Scaling up integrated shrimp-mangrove aquaculture

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Presented by Dr Simon Bush, Wageningen University, at WorldFish HQ, Penang on 11 November 2014. Mangrove-integrated farming has been promoted in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam as a means of ensuring both livelihood and conservation goals are achieved. The Vietnamese government has sought to expand the scale of Naturland certified organic production in integrated shrimp-mangrove farming systems across the coast of Ca Mau province. But in doing so a series of challenges have been faced – some of which indicate clear limits to conserving landscapes by limiting regulation to the farm level. Building on earlier research, I revisit the government’s goal by examining the regulatory challenges of using organic certification as a means of linking farm-level management to the sustainability of coastal (mangrove) landscapes. The results show the importance of farmer perceptions of sustainable farm and landscape management, fair benefit sharing mechanisms in the certified value chain, and legitimate private sector-led auditing. The conclusions point to a new way of thinking about how to meet both livelihood and conservation goals, through greater recognition of the positive role provincial and local level government can play. They also show that while certification is one tool for promoting integrated farming, new models of area-based management need to be developed deliver outcomes that reach beyond the scale of the farm.

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Scaling up integrated shrimp-mangrove aquaculture: a call for area-based management and certification:

Scaling up integrated shrimp-mangrove aquaculture: a call for area-based management and certification Simon R. Bush Environmental Policy Group RESCOPAR PROGRAMME Wageningen University

Risky business:

Risky business Shrimp ‘boom’ ... and bust = disease-mangrove-pond productivity Mangrove areas reduced 20 % in Vietnam 70% in Indonesia Economic/policy instability Anti-dumping cases Species shifts Untenable aspirations

Aquacultural resilience :

Aquacultural resilience Social-ecological systems C apacity to manage risk and cope with adversity Internal vs. external drivers of change Bush et al 2010, Ecology and Society CLOSED SYSTEM LANDSCAPE INTEGRATED SPECTRUM OF SYSTEMS, DIFFERENT LEVELS OF RISK WHAT DRIVES PRODUCERS FROM ONE SYSTEM TO ANOTHER? Vulnerability low System resilience low Social resilience high Vulnerability high System r esilience high Social resilience low

Questions:

Questions Under what conditions do farmers maintain or move towards investing in mangrove-shrimp integrated aquaculture systems? Is there a mismatch between scale of risk and benefits? What social and policy influences over farm-level decision making? Impact and coordination of public and private regulation? RESCOPAR PROGRAMME, Wageningen University

PowerPoint Presentation:

www.blueyou.ch Mekong Delta, Vietnam

Farms in landscapes:

Farms in landscapes Ha et al. 2012 Journal of Rural Studies Mangrove-shrimp integrated systems, Ca Mau, Vietnam Timber: US$596 ha/ yr ; vs. Shrimp US$ 1539 ha/year But ... Farmers see mangroves as income and disease (risk) reduction Government forest-pond ratios tiered by farm scale Naturland set ≥50%

Just as collective models are needed ... :

Just as collective models are needed ... Concentration and intensification of shrimp co-operatives in Ca Mau, Vietnam Ha et al 2012 Aquaculture Million VND # Cooperatives Intensification

Terms of incorporation in value chains:

Terms of incorporation in value chains Ha et al 2012 Aquaculture We need to understand the distribution of benefits Rent seeking middlemen vs. social welfare function Industrial (Capitalist) organisation Quasi-capitalist organisation Enables Shrimp-Mangrove integrated production Tends to support intensification

Farms in networks:

Farms in networks How are farms organised in Tarakan , Indonesia? Kusumawati et al. 2013, Soc. & Nat. Res. Patrons detrimental to traceability and BMPs But, patron-client relations already mitigate production risk ‘Technocratic blindness’ –risk ineffective interventions.

Scale of governance:

Overall focus on the farm level as a unit of regulation Scale of governance Certification is a risk-based approach, based on process-based audits and (general) adherence to state regulation Mix of farm level regulation (also risk based) and area-based management (e.g. forestry) but limited by hierarchical nature of jurisdictions

PowerPoint Presentation:

Joffre et al. In Prep MOVE FROM EXTENSIVE TO INTEGRATED MANGROVE SYSTEMS EXTERNAL DRIVERS CONTINUE INTEGRATED MANGROVE SYSTEMS DRIVER WEIGHT

PowerPoint Presentation:

Joffre et al. In Prep CONTINUE INTEGRATED MANGROVE SYSTEMS MOVE FROM EXTENSIVE TO INTEGRATED MANGROVE SYSTEMS INTERNAL DRIVERS DRIVER WEIGHT (100 total)

Regulatory fragmentation:

Regulatory fragmentation Producer decisions are both technical and social Existing cooperation and ownership need to be incorporated Landscape level coordination to enable farm level decisions

Conclusions:

Conclusions Need to move beyond technical interventions at farm scale level to govern wider social and ecological factors of risk : Alignment of standards and policy at landscape level – include provincial and district government Use of effective benefit sharing that reflects incentives for farmers to shift to integrated systems Established regulation beyond farm level production

Moving forward:

Moving forward Mangrove e cosystem services beneficial to aquaculture need to be recognised and incorporated into policy Market signals delivering incentives needed to drive decisions to integrated mangrove shrimp system Regulations undermining incentives to shift to integrated mangrove shrimp, identified and amended Align ecosystem services, trade and regulation so benefits of shrimp-mangrove systems transcend the farm-level, and enable landscape level impact Joffre et al. In Prep

Area based management:

Area based management A1 A2 Area-model Access, Risk, Impact, Compliance Value chain organisation C ontinuity, assurance, quality, communication Finance and risk transfer R isk exposure, profile, sharing agreement Certification Principles, standards, ICS

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