Sustainable Intensification in Aquatic Agricultural Systems

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Sustainable Intensification Presented by S.J. Attwood, D.J. Mills, S.E. Park at WorldFish HQ on 9 October 2014

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Does Sustainable Intensification offer a pathway to improved nutrition and wellbeing for aquatic agricultural system-dependent communities? S.J. Attwood, D.J. Mills, S.E. Park

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SI – “read all about it”

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SI in FAO “Sustainable Intensification of Crop Production” Strategic Objective A of FAO Strategic Framework 2010-2019

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SI in the CGIAR CGIAR homepage = 8090 articles!

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Loos et al. TREE Tilman et al. PNAS SI – research spike Tilman et al., 2011 “Attainment of high yields on existing croplands of under-yielding nations is of great importance if global crop demand is to be met with minimal environmental impacts .” Loos et al., 2014 “Without specific regard for equitable distribution and individual empowerment, agricultural intensification cannot legitimately claim to be “sustainable ” nor does agricultural intensification address issues of food security.”

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SLO1: Reduced rural poverty — “growth in agriculture”; “improved productivity” SLO2: Improved food security — “increase in global and regional supplies of key staples” SLO4: Sustainably managed natural resources — “provision of ecosystem services to the poor”. Source: CGIAR SRF (2011) SI in the CGIAR - SLOs

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CCAFS Increased adaptive capacity Policies - ag & NRM Carbon sequestration & GHG SI in the CGIAR - IDOs AAS 1. Income: Increased and more equitable income from agricultural and natural resource management and environmental services 4. Productivity: Improved productivity in aquatic agricultural systems (water and total factor productivity) 1. Improved land, water and energy productivity in rainfed and irrigated agro-ecosystem 2. Increased resilience of communities through enhanced ecosystem services in agricultural landscapes. WLE L&F 1. Increased livestock and fish productivity in small-scale production systems 5. Lower environment impacts

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SI in THE WorldFish Research Agenda “increasing productivity and reducing environmental impact of small- and medium-scale aquaculture”

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Definitions Sustainable Devt: “ Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs ”. WCED (1987) Agricultural intensification : “ Process whereby inputs of capital and/or labor are increased to raise the productivity or yield (output) of a fixed land area ”. Warf (2010) Sustainable Intensification : “ Yields are increased without adverse environmental impact and without the cultivation of more l and ”. Royal Society (2009)

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What is Sustainable Intensification? Oxymoron? Sustainable vs. Intensification Stephenleahy.net WWF Increased yields Source: FAOSTAT 2014 ‘yield gap’

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What is Sustainable Intensification? Oxymoron? Sustainable vs. Intensification Stephenleahy.net WWF Increased yields Source: FAOSTAT 2014 ‘distribution gap’, ‘decision making power gap’. Sensu Chappell 2014

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(Why) do we need SI? Projections of world population and consumption Planetary boundaries and resources exceeded (Rockstrom 2009; Global Footprint Network) “Humanity’s 21st century challenge is to ensure that every person has the resources they need to meet their human rights, while collectively we live within the ecological means of this one planet .”   kateraworth.com

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BAU agricultural intensification Increased yields (short-term) -ve Environmental impacts Decline in other ecosystem services (as provisioning ES increase) Declining yields (long-term) a) Business-as-usual intensification

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BAU agricultural intensification Increased yields (short-term) -ve Environmental impacts Decline in other ecosystem services (as provisioning ES increase) Declining yields (long-term) Sustainable Intensification Increased yields +ve Environmental impacts Maintenance or increase in other ecosystem services a) Business-as-usual intensification b) Sustainable I ntensification

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What are ecosystem services? “ The direct and indirect contributions of ecosystems to human wellbeing ” TEEB 2014 MEA 2005

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Aquatic agricultural systems — ES Provisioning—fish, other aquatic organisms Provisioning — water for irrigation, domestic, transport Regulating—filtration Supporting—nutrient cycling, primary production, soil formation Regulating— water quality, detoxification Regulating—pest control, pollination Cultural—sense of place, local agronomic and ecological knowledge Cultural – ecotourism Provisioning — crops, livestock, building materials Supporting — flood retention ©Eric Baran

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SI and recent controversy…. Focus on yield and environmental impact: SI = >yield + <env impacts!!! Yield may not be reason for food insecurity! Sustainability typically narrowly defined SI arguments rarely articulate: Rights Access Equity Distribution Nutrition Other drivers of food insecurity See Loos et al. 2014

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Governance/Policy context FOOD SECURITY Food Production Increase ecological function Environment: Water, Biodiversity, Soils Reduce/manage negative impacts Ecosystem Services: Supporting, Provisioning, Regulatory, Cultural Increase service flow

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Governance/Policy context FOOD SECURITY Food Production Environment: Water, Biodiversity, Soils Ecosystem Services: Supporting, Provisioning, Regulatory, Cultural Increase ecological function Reduce/manage negative impacts Increase service flow Quantity/yield Quality/Nutrition Rights Access Equity Distribution

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Governance/Policy context FOOD SECURITY Food Production Increase ecological function Other drivers of change: Climate disturbances Population growth Changing consumption Market changes Political stability Environment: Water, Biodiversity, Soils Reduce/manage negative impacts Ecosystem Services: Supporting, Provisioning, Regulatory, Cultural Increase service flow Quantity/yield Quality/Nutrition Rights Access Equity Distribution

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There are many points and interventions along a continuum of cropping and grazing intensification SI – other considerations… http://permaculturenews.org/2011/10/01/permaculture-successes-in-a-zimbabwean-community/ Agro-chemicals Mechanisation Specialisation Homogenisation Water use Market/Policy incentives Does intensification lead to land sparing? Yes, if locally applied technology-driven No, if market demand driven

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ES-based intensification – what might it look like? Rotational grazing Manure Perennial crops Permanent soil cover Cover crops Pollinator attractants Intermittent flooding Water harvesting Crop rotations Integrated pest management Native vegetation retention Minimum tillage/direct seeding Stubble retention Composting crop residues Native agro-forestry Crop diversification ©Eric Baran

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Moving Beyond Ideology to Close Yield Gaps and “Nature Gaps” in 21 st Century Agriculture: A Review of the Multi-Functionality of Five Systems of Agroecological Intensification Jeffrey C. Milder 1,2*† , Kelly Garbach 3* , Fabrice A.J. DeClerck 4* , Laura Driscoll 5 , Maywa Montenegro 5 , and Barbara Herren 6

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SI – research focused on terrestrial agriculture

Aquaculture and SI:

Aquaculture and SI Aquaculture and SI ….. advancing socio-economic development; providing safe, nutritious food; increasing the production of fish relative to the amount of land, water, feed, and energy used; and minimising water pollution, fish diseases, and escapes WRI/WorldFish 2014

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BAU Intensification Land Use Water Use Energy Fish-based food Pollution GHG

Aquaculture and SI:

Aquaculture and SI Low food-chain Spatial planning Remote sensing Modelling Tech innovation Incentives for Sustainability

SI and capture fisheries??:

SI and capture fisheries?? How can we intensify production in a system that is ‘internally driven’? – influence on yield, but less so for productivity ‘Intensification’ in the 80’s and 90’s involved ‘upscaling’ inshore fishers through subsidies – major failure ‘De-intensification’ would seem more relevant for capture fisheries in many instances - stock rebuilding etc…..

Intensification in Ghana’s sardinella fishery:

Intensification in Ghana’s sardinella fishery

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Sardinella catch by canoe fleet

At its best?:

At its best? “……optimizing equitable use of ecosystem services for nutrition security while preserving system function for future generations……. ”

Stock enhancement/Sea ranching as SI?:

Stock enhancement/Sea ranching as SI?

Fish aggregating devices as SI?:

Fish aggregating devices as SI? Significant efforts in Solomons and Timor Leste Provides access to pelagic (oceanic) fish to small boat owners Redistributive role Coupled with ‘de-intensification’ of reef fishing

Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries as SI:

Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries as SI https:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y1YE8DHZVUM

Food for thought…:

Food for thought… Started from a production perspective – our DNA is in human perspectives Concept is evolving to include the social and governance landscapes Where is SI useful in the production systems we engage with?

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