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Ruidoso, NM January 24, 2006 Mike Stewart Potash & Phosphate Institute www.ppi-ppic.org All cattle for New Mexico and Texas, 1995-2005: All cattle for New Mexico and Texas, 1995-2005Cattle on feed for New Mexico and Texas, 1995-2005: Cattle on feed for New Mexico and Texas, 1995-2005Milk cow numbers for New Mexico and Texas, 1995-2004: Milk cow numbers for New Mexico and Texas, 1995-2004 NM is the fastest growing milk production state in the U.S.Benefits of forage fertilization: Benefits of forage fertilization Greater water use efficiency More resistance to disease and insects Improved winterhardiness and drought tolerance Greater efficiency of other inputs Increased yield Improved quality Higher profit potential Animal production…a function of forage quantity and quality: Animal production… a function of forage quantity and quality Therefore Animal/A x product/animal= product/A Forage yield (quantity) expressed in animals/A Forage quality expressed in product/animal Product= beef, milk, wool, etc. Source: Sollenberger and Cherney. Forages Volume II. p. 98“Forage quality is the extent to which a forage, whether pasture, hay or silage, has the ability to produce the desired animal response.” Garry Lacefield, U. of Kentucky Progressive Farmer, March 1999: “Forage quality is the extent to which a forage, whether pasture, hay or silage, has the ability to produce the desired animal response.” Garry Lacefield, U. of Kentucky Progressive Farmer, March 1999 Forage quality… best defined in terms of animal performanceSeveral factors affect forage quality: Several factors affect forage quality Plant species Stage of maturity Fertility Climate Forage species affects quality: Forage species affects quality PrattLaw of the minimum (1862) Justus von LeibingCrop yield will be determined by the most limiting nutrient in a system. Or, in other words, an excess of one nutrient cannot overcome the deficiency of another.: Law of the minimum (1862) Justus von Leibing Crop yield will be determined by the most limiting nutrient in a system. Or, in other words, an excess of one nutrient cannot overcome the deficiency of another.Some cool season forage crop examples: Some cool season forage crop examples Balanced fertility…. nutrient interactions affect forage productivityWheat forage yield response to N and P fertilization: Wheat forage yield response to N and P fertilization lb P2O5/A Sanders et al. 1991. Better Crops Magazine. Vol 75. No 3. irrigated wheat Texas PanhandleWheat forage and N fertilization…forage to beef conversion: Wheat forage and N fertilization… forage to beef conversion Each ton of wheat forage requires about 60 lb total N Therefore, 30 lb of N will produce about 1000 lb forage Assuming a general conversion of 10 lb forage to produce 1 lb beef, wheat pasture requires about 30 lb N/A for each 100 lb beef produced From personal communication, E. Funderburg The Noble FoundationSulfur fertilizer affects cool season forage S content: Sulfur fertilizer affects cool season forage S content lb S/ANitrogen and S fertilizer affect cool season forage protein: Nitrogen and S fertilizer affect cool season forage protein lb S/AValue of protein increase in forage due to S fertilizer(based on cotton seed meal): Value of protein increase in forage due to S fertilizer (based on cotton seed meal) A nutrient input can have value far beyond what we might at first expectAlfalfa: AlfalfaSlide18: Follet and Wilkinson, 1995Alfalfa Nutrient Uptake and Removal: Alfalfa Nutrient Uptake and Removal Alfalfa has higher demand for nutrients than most crops Nutrient Amount removed, lb/ton P2O5 15 K2O 60 Ca 30 Mg 6 S 6 N (through fixation) 60Slide20: Alfalfa Root Development Most lateral roots are near the soil surface for the first year, but more deep lateral roots develop as the plant ages. Alfalfa has lower root density than many grasses and a deeper rooting zone. P and K application increase root growth, enabling roots to obtain moisture and nutrients from greater volume of soil. Slide21: P Fertilization Increases Nodulation Azcon et al., 1988 Soil P, ppmP Response: Timing & Application Study: P Response: Timing & Application Study Mullen et al., 2000; OK Six-year study initiated to evaluate effect of P timing and application method Broadcast or banded P fertilizer Frequency: 100 lb P2O5/A every year 200 lb P2O5/A every 2 years 600 lb P2O5/A in a one-time preplant application Total 6-year P rate was the same for all treatments: variables were timing and placement Yield Response to P in Years One and Six: Yield Response to P in Years One and Six P application, lb P2O5/A and frequency Mullen et al., 2000; OKYield Response: Method and Timing: Yield Response: Method and Timing P Application, lb P2O5/A and frequency Cumulative Yield Response Mullen et al., 2000; OKK fertility is important in alfalfa production: K fertility is important in alfalfa production Adequate K improves: Plant persistence Number of shoots per plant Shoot yield Deficient K reduces root starch storage Reduces protein concentration in root Results in poor survival and slow shoot growthIn K-deficient alfalfa, small white or yellowish spots first appear around the outer edgesof older leaves: In K-deficient alfalfa, small white or yellowish spots first appear around the outer edges of older leaves Diagnosis of Nutrient Deficiencies: Diagnosis of Nutrient Deficiencies Visual Observation Soil Testing Tissue AnalysisSilage: SilageSilage: Advantages and Disadvantages: Silage: Advantages and Disadvantages Advantages Reduced field and harvest losses compared with hay Many crops can be used Less chance of weather damage during harvest Long-term storage Flexibility in feeding programs Mechanization of storage, harvesting, and feeding Disadvantages Bulky to handle and store Equipment and storage structure needs Losses if not stored properly Not readily marketable off-farm Must be fed soon after removal from silo to avoid spoilageHarvest and storage losses with legume-grass forages: Harvest and storage losses with legume-grass foragesN fertilization considerations: N fertilization considerations With some crops high levels N fertilizer can decrease the water soluble carbohydrate level Carbohydrates are required to make good quality silage Therefore, high levels of N fertilization can affect fermentation and silage quality, Especially true in cool season grasses since they are already low in carbohydrates Corn silage is not affected as much since corn is already high in available carbohydrates. Consider nutrient removal in silage fertilization: Consider nutrient removal in silage fertilizationSummary: Summary Balanced and appropriate fertilization of hay, silage, and pasture increases forage yield, quality, and profit potential Inputs such as water, nutrients, and other factors are used more efficiently with adequate and balanced fertility Fertilize and utilize…if additional forage isn’t utilized, increased profit won’t be realized You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.