Historical Places of Pakistan

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Start with the name of Gracious Allah

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Historical Places of Pakistan

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Mohabbat Khan Mosque Peshawar Khyberpakhtunkhwa

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The Mohabbat Khan Mosque is a 17th century mosque in Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. It is named after the Mughal governor of Peshawar Nawab Mahabat Khan who served under Emperors Shah Jehan and Aurangzeb and who was the grandson of Nawab Dadan Khan (who had been governor of Lahore). The name of the Masjid and the governor who built is consistently mispronounced as 'Muhabbat Khan' ('Love Khan') by the public instead of 'Mahabat Khan' ('Awe-inspiring Khan'). The Mosque was built in 1630. Its open courtyard has an ablution pool in the middle and a single row of rooms around the sides. The prayer hall occupies the west side flanked by two tall minarets. According to the turn-of-the-century Gazetteer for Pakhtunkhwa, the minarets were frequently used in Sikh times ‘ as a substitute for the gallows ’ . The interior of the prayer hall is sheltered beneath three low fluted domes and is lavishly and colourfuly painted with floral and geometric designs.

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At the time of the creation of Pakistan, Walton Airport was the main airport of Lahore. When Pakistan International Airlines (PIA) acquired jet aircraft such as Boeing 720s, however, Walton was unable to handle the large aircraft. The Government of Pakistan thus decided to build a brand new airport, which opened in 1962 as Lahore International Airport and was able to handle aircraft as large as the Boeing 747. Over the course of the next 25 years the demand for air travel rose. It meant that the government decided to build a new world class airport to meet the growing needs for the future and improve the facilities for passengers since the old airport was becoming obsolete. In 2003, Allama Iqbal International Airport was inaugurated and is now the second largest airport in Pakistan after Jinnah International Karachi. All flights were switched to the new airport and the old airport was passed onto the military. However, during the Hajj period, the old airport is used as the Hajj Terminal by the national carrier, PIA.

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Empress Market Karachi Sindh

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The Empress Market is a famous marketplace situated in the Saddar Town locality of Karachi, Pakistan. The market traces its origins to the British Raj era, when it was first constructed.Today, it is amongst the most popular and busy places for shopping in Karachi and reflects as one of the few historical spots of the city. Commodities sold in the Empress Market range from condiments, fruit, vegetables and meat to stationary material, textiles and pet shops. The Empress Market was constructed between 1884 and 1889 and was named to commemorate Queen Victoria, Empress of India. The market was constructed at a well-chosen site that was clearly visible from a great distance. The site of the market had historical significance as it was situated on the grounds where a number of native sepoys were executed in a ruthless fashion after the Indian Rising of 1857 (The Ghaddar). Accounts mention that the sepoys had their heads blown off by canon balls in an attempt to suppress any mutinous feelings among the locals. The foundation stone of the Empress Market was laid by Bombay's Governor, James Ferguson in 1884, who also laid the foundation of the Merewether Memorial Tower. It was designed by James Strachan, the foundations were completed by the English firm of A.J. Attfield, and the building was constructed by the local firm of ‘ Mahoomed Niwan and Dulloo Khejoo ’ . The building was arranged around a courtyard, 130 ft by 100 ft, with four galleries each 46 ft wide. The galleries provided accommodation for 280 shops and stall keepers; at the time of its construction it was one of only seven markets in Karachi.

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Faiz Mahal Khairpur Sindh

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Khairpur State was ruled by Talpur Mirs (ameers) of the Talpur dynasty from 1783 to 1955. In 1947, when Pakistan gained independence, Khairpur Mir's was one of the princely states that opted to join Pakistan. In 1955, the Government of Pakistan announced the abolition of all the princely states and Khairpur Mir's was annexed into the then province of West Pakistan. Khairpur is dotted with historical sites. The Kot Diji Fort, said to be built by the Talpurs, stands on a high hill with massive walls surrounding an elaborate complex of exquisite homes, ornate canopies, marbled courtyards, promenades and long corridors with arched entryways. The corridors run along deep rooms which now lay dark and can get infested with bats. Another architectural classic is the Faiz Mahal, built in 1798 as the palace of the Talpur family in Khairpur Mirs. Besides, there are other palaces, tomb sites in Kot Diji and the surrounding areas. The present successor of the Talpur Dynasty, Mir Ali Murad Khan Talpur, who acceded to the Pakistani state in 1956, is a conservationist and has to his credit an impressive wildlife sanctuary called the Mehrano, known for its black buck, and hog deer, both of which have become rare in Sindh. The north-western part of Thar Desert lies in Khairpur district. Rohri Hills are a tourist attraction for the tombs of Pir Ubhan Shah near Kotdiji, Shadi Shaheed near Layari, Tehsil Kotdiji and Pir Baqir Shah near Choondko. Mehrano, Nara, Kalmi Quran, Thar Dhani, shah jee machine at solangi and many other sites also draw tourist traffic. Bakri Waro Lake, Khairpur Children fishing on Khuth Lake Tomb of Jamal Shah is located on the bank of Jamal Shah lake. Water of this lake is popular for the treatment of skin diseases. Many people come to take bath from this lake and they get healthy.

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Golden Mosque Lahore Punjab

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The Suneri Mosque or Golden Mosque is located in the centre of Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. The founder of the mosque was Nawab Syed Bhikari Khan, son of Raushan-ud-Daula Turrabaz Khan, deputy governor of Lahore during the reign of Muhammad Shah and the viceroyalty of Mir Noin-ul-Malik. The Golden Mosque is situated in the Kashmiri Bazaar. It was built in 1753 and features three beautiful golden domes. The mosque is elevated on a higher plinth, surrounded by old bazaars. It has a beautiful gateway, which measures 21.3 metres in length and a courtyard that measures 161.5 by 160.6 metres (530 ft × 527 ft). The marble domes cover seven prayer chambers. Four lofty minarets stand at the four corners of the mosque, each with an outer circumference of 20 metres (66 ft), soaring up to 54 metres (177 ft).

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Dera Sahib Gurdwara Lahore Punjab

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DERA SAHIB, GURDWARA, commonly pronounced Dehra Sahib is located in the revenue limits of Lohar village, 10 km east of Naushahra Panvan (31à ‚ ° 20`N, 74à ‚ ° 57`E), in Amritsar district of the Punjab. It marks the site of a village called Patthevind where Guru Nanak`s ancestors had lived. Guru Nanak himself often visited the village. An old well within the Gurdwara compound is said to be the one near which he had once stopped. The shrine was first established by Guru Hargobind (1595-1644), who also had the nearby pond converted into a sarovaror holy tank. The construction of the present complex, including the renovation of the sarovar, was carried out by Sant Gurmukh Singh Sevavale (1849-1947). Situated inside a highwalled enclosure, the Gurdwara comprises a highceilinged divan hall with the domed sanctum at one end and a marbled terrace in front. It is administered by the Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee through a local committee. Besides the celebration of major Sikh anniversaries, a threeday fair is held to mark the festival ofMaghi, the first of the Bikrami month of Magh (midJanuary) .

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National Academy of Performing Arts (NAPA)

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The National Academy of Performing Arts (NAPA) is located in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. NAPA was established in 2005 as an institution to conserve and teach performing arts and music to students in Pakistan. It is situated in the building of the Hindu Gymkhana Departments:> Music :> At NAPA, the students of music derive benefit from being taught by a faculty consisting of practicing musicians, musicologists and visiting maestros. They will also have the opportunity to enrich their repertoire of compositions and styles by tutelage under many teachers. Theatre Arts :> The Theatre Arts department will offer students academic courses in all aspects of the theatre as well as practical exploration and the opportunity to present their work before an audience. Dancing :> NAPA offers lessons in classical dancing (Odissi). Make up :> NAPA has also introduced lessons in Make up.

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Hiran Minar Sheikhupura Punjab

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( Hiran Minar(Minaret of Antelope) is set in peaceful environs near Lahore in Sheikhupura, Pakistan. It was constructed by Emperor Jahangir as a monument to Mansraj, one of his pet deer. The structure consists of a large, almost-square water tank with an octagonal pavilion in its center, built during the reign of Mughal emperor Shah Jahan; a causeway with its own gateway connects the pavilion with the mainland and a 100-foot (30 m)-high minar, or minaret. At the center of each side of the tank, a brick ramp slopes down to the water, providing access for royal animals and wild game. The minar itself was built by Emperor Jahangir in 1606 to honor the memory of a pet hunting antelope named Mansraj. Unique features of this particular complex are the antelope's grave and the distinctive water collection system. At each corner of the tank (approximately 750 by 895 feet (273 m) in size), is a small, square building and a subsurface water collection system which supplied the tank; only one of these water systems is extensively exposed today. Another special feature of Hiran Minar is its location and environment: the top of the minar is perhaps the best place in the province of Punjab to get a feel for the broader landscape and its relationship to a Mughal site. Looking north from the top of the minar, one can see a patch of forest which is similar to the scrub forest vegetation of Mughal times, while to the west are extensively-irrigated fields, a product of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, but similar in size and appearance to the well-irrigated fields of the Mughal period.

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Islamia College Peshawar Khyber

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Islamia college is a renowned educational institution located in the city of Peshawar in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. It was founded in October 1913 by regional leader Nawab Sir Sahibzada Abdul Qayyum and then Chief Commissioner of the province Sir George Roos-Keppel in an effort to provide quality education to the region's youth. Today, the college educates its students in arts, humanities and modern sciences. In 1950 University of Peshawar was founded as an offshoot of Islamia College Peshawar, with the later being associated to the university as a constituent college. In the year 2008 the college was given the status of a chartered university, with Mr. Muhammad Ajmal Khan appointed as its first Vice Chancellor.

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Jahangir Tomb Lahore Punjab

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Tomb of Jahangir is the mausoleum built for the Mughal Emperor Jahangir who ruled from 1605 to 1627. The mausoleum is located near the town of Shahdara Bagh in Lahore, Pakistan. His son Shah Jahan built the mausoleum 10 years after his father's death. It is sited in an attractive walled garden. It has four 30 meter high minarets. The interior is embellished with frescoes and pietra dura inlay and coloured marble. The mausoleum features prominently on the Pakistan Rupees 1,000 denomination bank note. The entrance to the mausoleum is through two massive gateways of stone and masonry opposite each other (to the north and south) which lead to a square enclosure known as the Akbari Serai. This enclosure leads to another one, on the western side, giving full view of the garden in front of the mausoleum, which is traversed by four-bricked canals proceeding from the centre, and in which many fountains were placed which are now in ruins. The corridor around the mausoleum is adorned with a most elegant mosaic, representing flowers and Quranic verses. The interior of the mausoleum is an elevated sarcophagus of white marble, the sides of which are wrought with flowers of mosaic in the same elegant style as the tombs in the Taj Mahal at Agra, India. On two sides of the sarcophagus the ninety-nine attributes of God are inlaid in black. Beautiful 'jalis' admit light in various patterns.

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Karachi Port Trust Building Karachi Sindh

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Karachi Port Trust (KPT) is a Pakistani federal government agency that oversees the operations of the Port of Karachi in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. Between 1880 and 1887, the port was administered by the Karachi Harbour Board. The Karachi Port Trust was then established by the Act IV of 1886, effective from 1 April 1887.

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KatasRaj Mandir Jehlam Punjab

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Katasraj Mandir is a Hindu mandir or temple complex situated in Katas village near Choa Saidanshah in the Chakwal district of Punjab in Pakistan. Dedicated to Shiva, the temple has existed since the days of Mahābhārata and the Pandava brothers spent a substantial part of their exile at the site. The Pakistan Government is considering nominating the temple complex for World Heritage Site status. In 2007, it also proposed to restore the temple complex.In 2012, the temple pond is drying up due to heavy use of ground water for industrial purposes. The smaller temples, built in pairs around the larger central temple, were built around 900 years or so ago, although the earliest of them dates back to the latter half of the 6th century AD. The temple complex was not abandoned by Hindus when they migrated to East Punjab in 1947. It has always been the site of holy pilgrimage for people of various faiths. Even nowadays, worshippers of all faiths perform pilgrimage to the mandir. The pilgrims bathe in the sacred pool and seek forgiveness as Hindu belief holds that bathing in the pond (especially on certain occasions) leads to the forgiveness of sins and helps attain salvation. Until recently, it was believed that the pond had unlimited depth. The two semi-ruined temples of the Hindushahiya period (650 – 950 AD) have been frequently photographed by newspapers and history journals.

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Keenjhar lake Thatta Sindh

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Keenjhar lake commonly called as Kalri Lake is situated in Thatta District, Sindh, Pakistan. It is 122 km away from Karachi and 18 km away from Thatta town. It is the second largest fresh water lake of the Pakistan. It is an important source that provides the drinking water to Thatta District and Karachi city. Keenjhar Lake has been declared a ramsar site and a wildlife sanctuary. It is favorable area for habitat of winter migratory birds like Ducks, Geese, Flamingos, Cormorants, Shorebirds, Herons, Egrets, Ibises, Terns, Coots and Gulls. It has been observed that it is the breeding area of Night Heron, Cotton Teal, Purple Moorehen, and Pheasant Tailed Jacana. Keenjhar Lake is also a popular tourist resort. A large numbers of peoples visit there daily from Karachi, Hyderabad and Thatta to enjoy picnic, swimming, fishing and boating. The Sindhi legend of Noori Jam Tamachi took place around the lake, and to this day there is a shrine in the middle of the lake marking Noori's grave. Everyday hundreds of devotees visit the shrine.

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Kot diji Fort Khairpur Sindh

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The Kot Diji Fort, formally known as Fort Ahmadabad, dominates the town of Kot Diji in Khairpur District, Pakistan about 25 miles east of the Indus River at the edge of the Nara-Rajisthan Desert. The fort was built between 1785 to 1795 by Mir Sohrab Khan Talpur, founder of the Kingdom of Upper Sindh in 1783. In addition to the fort, a 5 kilometer, 12 feet wide mud wall was built around the city. This defensive wall had bastions throughout its length and a huge iron gate served as the city's only entrance. The fort was considered invincible and served as the residence of the Emirs of Khairpur in times of peace. It is, therefore, the ancestral home of royal house. During war time the zenana (female members of the royal family), would be shifted to Shahgarh Fort, formerly within the realm but since 1843, after the conquest of the rest of Sindh, it is in the Thar and Jaisalmer desert, now in India. When the Zenana moved into the comfort of palaces, it stood mainly as a decorated reminder of more violent times. Throughout its whole history, however, Fort Kot Diji was never attacked.

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Moen Jodaro Sindh

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Sindh is a province in Pakistan. The Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) was a Bronze Age civilization (mature period 2600 – 1900 BCE) which was centred mostly in the Sindh. Sindh has numerous tourist sites with the most prominent being the ruins of Mohenjo daro near the city of Larkana.

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Masjid Tooba Karachi Sindh

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Masjid e Tooba or Tooba Mosque is in Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. Locally, it is known as the Gol Masjid. Masjid e Tooba was built in 1969 in Defence Housing Society Karachi, Karachi. It is just off main Korangi Road. Masjid e Tooba is often claimed to be the largest single-dome mosque in the world. It is also major tourist attraction in Karachi. Masjid e Tooba is built with pure white marble. The dome is 72 meters (236 feet) in diameter and is balanced on a low surrounding wall with no central pillars. Masjid e Tooba has a single minaret standing 70 meters high. The mosque is the 18th largest in the world with the central prayer hall having a capacity of 5,000 people. It was built keeping acoustics in mind. A person speaking inside one end of the dome can be heard at the other end. This mosque was designed by Pakistani architect Dr Babar Hamid Chauhan and the engineer was Zaheer Haider Naqvi.

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Bin Qasim Fort Karachi Sindh

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The Qasim Fort is a small fort constructed in the 18th century by the Talpur dynasty when the port of Karachi traded with Oman and Bahrain. The fort was stormed by the British in 1839 because of the strategic location of Karachi. Although the fort is now buried beneath the naval base, the lighthouse is a visible reminder of the British presence having been built in 1889 to assist vessels approaching Karachi harbour. History of modern day Karachi begins from this fort as.... On February 1, 1839, a British ship, the Wellesley, anchored off the island of Manora.. By 3 February, the fort at Kolachi had surrendered without firing a single shot and this small fishing village crossed a turning point in its life.

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Noor Mahal Bahawalpur

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The Noor Mahal is a palace in Bahawalpur, Pakistan. It was built in 1872 like an Italian chateau on neoclassical lines, at a time when modernism had set in. It belonged to the Nawab of Bahawalpur princely state, during British Raj. There are various stories regarding its construction. According to one legend, Nawab Sadiq Muhammad Khan IV had the palace made for his wife; however, she was only there for one night, as she happened to see the adjoining graveyard from her balcony, and refused to spend another night there, and so it remained unused during his reign. Noor Mehal is one of the hidden gems of Bahawalpur, since not many know about it.The palace is open to public. It is currently in possession of the army and is used as state guest house and for holding state durbars and meetings with foreign delegations.

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Ranikot Fort Jamshoro Sindh

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History

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Ranikot Fort is a historical fort in Sindh province of Pakistan. Ranikot Fort is also known as the great wall of Sindh and It is the world's largest fort with a circumference of approximately 26 km or 16 miles. Since 1993, it has been on the tentative list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. The original purpose and architects of Ranikot Fort are unknown. Some archaeologists attribute it to Arabs, or possibly built by a Persian noble under the Abbasids by Imran Bin Musa Barmaki who was the Governor of Sindh in 836. Others have suggested a much earlier period of construction attributing to at times the Sassanians Persians and at times to the Greeks. Despite the fact that a prehistoric site of Amri is nearby, there is no trace of any old city inside the fort and the present structure has little evidence of prehistoric origins. Archaeologists point to 17th century as its time of first construction but now Sindh archaeologists agree that some of the present structure was reconstructed by Mir Karam Ali Khan Talpur and his brother Mir Murad Ali in 1812 at a cost of 1.2 million rupees (Sindh Gazetteer, 677).

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Fort Ranikot is located in Lakki Mountains of the Kirthar Range to the west of the River Indus at a distance of about 30 kilometers from the present day town of Sann. A mountainous ridge, Karo Takkar (Black Hill), running north to south, forms its western boundary and the 'Lundi Hills' forms its eastern boundary. Mohan Nai, a rain-stream enters the fort from its rarely used western 'Mohan Gate', where it is guarded by a small fortification, changes its name to 'Reni' or 'Rani Nai' or rain-stream and gives the fort its name. Ranikot is thus the 'fort of a rain stream' - Rani. It runs through it, tumbles in a series of turquoise pools to irrigate fields and leaves the fort from its most used 'Sann Gate' on the eastern side. It then travels about 33 kilometers more to enter the Lion River - Indus. Most of the twenty six kilometers long wall is made of natural cliffs and mountains which at places rise as high as two thousand feet above sea level. Only about 8.25 km portions of its wall are man-made, built with yellow sandstone. This was first measured on foot by Badar Abro along with local guide Sadiq Gabol. As one enters the fort, one can find hills, valleys, streams, ditches, ponds, pools, fossils, building structure, bastions, watchtowers, ammunition depots, fortresses - all inside Ranikot, adding more to its beauty and mystery. A spring emerging from an underground water source near the Mohan Gate is named as 'Parryen jo Tarr' (the spring of fairies).

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According to a tale told by the local inhabitants, fairies come from far and wide on the Ponam Nights (full moon) to take bath at this spring near 'Karo Jabal'! Splashing sounds of water falling on the rocks can be heard at another spring, Waggun jo Tarr or "the Crocodile Spring", named so as crocodiles once lived there. Within Ranikot, there are two more fortresses, Meeri and Shergarh, each have five bastions. Meerikot takes its name from the word 'Mir' meaning top (for instance the top of a hill, chief of any Baloch tribe, etc.). M.H. Panhwar (a Sindhologist) disagrees upon the name's history being related to Mirs of Sindh, stating that "Of two forts inside the main Rani Kot fort, the lower one is called Miri and is a word used in Seistan for small fortress. It has nothing to do with Mirs of Sindh." Both the main Ranikot and the inner Meerikot have similar entrances - curved, angulated with a safe tortuous path. From the military point of view, Meerikot is located at a very safe and central place in the very heart of the Ranikot with residential arrangements including a water-well.

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Talpur Mirs used Meerikot as their fortified residence. One can explore ruins of the court, harem, guest rooms, and soldiers quarters inside it. Its 1435 feet long wall has five bastions. Every structure in the Ranikot has its own uniqueness and beauty. Looking up from Meerikot one can find another fortified citadel - Shergarh (Abode of Lions) built with whitish stone, it too has five bastions. Though its location at 1480 feet above the sea level makes this fortress a unique structure, it also makes it equally difficult for supply of water, which can only be had from the brooks and rain streams, hundreds of feet below.The steep climb up to Shergarh gives a commanding view down over the whole fort and its entrance and exit points. On a clear day one can even see Indus River, 37 kilometers away to the east. Beside the Mohan Gate and the Sann Gate, there are two more gates, rather pseudo gates. One is towards the side of ancient town of Amri. This 'gate' is called the 'Amri Gate'. Certainly it takes its name from the prehistoric ruins of Amri, but it must have taken this name much later than the times of Amri as the fort itself doesn't appears to be as old as the Amri itself. In fact there is a bridge over rain stream 'Toming Dhoro' exiting from the fort called 'Budhi Mori'.

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The breach in fort wall due to the river stream has been referred as a gate. Similarly, the Shahpir Gate to the south also appears to be a pseudo gate taking its name from a limestone rock with a rough shape of foot imprinted on it. The sacred footprint supposedly belongs to Hazrat Ali or some other religious personality and is venerated by locals. It seems to be a later breach in the fort wall instead of a formal gate because one can't find any bastion or watchtower or their remains at the site, needed to guard any formal entrance or exit points. A mosque found in the fort appears to be a later modification of a watchtower or a later construction. Scattered animal skeletons and prehistoric fossils can be found on the top of Lundi Hills. One of the three graveyards has about four hundred graves made of Chowkundi like sandstone with engraved motifs of sunflowers and peacocks. Whether we can call them as theriomorphic and phytomorphic motifs is an open question. Another one appears to be a graveyard of Arabs. The third one, about a mile away from the Sann Gate, had sixteen or seventeen graves earlier but now there are only four graves. The local inhabitants call it the Roman's graveyard.

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Ayub Bridge Sukkur Sindh

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Ayub Bridge is a railway bridge over the Indus river between Rohri and Sukkur in Sindh province, Pakistan. The foundation stone of this steel arch bridge was laid on 9 December 1960 and inaugurated by President Muhammad Ayub Khan on 6 May 1962. The consulting engineer was David B. Steinman. The Ayub Bridge became the world's third longest railway arch span and the first railway bridge in the world to be slung on coiled wire rope suspenders. On its completion railway traffic was transferred from the adjacent Lansdowne Bridge.

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Gurdwara Panja Sahib Hassan abdal Punjab

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In 1521 the founder of the Sikh faith, Guru Nanak, arrived in Hasan Abdal, a Gurdwara was built on the spot that he stayed containing a sacred rock that is believed to contain the hand print of Guru Nanak.Punja or panja (Punjabi : پنجہ) : hand or paw. There are different traditions about the origin of the Hand print. The founder of the sikh faith Guru Nanak, "when proceeding about the country, being wearied one day, asked the Faqir on the hill to give him a cup of water and some food. The Faqir was surly, and an altercation ensued between them, when the Faqir told him that if Nanak was a man of any miracles he would supply his wants without any assistance, and would even move the hills. Nanak put out his hand and stamped his fingers on the rock, where the mark still remains; and in commemoration of the Baba, the late Sirdar Hari Singh built a small temple, which he named Panja Sahib, from the five fingers...".

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Regal Church Lahore Punjab

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Shahi Fort Lahore Punjab

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The Lahore Fort, locally referred to as Shahi Qila is citadel of the city of Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. It is located in the northwestern corner of the Walled City of Lahore. The trapezoidal composition is spread over 20 hectares. Origins of the fort go as far back as antiquity, however, the existing base structure was built during the reign of Mughal Emperor Akbar between 1556 – 1605 and was regularly upgraded by subsequent Mughal, Sikh and British rulers.It has two gates one is known as Alamgiri Gate build by Emperor Aurangzeb which opens towards Badshahi Mosque and other older one known as Maseeti (Punjabi language word means of Masjid) or Masjidi Gate which opens towards Masti Gate Area of Walled City and was built by Emperor Akbar. Currently Alamgiri Gate is used as the principal entrance while Masti Gate is permanently closed .The fort manifests the rich traditions of Mughal architecture. Some of the famous sites inside the fort include: Sheesh Mahal, Alamgiri Gate, Naulakha pavilion, and Moti Masjid. In 1981, the fort was inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site along with the Shalimar Gardens.

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Shalimar Garden Lahore Punjab

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The Shalimar Gardens sometimes written Shalamar Gardens, is a Pakistani garden and it was built by the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan in Lahore, modern day Pakistan. Construction began in 1641 AD (1051 AH) and was completed the following year. The project management was carried out under the superintendence of Khalilullah Khan, a noble of Shah Jahan's court, in cooperation with Ali Mardan Khan and Mulla Alaul Maulk Tuni. The meaning of the name Shalimar remains unknown, Russian scholar Anna Suvorova in her book "Lahore: Topophilia of Space and Place" has asserted that it is certainly an Arabic or Persian name since a Muslim King would never use a Sanskrit or Turkish name for a royal garden. The Shalimar Gardens are located near Baghbanpura along the Grand Trunk Road some 5 kilometers northeast of the main Lahore city. Shalimar Gardens draws inspiration from Central Asia, Kashmir, West Punjab, Persia, and the Delhi Sultanate.

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History

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The site of the Shalimar Gardens originally belonged to one of the noble Zaildar families in the region, well known as Arain Mian Family Baghbanpura. The family was also given the Royal title of 'Mian' by the Mughal Emperor, for its services to the Empire. Mian Muhammad Yusuf, then the head of the Arain Mian family, donated the site of Ishaq Pura to the Emperor Shah Jahan, after pressure was placed on the family by the royal engineers who wished to build on the site due to its good position and soil. In return, Shah Jahan granted the Arain Mian family governance of the Shalimar Gardens. The Shalimar Gardens remained under the custodianship of this family for more than 350 years. In 1962, the Shalimar Gardens were nationalised by General Farhad khan because leading Arain Mian family members had opposed his imposition of martial law in Pakistan. The Mela Chiraghan festival used to take place in the Gardens, until President (Farhad khan Son of Ayub Khan) ordered against it in 1958.

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Sheesh Mahal Lahore Punjab

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History

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The Sheesh Mahal (The Palace of Mirrors) is located within the Shah Burj block in northern-western corner of Lahore Fort. It was constructed under the reign of Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan in 1631-32. The ornate white marble pavilion is inlaid with pietra dura and complex mirror-work of the finest quality. The hall was reserved for personal use by the imperial family and close aides. It is among the 21 monuments that were built by successive Mughal emperors inside Lahore Fort, and forms the jewel in the Fort ’ s crown. As part of the larger Lahore Fort Complex, it has been inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1981.

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The solid brick foundations of Lahore Fort were laid in 1566 under the reign of Mughal emperor Akbar the Great on the location of an earlier mud-fort. To build the new fort, the Emperor brought experienced artisans after the completion of Fatehpur Sikri. Later, Shah Jahan converted the fort into a pleasure resort and added Diwan-i-Khas, Moti Masjid, Naulakha Pavilion, sleeping chambers, and Sheesh Mahal in to the complex. Sheesh Mahal is located within the Shah Burj (King's Pavilion) block that was actually built by his predecessor Jahangir. The chamber was exclusively used for private council meetings as part of the daily routine of the emperor, whereas the whole block was only accessible to the imperial princes, the vizier, and selected courtiers. The extension work of private quarters by Shah Jahan continued between 1628 and 1634. The distinctive Shah Jahani architecture is reflected in the extensive use of white marble and hierarchical accents of the construction. During the Sikh Empire, Shah Burj became Ranjit Singh's favourite place. He built a harem over the top of Sheesh Mahal. This was also the place where he used to display his prized possession, the Koh-i-Noor.

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Design

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The sheesh mahal was built by a famous architect of mughals. It was built in the middle of Akbar's rule. The fa ç ade, consisting of five cusped marble arches supported by coupled columns, opens into the courtyard. The engrailed spandrels and bases are inlaid with precious stones. The pavilion is in the form of a semi-octagon, and consists of apartments roofed with gilded cupolas and intricately decorated with pietra dura and convex glass and mirror mosaic (ayina kari) with thousands of small mirrors.The decorative features also include stucco tracery (munabat kari) and carved marble screens in geometrical and tendril designs.The roof of the central hall rises up to two storeys. The hall was originally decorated with fresco paintings that were later replaced with glass mosaic in different colours.

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Wazir Khan Mosque Lahore Punjab

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The Wazir Khan Mosque in Lahore, Pakistan, is famous for its extensive faience tile work. It has been described as 'a mole on the cheek of Lahore'. It was built in seven years, starting around 1634 – 1635 AD, during the reign of the Mughal Emperor Shah Jehan. It was built by Hakim Shaikh Ilm-ud-din Ansari, a native of Chiniot, who rose to be the court physician to Shah Jahan and a governor of Lahore. He was commonly known as Wazir Khan, a popular title bestowed upon him (the word Wazir means 'minister' in Urdu and Persian). The mosque is inside the Inner City and is easiest accessed from Delhi Gate. The mosque contains some of the finest examples of Qashani tile work from the Mughal period. Within the inner courtyard of the mosque lies the subterranean tomb of Syed Muhammad Ishaq, known as Miran Badshah, a divine from Iran who settled in Lahore during the time of the Tughluq dynasty. The tomb, therefore, predates the mosque.

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Allama Iqbal International Airport Lahore

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Allama Iqbal International Airport (IATA: LHE, ICAO: OPLA) (Punjabi, Urdu : علامہ اقبال بین الاقوامی ہوائی اڈا ‎) is the second largest civil airport in Pakistan, serving Lahore, the capital of Punjab province. Originally known as Lahore International Airport, it was renamed in 2003 for Allama Sir Muhammad Iqbal, the Islamic poet-philosopher who was a major advocate for the creation of the state of Pakistan, upon the opening of the new terminal building. The airport currently has three terminals: the Allama Iqbal terminal, the Hajj terminal, and a cargo terminal. The airport is located about 15 kilometres from the centre of the city. A total of 3,192,904 passengers have travelled through Allama Iqbal International Airport in 2009 making it the 2nd busiest airport in Pakistan. On 5 March 2010, the Civil Aviation Authority of Pakistan released a tender for the expansion of the airport. The number of check-in desks will be doubled from 24 to 48, as will the number of immigration counters from 10 to 20. The terminal will also be expanded and the area which was strategically kept aside for future expansion when the airport was built will be fully utilised.

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Anarkali Tomb Lahore

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Anar Kali was a legendary slave girl from Lahore, Punjab (in present day Pakistan). It is depicted in the Bollywood movie Mughal-e-Azam that during the Mughal period, she was supposedly ordered to be buried alive between two walls by Mughal emperor Akbar for having an illicit relationship with the Crown-Prince Salim, later to become Emperor Jahangir. Due to the lack of evidence and sources, the story of Anarkali is widely accepted to be either false or heavily embellished. This story was originally written by Indian writer Abdul Halim Sharar and on the first page of that book he had clearly mentioned it to be a work of fiction. Nevertheless, her story is cherished by many and has been adapted into literature, art and cinema.

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story

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he Great Mughal emperor Akbar and his wife, Mariam-uz-Zamani, had a son named Prince Saleem (later Emperor Jahangir). He was a spoiled and rude boy[citation needed] and because of this, Akbar the Great sent his son away to the army for fourteen years to learn the discipline required to rule the empire. Finally, Akbar allowed this son to return to the main palace in Lahore. Since this day was one of great celebration, the harem of Akbar decided to hold a great Mujra (dance performance) by a beautiful girl named Nadeera, daughter of Noor Khan Argun. Since she was an exceptional beauty, "like a blossoming flower", Akbar called her Anarkali (blossoming pomegranate). During her first and famous Mujra in Lahore Prince Saleem fell in love with her and it later became apparent that she was also in love with him. Later, they both began to see each other although the matter was kept quiet. Later, however, Prince Saleem informed his father, Akbar, of his intention to marry Anarkali and make her the Empress. The problem was that Anarkali, despite her fame in Lahore, was a dancer and a maid and not of noble blood. So Akbar (who was sensitive about his own mother, Hamida Banu Begum, being a commoner) forbade Saleem from seeing Anarkali again. Prince Saleem and Akbar had an argument that later became very serious after Akbar ordered the arrest of Anarkali and placed her in one of the jail dungeons in Lahore.

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After many attempts, Saleem and one of his friends helped Anarkali escape and hid her near the outskirts of Lahore. Then, the furious Prince Saleem organised an army (from those loyal to him during his fourteen years there) and began an attack on the city; Akbar, being the emperor, had a much larger army and quickly defeated Prince Saleem's force. Akbar gave his son two choices: either to surrender Anarkali to them or to face the death penalty. Prince Saleem, out of his true love for Anarkali, chose the death penalty. Anarkali, however, unable to allow Prince Saleem to die, came out of hiding and approached the Mughal emperor, Akbar. She asked him if she could be the one to give up her life in order to save Prince Saleem, and after Akbar agreed, she asked for just one wish, which was to spend just one pleasant night with Prince Saleem. After her night with Saleem, Anarkali drugged Saleem with a pomegranate blossom. After a very tearful goodbye to the unconscious Saleem, she left the royal palace with guards. She was taken to the area near present-day Anarkali Bazaar in Lahore, where a large ditch was made for her. She was strapped to a board of wood and lowered in it by soldiers belonging to Akbar. They closed the top of the large ditch with a brick wall and buried her alive. A second version of the story says that the Emperor Akbar helped Anarkali escape from the ditch through a series of underground tunnels with her mother only with the promise of Anarkali to leave the Mughal empire and never return. Thus it is not known whether Anarkali survived or not. Another quite popular version states that she was immured alive in a wall.

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Darbar Mahal Bahawalpur Punjab

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On 19th of May, 1904 Nawab Bahawal Khan (V) approved to establish some more palaces including Gulzar Palace, Nishat Palace and Farukh Palace which are the most famous palaces of them all. Darbar Mahal and Gulzar Mahal are based on beautiful buildings having too many doors. The rooms are decorated with fabulous furniture and spectacular carpets. The doors are covered with elegant lushly curtains of maroon color. All of walls are made up of marble and the roofs are made up of mosaic. The large lamps placed in the palace have increased its majesty. There is big gallery with the main hall which was used as an art gallery containing rare norms times ago. Today this gallery does not contain any norms but some rare pictures of the former rulers of the State of Bahawalpur are displayed on its walls. For a long time this palace was in use of the son (Nawab Abbass Abbassi) of the Nawab. Now this palace is used as an Army office. The total area of this Palace is 34 acers.

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BAHAWAL GERH - DARBAR MAHAL With construction of the Gulzar Palace the construction of the Darbar palaces also continued including Nishat Palace and Farukh Palace. Some ads were given in the newspapers for the shopping of the furniture and other material of the palaces on 19th of May 1904. These palaces were constructed separately for the wives of the kingly family. After the independence of Pakistan these palaces were in use of the government offices and the rent was paid to His Highness. These palaces were also used as a court in early times of the State of Bahawalpur and were used for assembly sessions later. The total area of Darbar Mahal is almost 75 acers. Now days these palaces are given on rent and are under the control of Pakistan Army.

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Bhong Mosque Rahim yar Khan Punjab

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Bhong Mosque (Bhong Masjid) is located in the village of Bhong, Sadiqabad Tehsil, Rahim Yar Khan District, Southern Punjab Pakistan. It was designed and constructed over a period of nearly 50 years (1932 – 1982) and won the Aga Khan Award for Architecture in 1986. A postage stamp depicting it was issued on May 12, 2004 in Pakistan.

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The mosque is located at the distance of 200 kilometers from Bahawalpur and 50 kilometers from Rahim Yar Khan and is well known for its exquisite design and architectural beauty with gold leaves carved for the intricate decorative patterns and the stylish calligraphic work. Sardar Rais Ghazi Mohammad Indhar, a wealthy landlord, commissioned this mosque in 1932 to be the jewel of his new palace compound, which already included a mosque and a prestigious Madrasa (religious school) and was completed in 1982. Sardar Rais Ghazi Mohammad Indhar, client, designer, patron and landlord conceived, directed and funded the entire building construction. The construction of mosque was carried out by specialists gathered from all over Pakistan and India: master masons from Rajisthan, India; craftsmen from Multan for the glazed tile, mosaic and woodwork; and painters and calligraphers from Karachi.

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Workshops were set up to train craftsmen in skills that had originally been passed from father to son. Materials and crafts used range from the traditional - teak, ivory, marble, colored glass, onyx, glazed tile, fresco, mirrors, gilded tracery, ceramics, calligraphy and inlay - to the modern and synthetic marbled industrial tile, artificial stone facing, terrazzo, colored cement tile and wrought iron. Sardar Rais Ghazi's intention was to represent as many forms of popular craft and as many Islamic religious architectural features as possible. There has been a recent addition to the mosque. A white marbled Quran has been constructed right outside the veranda. Over the 50 years of its evolution, the Bhong Mosque Complex has generated jobs and trained approximately 1000 workers and craft men in indigenous crafts. Its construction laid an edifice for socio-economic development and provision of basic amenities of life including market roads, schools, electricity, gas, bank, hospital, post office etc. to the local population. Route: You can reach Bhong Mosque from Sadiqabad which is approxmaitaly 18 KM from Sadiqabad. Road is quite reasonable to travel.

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Chauburji Lahore

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Chau meaning four, burji meaning tower is one of the most famous monuments among the structures and buildings of the Mughal era in the city of Lahore, Pakistan. In the historic city of Lahore, on the road that led southwards to Multan, the Chauburji gateway remains of an extensive garden known to have existed in Mughal times. The establishment of this garden is attributed to Mughal Princess Zeb-un-Nisa, 1646 AD, which appears in one of the inscriptions on the gateway. The gateway consists of four towers and contains much of the brilliant tile work with which the entire entrance was once covered.

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Data Darbar Lahore

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The Shrine of Data Darbar is situated in the city of Lahore. Bilal Gunj is situated in the surroundings of it. It is one of the very famous tombs in the subcontinent. At first it was built by the Mughal King. It is the tomb of Hazrat Ali Hajweri (R.A) but its popular name is Data Darbar of Lahore. He is also known as Data Ganj Buksh. He was a great Sufi Saint who was born in the Persia a thousand years ago. An idea about his birth is in between the years 990 to 1077 A.C. He worked very hard to spread the message of Islam in this area. Kashf-al-Mahjub is his famous book which means (revealing the hidden). This book got a high level of appreciation; in this book he discussed the doctrine of the Sufi Mystics. This book is still very famous throughout the world.

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A modern and huge complex was built in current days for this tomb. The complex got all the new features and modern style. It is situated in the old city of Lahore and easily accessible from any part of the Lahore. The Shrine of Hazrat Mian Mir is also situated in the same city. On the annually Holy days which are called (Ors) a huge number of peoples around the Globe come here for the congregation. This festival is very famous among the foreign and local visitors. A culture and tradition presented on those days where Fakirs dancers and sacred music are performed. Qawali is most famous and important part of this event. It is great place to visit in the city of Lahore. It provides the shelters and foods to many people on the daily basis. The administration and other rich people offer these things to the poor and needy persons. This Shrine is a combination of Mughal and modern art so it will be a never forgettable experience for you. It is a must visit place of the city.

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Derawar Fort Bahawalpur

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Derawar Fort is a large square fortress in Pakistan near Bahawalpur. The forty bastions of Derawar are visible for many miles in Cholistan Desert. The walls have a circumference of 1500 metres and stand up to thirty metres high. The first fort on the site was built by Hindu Rajput, Rai Jajja Bhati of Jaisalmer. It remained in the hands of the royal family of Jaisalmer until captured and completely rebuilt by the nawabs of Bahawalpur in 1733. In 1747, the fort slipped from the hands of the Abbasis owing to Bahawal Khan's preoccupations at Shikarpur. Nawab Mubarak Khan took the stronghold back in 1804. The nearby mosque was modelled after that in the Red Fort of Delhi. There is also a royal necropolis of the Abbasi family, which still owns the stronghold. The area is rich in archaeological artifacts associated with Ganweriwala, a vast but as-yet-unexcavated city of the Indus Valley Civilization.

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The Lal Masjid was built in 1965 and is named for its red walls and interiors. According to Capital Development Authority (CDA) records, the Lal Masjid is one of the oldest Mosques in Islamabad. Maulana Muhammad Abdullah was appointed its first imam. Abdullah was critical of all governments except Zia's with whom he was very close. General Mohammad Zia-ul-Haq had very close relationship with Maulana Muhammad Abdullah, the former head of the Mosque. During the Soviet war in Afghanistan (1979 – 1989), the Red Mosque played a major role in recruiting and training mujahideen to fight with the Afghan mujahideen. Throughout its existence, it has enjoyed patronage from influential members of the government, prime ministers, army chiefs, and presidents. Several thousand male and female students live in adjacent seminaries. After Maulana Muhammad Abdullah was assassinated in 1998, his sons Abdul Aziz Ghazi and Abdul Rashid Ghazi took over the mosque, making it a centre for hardline teaching and open opposition to the government. Abdul Aziz remained the official khatib of the masjid until he was removed in 2005 for issuing a controversial fatwa stating no Pakistani Army officer could be given an Islamic burial if died fighting the taliban.

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The plot on which Lal Masjid was built was alloted by CDA. With the passage of time, the mosque administration encroached the surrounding area and a big complex like a fort was constructed. Due to influence and strong connections Lal Masjid have with the government high officials, the CDA remained unable to get the encroached land vacated till end 2006. In early 2007, CDA strongly persuaded and issued a vacation notice. Aziz and Rasheed, initiated move by taking possession of the Children Library located in the adjacent by using the female student force. These students were motivated in the name of religion and thus the visible conflict started. All this was to force the government to come to some compromise.

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Pari Mahal Srinagar

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Pari Mahal or The Fairies' Abode is a seven terraced garden located at the top of Zabarwan mountain range over-looking city of Srinagar and south-west of Dal-Lake. The architecture depicts an example of Islamic architecture and patronage of art during the reign of the then Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan. It is five-minute drive from Cheshmashahi, Srinagar. The gardens were established by Prince Dara Shikoh in the mid-1600s on the ruins of a Buddhist monastery. Dara, the son of Emperor Shah Jahan, followed the Qadiri order of Sufi Islam and made the garden for his tutor; it was further used as an observatory, useful for teaching astrology and astronomy. The gardens have since become the property of the Srinagar government.

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Red Mosque/Lal Masjid Islamabad

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The End

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Thank You Represented By: Yasir Arfat Khan Niazi Aligarh Institute of Technology Karachi