Timor Leste Aquaculture Development Endeavors: Where are we?

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Presented at WorldFish HQ, Penang, Malaysia, 23rd May 2014. This seminar is given in two parts; Dr Jharendu Pant will first be giving an overview of recent activities and future directions of aquaculture development and research in Timor-Leste, followed by Ms Shwu Jiao Teoh, who will be presenting the results of a recent project titled “Sustainable Aquaculture Development Planning Through GIS Modeling: An Experience From Timor-Leste”.

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Timor-Leste aquaculture development endeavors: where we are?:

Timor-Leste aquaculture development endeavors: where we are? Jharendu Pant 23 May 2014, Penang, Malaysia

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Outline: The Challenge: 1.1 Combating poverty and malnutrition 1.2 Potential role of aquaculture 2. Timor-Leste Aquaculture development strategy: 2.1 preparation process 2.2 key elements Implementation of the strategy: where we are? Conclusions

1. The Challenge: Combating poverty and malnutrition :

1. The Challenge: Combating poverty and malnutrition around half of the children in the Timor-Leste are deprived of diet with balanced nutrition malnutrition among children under 5 years estimated as: Underweight: 45% Stunted: 54% Wasting: 25% (WFP, 2010) 3

The challenge…:

The challenge… carbohydrate as major calories source (maize, rice, cassava, taro, yam, banana…) animal source food eaten only occasionally: Beef and pork – very expensive; only for special occasions Chicken – also an expensive item Fish – relatively expensive but limited availability in the uplands 4

The challenge…:

The challenge… 5 per capita annual fish consumption: Timor-Leste: 6.1 kg (RFLP/FAO 2011) Global average: 17.8 kg (FAO, 2012) [Timor-Leste Strategic Development Plan (2011-2030) aims at achieving the goal of ‘ FOOD SECURITY BY 2020’]

The challenge…:

The challenge… 6 Per capita fish consumption target? To reach closer to Global average, TL needs a fish supply of: 30,000 t by 2030 Current fish annual supply: capture fisheries: 3,200 t (FAO, 2007) aquaculture: 46t (NDFA, 2010)

The challenge…:

Challenge: bridging future fish demand-supply gap a coordinated approach vital to realizing the goal of achieving food and nutrition security (Comoro Declaration, 2010) 7 The challenge…

2. National aquaculture strategy (2012 -2030): Where we are? :

2. National aquaculture strategy (2012 -2030): Where we are? 2.1 Preparation process: NDFA – WorldFish meeting in November 2010 emphasized the need for a National Aquaculture Development Strategy a Framework for the strategy development prepared process supported by WorldFish, RFLP/FAO and CTSP 8

preparation process… :

preparation process… analyses of current situation of aquaculture in Timor-Leste review of secondary data/information (review of key policy/strategy documents) field visits and consultations with local stakeholders: East: Manatuto , Baucau , Viqueque , South: Aileu and Manufahi West: Liquica , Ermera , Bobonaro 9

preparation process… :

preparation process… stakeholders‘ Consultations in Dili (for drafting of strategy) DFOs, farmers and Farmers’ groups, Hatchery officers Line Government Ministries/ Departments; I/NGOs; Development Partners The strategy: presented to the stakeholders in Dili (February 2012) endorsed by the Government on the 7 th March 2013 launched on September 23, 2013 10

2.2 Timor-Leste aquaculture development strategy: Key elements :

2.2 Timor-Leste aquaculture development strategy: Key elements

Key elements..:

Key elements.. Goal: contribute to food and income through expansion and intensification of aquaculture Guiding principles: Aquaculture development in Timor-Leste is centered on the country’s goal of addressing the problem of chronic food insecurity and malnutrition ; The National Aquaculture Development Strategy is in harmony with the Timor-Leste Strategic Development Plan (2011-2030 ), and will be implemented in three phases: short (2012-2015); medium (2016 – 2020) and long term (2021 -2030) Development of sustainable aquaculture will be through an ecosystem approach, taking account technical, social, economic and environmental aspects The strategy envisions a coordinated approach with joint ventures between the government, local communities, International/National Non-governmental Organizations (I/NGOs), the private sector, and development partners being critical components to realize success.   12

impact area and indicators:

impact area and indicators Impact area Indicators (by 2030) Food 12,000 t from aquaculture Consumption 15 kg/capita/year Households 40,000 Nutrition fish in diets Governance institutional capacity for management and development

major outcome areas:

major outcome areas identification of suitable agro-ecological zones for aquaculture development aquaculture yields improved in existing and new ponds NDFA institutional capacity sustainable supply of inputs (seed, feed) aquaculture product markets functioning

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Major outcome areas contd … aquaculture contributes to improving food and nutrition security functioning partnerships between GOs/NGOs, communities, the private sector and donors aquaculture farmers’ groups and cooperatives policy environment suited to aquaculture

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3. Implementation of the strategy: where we are? 3.1 the Strategy widely publicized upon its launching: WorldFish communication products: one press release, one news story and one feature story through WorldFish and FAO/RDFLP websites wider coverage from national (TV, radio and newspapers) and international media houses (like SciDev ; Devex ; and The Fish Site ; New Agriculturist ) Over 47,000 people heard about TL AQ strategy (and/or related news) within the first two months of press release. Wider recognition of WordFish role in TL, Emphasis on need for investments in the aquaculture sector to address chronic food and nutrition insecurity

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3.2 Increased funding commitments/interest (GOs/NGOs/Development partners): NZAid (NZ$ 5 Millions) PHASE 1 (2013): Preparation of Timor-Leste Aquaculture Strategy Implementation Plan (2013) PHASE 2 (2014-2018): Supporting TL Government for strategy Implementation (2014- 2018) Key components: technology development & dissemination, capacity building (GOs/INGO/Private sectors), coordination. Partners: Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries , TL, WorldFish and NIWA ) 17

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NORAD: (USD 3.0 million): Small-scale aquaculture project – ‘Combating Poverty and malnutrition through aquaculture in TL’ 2014 – 2016 Planned to reach out to ~2000 farmers (in 3 years) Partners: Mercy Corps, Hivos , WorldFish, DoF ) 18

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19 TL Government: Significant increase in Government’s annual budget for aquaculture: 2013: USD 150 k 2014: USD 642 k Aquaculture identified as one of the potential enterprises for Sucu ida produto ida (one village one product program) program selected Program will focus on 9 Sucus of 3 high aquaculture potential districts ( Ermera , Baucau , Lautem )

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Other WorldFish projects in TL: ACIAR coastal Fisheries project - ongoing (Dave Mills) NORAD funding on costal fisheries livelihood (in pipeline – Dave Mills) Climate change effects on coastal livelihoods and coping strategies (recently completed - Sarah Park) 20

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3.3 Emerging opportunities: Catholic Relief Service (CRS) A small-scale aquaculture project in pipeline Expected to be funded by Japanese Government (through World Bank) WorldFish – likely to be one of the project partners Expected to commence from 2014 Seeds of Life – Phase III AusAid /ACIAR funded crop and legume seed focused program Plan to shift its focus from crop seed to more livelihoods diversification options (fish as one of the options) WorldFish – potential partner Increasing investment from private sectors: Commercial milk fish farm Seaweed culture 21

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4. Conclusions: Central role of WorldFish in assisting TL Government in the development & implementation of National Aquaculture Development strategy WorldFish increasingly becoming a partner of choice among GOs/INGO/ development partners: MoU between GoTL and WorldFish - to be signed soon LoA has already been signed with Mercy corps LoA with CRS – likely to take place during 2014-2015 Challenges ahead: high expectations from WorldFish (among all stakeholders) strong commitment crucial to help the country to translate targeted aquaculture development goals into reality & creating lasting impact on livelihoods 22

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23 Thank you

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24 Jharendu Pant WorldFish, Penang Malaysia j.pant@cgiar.org Julio da Cruz National Directorate of Fisheries and Aquaculture Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries Dili , Timor- Leste dacruz.julio@yahoo.com

Sustainable Aquaculture Development Planning Through GIS Modeling: An Experience From Timor-Leste:

Sustainable Aquaculture Development Planning Through GIS Modeling: An Experience From Timor-Leste Shwu Jiau Teoh 1 , Raimundo Mau 2 , Julio da Cruz 2 , Jharendu Pant 1 & Michael Phillips 1 1 WorldFish, Penang, Malaysia 2 National Directorate of Fisheries and Aquaculture (NDFA), Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries (MAF), Timor-Leste

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Background Timor-Leste (also know as East Timor) is a new country, achieved independence on 20 May 2002 Aquaculture has been identified by the Government of Timor-Leste as one of the options for livelihood diversification Widespread poverty and malnutrition : About 40% of the population living below US$0.55/day ; Malnutrition among children under 5 years estimated at: ■ Underweight: 45% ■ Stunted: 54% (WFP, 2010) Per capita annual fish consumption Current annual fish supply in Timor-Leste Timor-Leste: 6.1kg (RFLP/FAO, 2011) Global: 17.8kg (FAO, 2012) Capture fisheries: 3,200t (FAO, 2007) Aquaculture: 46t (NDFA, 2010)

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Background Government of Timor-Leste developed N ational A quaculture D evelopment S trategy (2012-2030) : Supported by WorldFish Funded by RFLP/FAO and CTSP The Strategy emphasizes the development of aquaculture in agro-ecological ‘niches’ area with favorable resource-base and social-economic contexts. Geographical Information Systems ( GIS ) integrates with Multi Criteria Evaluation ( MCE ) is a useful decision-making tool for analyzing and mapping aquaculture potential by integrating a set of biophysical and socio-economic factors Key targets of the Aquaculture S trategy: Annual fish supply: 30,000t by 2030 (12,000t to come from aquaculture) Average per capita fish consumption: 15kg/capita/year by 2020

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The Process The process involved aquaculture suitability mapping of area taking a set of biophysical and socio-economic factors into account A simplified GIS modeling using multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) was used for delineating recommendation domains for freshwater aquaculture across Timor-Leste

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The Process Identifying influencing factors (criteria) Weighing the factors Mapping indicators for factors Applying suitability rating to indicator maps Mapping the suitability sub-models (MCE) Mapping overall suitability model (MCE) 1 2 3 4 5 6 Consultation with stakeholders Facilitator, stakeholder & expert inputs GIS/Mapping tasks GIS technical expertise & software required

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Identifying influencing factors/criteria Consultation meeting with national experts organized: National Directorate of Fisheries and Aquaculture (NDFA) Department of Irrigations Department of Crops ALGIS The experts were asked to list down factors (major determinants) for freshwater aquaculture development 1 The discussions were guided by asking a few key questions: Which area(s) have high potential for aquaculture development in Timor-Leste? Why are these sites considered suitable?

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Weighing the factors (based on their relative importance) The determinants for freshwater aquaculture development are: biophysical & socio-economic All factors were grouped to construct sub-models Each factor was weighed based on its relative importance in every single sub-model Each sub-models was then weighed in another round to produce the overall model 2

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Mapping indicators for factors 3 Factor Group Indicators Data sources (suitability sub-model) (proxy function) Biophysical Biophysical Water (water supply for pond) Irrigated rice field (supplemental water supply from irrigation system) Natural lakes (natural conditions for aquaculture) Slope steepness (ease of pond construction) ALGIS ALGIS ALGIS CIAT-CSI SRTM v4.1 Socio-economic Inputs & Experiences Number of fish farmers (experiences with aquaculture) Access to hatcheries (access to seed) Access to different feeds (access to feed) NDFA,ALGIS NDFA,ALGIS ALGIS Market & Accessibility Population densities (local demand) Access to markets (market to sell fish) Proximity to road network (infrastructure) Coastal/Inland sucos (access to sea fish) ALGIS NDFA,ALGIS ALGIS ALGIS Required input data layers for creating the indicator maps acquired from various sources

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Mapping indicators for factors Indicator maps were generated from data layers collected 3 River Network DEM Create proximity cost distance surface to rivers / streams by take into consideration the slope Proximity to River & streams (in meter) Water supply Proximity to rivers & streams DEM Slope steepness (in percent) Terrain Slope steepness Near Far Gentle Far

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Applying Suitability Rating to Indicator Maps Each indicator map was standardized to a common measurement scale of suitability rating ranging from 0 to 255 (0 = not suitable for aquaculture; 255 highly suitable for aquaculture) Need expert knowledge for applying the suitability rating 4 Terrain Slope steepness Water supply Proximity to rivers & streams Apply suitability rating 0: Least 255: Most suitable

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Mapping the Suitability Sub-models (MCE) 5 15% Water supply Proximity to rivers and streams Supplemental water supply Location of rice field Natural lakes Location of lakes Terrain Slope steepness 45% 15% 25% = + + + Biophysical Sub-model Combined indicator maps using Weighted Linear Combination (WLC) Market & Accessibility Inputs & Experiences Biophysical Least Most suitable

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Mapping Overall Suitability Model (MCE ) 6 45% 35% 20% = + + Market & Accessibility Inputs & Experiences Biophysical Least suitable Most suitable Moderately suitable Suitable Overall Model Reclassify Sub-Models Least Most suitable

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Harnessing Freshwater Fish Production Potential 1 ha : 3 tons productions Focal districts: * Bobonaro * Ermera * Baucau Least suitable Most suitable Moderately suitable Suitable

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Knowing the limitations helps determine what interventions are needed Drilling Down to Identify Limitations Biophysical Inputs & Experiences Market & Accessibility Overall Suitability 1: Least suitable 4: Most suitable 2: Moderately suitable 3: Suitable Least Most suitable Sub-Models (fuzzy) Most limiting factors 0 -255 least-most suitable Most limiting factor 0 -255 least-most suitable fuzz_suitbiophy fuzz_suitbiophy

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Conclusions & Recommendations GIS useful decision support system (DSS ) tool : Comprehensive database/map layers generated showing spatial distribution of area potential for aquaculture development in Timor-Leste GOs/NGOs prioritizing aquaculture development interventions in high potential areas In Sucu ida , Produto ida (one village one product) program, the government is promoting aquaculture in nine sub-districts of 3 high aquaculture potential districts

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Conclusions & Recommendations Quality of suitability maps largely depends on the accuracy & quality of available data (spatial & temporal availability) Further refinement of the maps can be done using updated databases over time Weightage given to each of the factors depends on judicious decision made by local experts/stakeholder – hence, a thorough discussion on each of the factors is vital

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Acknowledgements

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