Differential Association Theory Deviance is learned in interaction with others. The learning includes techniques and rationalizations. (Akers added the role of reinforcement – one will engage in deviant behaviors if a reward is expected).

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Control Theory Deviant acts result when one’s bond to society is weak or broken. Hirschi identified 4 dimensions of social bonding: 1. attachment 2. commitment 3. involvement 4. beliefs

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Sykes & Matza’s Neutralization Theory The line between conformity and deviance is not always clear. Techniques of neutralization: 1. denial of responsibility 2. denial of injury 3. denial of victim 4. condemnation 5. appeal to higher loyalties

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Labeling Theory What is defined as deviance? Who is defined as deviant? Lemert – “primary deviance” = behavior that violates a social norm but that does not affect one’s sense of self “secondary deviance” = norm violation that is a response to the problems caused by the societal reaction to primary deviance

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Becker – deviance as a “master status” Braithwaite – “reintegrative shaming” = moral disapproval followed by efforts to bring offender back into the community (Consistent with Restorative Justice) “disintegrative shaming” = both the offense and offender are labeled deviant

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THE CONSTRUCTIONIST PERSPECTIVE Roots in phenomenology (focus on people’s subjective perceptions and interpretations) 2 cognitive rules we use to organize information and construct social reality: 1. the rule of consistency 2. the rule of economy From this perspective, social problems are conceptualized as a process of collective definition – this entails “claims-making” activities.

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The Social Disorganization Perspective (or The “Chicago School”) Deviance can be explained by looking at the structure of the environment. Deviance is a natural by-product of rapid social change – the normative web of society is stripped of its power to control people (this is “social disorganization”). Two by-products of disorganization: 1. In the short term, there is movement in the direction of deviance. 2. In the long term, there is movement in the direction of normative reorganization.

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Urbanization refers to the process of growing concentrations of people in cities. Urbanism refers to the cluster of qualities and characteristics that distinguish the city from rural areas. 6 characteristics of urban life that are conducive to deviance: 1. Norm Conflicts 2. Rapid Cultural Change 3. Mobility 4. Materialism 5. Individualism 6. Increase in formal social controls

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SOCIAL CONTROL – DELIBERATE ATTEMPTS TO CHANGE BEHAVIOR 2 BASIC PROCESSES OF SOCIAL CONTROL: 1. The internalization of group norms (comes through socialization) 2. External pressures in the form of sanctions (negative and positive; formal and informal)

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COMMON INSTITUTIONS OF SOCIAL CONTROL: Institution Agent Deviance Sanction Religion Business Political State Family DISCUSSION QUESTION: In what ways might social control agencies contribute to deviance problems?

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UNIFORM CRIME REPORTS (UCR) THE CRIME INDEX INCLUDES 7 OFFENSES: 1. HOMICIDE – THE KILLING OF ONE PERSON BY ANOTHER. 2. FORCIBLE RAPE – ANY SEXUAL PENETRATION DIRECTED AGAINST ANOTHER PERSON AGAINST THAT PERSON’S WILL. 3. ROBBERY – THE TAKING OR ATTEMPTING TO TAKE ANYTHING OF VALUE UNDER CONFRONTATIONAL CIRCUMSTANCES FROM THE CONTROL, CUSTODY, OR CARE OF ANOTHER PERSON BY FORCE, OR THREAT OF FORCE, OR VIOLENCE. 4. AGGRAVATED ASSAULT – A RECKLESS ATTACK WITH INTENT TO SERIOUSLY INJURE ANOTHER (WITH A WEAPON). 5. BURGLARY – THE UNLAWFUL ENTRY INTO A BUILDING OR OTHER STRUCTURE WITH THE INTENT TO COMMIT A FELONY OR A THEFT. 6. LARCENY-THEFT – THE UNLAWFUL TAKING OF PROPERTY FROM THE POSSESSION OF ANOTHER. 7. MOTOR VECHICLE THEFT – THE THEFT OR ATTEMPTED THEFT OF A MOTOR VEHICLE. THE UCR HOME PAGE IS FOUND AT: http://www.fbi.gov/ucr/ucr.htm

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Street Crime Offenders (general or typical profile)… Minority males with limited economic opportunity Living in poverty Having fragmented links to institutions of informal social control (e.g., family, church, community) Socialized into criminal activities Street Crime Victims – those who fit the profile of the offender are also those who are the most likely to experience victimization (poor, unemployed, minority, male, young)

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For the most part, police work is reactive (i.e., a reaction to crime that has already occurred), rather than proactive (i.e., preventing crime from occurring or stopping crime in progress) WHY? WHAT COULD CHANGE THIS? WHAT CHALLENGES DO POLICE OFFICERS FACE (IN GENERAL)?

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VIOLENCE IN CLOSE RELATIONSHIPS Home as a “comfort zone” – what does this mean? Problem of defining behaviors as “abuse” Coping Strategies: forgetting and minimizing Rural Woman Abuse – What makes it difficult for women in rural areas to seek help or to escape?

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Elder Abuse might involve: physical abuse psychological abuse financial or material abuse unsatisfactory living environment violation of individual or constitutional rights

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White-Collar Crime – deviance “in the suites” * Harmful to individuals outside the organization. * Furthers aims of corporation. * Supported or tolerated by top execs. * New employees are encouraged to participate in the deviance. 4 types: crimes against the company, crimes against employees, crimes against customers, crimes against general public.

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What makes white-collar crime likely? * Structure of corporations – economic power; workers may feel a lack of responsibility. * Imperialism – corporations look for cheap labor and natural resources and end up exploiting people and land. * Executives may use techniques that make them look innocent – e.g., denial of harm, appeal to necessity, transfer of responsibility, entitlement * Reflection of society – some groups have the power to ensure that their activities are not defined as crimes; laws may not be enforced.

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Theft of supplies and medicines by hospital nurses – considered a fringe benefit of the job nurses are socialized to accept the norms of stealing supplies and drugs OTHER EXAMPLES OF WORK ENVIRONMENTS WHERE WORKERS MAY TAKE SUPPLIES? WHAT RATIONALIZATIONS ARE USED?

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Deviance in Academe Students - Cheating in college; e.g., plagiarism, copying others’ work, fabricating bibliography OTHER EXAMPLES? Students use techniques of neutralization to justify the act of cheating. Faculty – in research: plagiarism, stretching the value of academic work, referee process, human subjects; in teaching: failure to update course materials, over-evaluation of students. OTHER EXAMPLES?

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Mental Disorder – An extreme condition that makes a person incapable of functioning in daily life. David Rosenhan (1973) – “On Being Sane in Insane Places” Can the sane be distinguished from the insane? “Pseudopatients” gained admission to psychiatric wards and then acted “normally.” Staff interpreted their behaviors through the “mentally ill” label. This experiment demonstrated the power of the label.

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DICA – Disorders Usually First Diagnosed in Infancy, Childhood, or Adolescence: Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder – Inattention, impulsiveness, hyperactivity. Symptoms: fidgeting, impatience, etc. Oppositional Defiant Disorder – Violations of informal norms. Symptoms: short temper, defiance. Eating Disorders – Pica and rumination disorder. Tic Disorders – Involuntary, rapid motor movements.

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Elimination Disorders – Defecation and urination into places not appropriate. Identity Disorder – Distress over long-term goals, friendship patterns, sexual orientation, religious identification. Reactive Attachment Disorder – Condition resulting from abuse or neglect. Difficulty relating to others. ARE ALL THESE CONDITIONS REALLY ‘ILLNESSES’? UNDER SOME CONDITIONS, MIGHT THESE BEHAVIORS NOT BE CONSIDERED DEVIANT? WHAT IS THE ROLE OF THE FAMILY? EXPOSURE TO MEDIA? SOCIAL CONTROL?

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schizophrenia – Characterized by withdrawal from social interaction and an inability to perform daily tasks; construction of imaginary world of hallucinations and delusions; lack of concentration or care about appearance. depression – Characterized by the cognitive triad: negative conception of self, negative interpretation of life experiences, nihilistic view of the future. hypomania – Reverse of depression. Perceiving a significant gain in each life experience.

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phobia – Characterized by the anticipation of physical or psychological harm in definable situations. anti-social personality disorder – Lacking a conscience.

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Types of Suicide: 1. premeditated – Characterized by a person having the intent to die, a plan to carry this through, and eventual death. 2. ambivalent – The person is unclear about whether he/she really wishes to die. 3. coercive – Suicide is a means of revenge; a way to hurt somebody. 4. faux – The person does not want to die, yet exposes him/herself to dangerous situations.

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How do we know if it was a suicide? The recording of a death as a suicide is complicated by possible sources of error: 1. Concealment by social groups who vary in their condemnation of suicide. 2. Misclassification by coroners and medical examiners. What are some clues that it was a suicide? suicide note, mode of death/circumstances, bio

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