Unleashing the Potential of Development Actors to Achieve Scale

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Presented by Stuart Worsley, Head of Partnerships and Development for the Livestock & Fish CRP, International Livestock Research Institute, 2nd April 2014 at WorldFish HQ, Malaysia. Stuart gives an introduction into a strategy to build functional alliances that deliver development results from research, covering issues such as finding tipping points, building on the Ownership of value chain actors, adapting innovations for contextual fit and using this as a basis to build functional and strategic partnerships.

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Development Partnership Methods Stuart Worsley PPMC9, Penang, March 2014

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Building Partnership in Complex Value Chain Systems Recap on thinking We deal with multivariate dynamics where social, political, economic and physical facets interact in unpredictable ways. Pre-determinism is problematic. We need to find better ways to understand what is going on, for it is around issues that make sense that partnerships are to be formed Methods and approaches will examine ways and means of stimulating the right action by the right people in the right place at the right time

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The Essence of Relationship Relationships with other actors and value chain actors geared around probing and responding to system dynamics Probing is stimulates and is stimulated by discovery of new understanding that is accompanied by action to test such understanding A process of building consciousness and learning among system actors. “Given what we know are we still heading in the right direction” and “ if we are, is this still the best way to get there ?” The understanding that we, other development actors and value chain system actors have at any point is uncertain, and requires testing

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4 Levels of Uncertainty Risk We know the odds. We can talk authentically about risk when system behaviour is reasonably well known, and the chances of different outcomes can be defined and quantified. Uncertainty We don’t know the odds; When we know the important system parameters but not the probability distributions, we can talk in terms of uncertainties. There are sophisticated methods for estimating these and their effects on outcomes. These uncertainties are recognized, and explicitly included in analysis. Ignorance We don’t know what we don’t know. Ignorance increases with increased commitments based on given knowledge. By definition, ignorance escapes recognition. This is not so much a characteristic of knowledge itself, as of the linkages between knowledge and commitments based on it - in effect, bets on the completeness and validity of that knowledge. Indeterminacy Causal chains or open networks; Indeterminacy exists in the open-ended question of whether knowledge is adapted to fit the mismatched realities of application situations, or whether those (technical and social) situations are reshaped to ‘validate’ the knowledge.

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Two Stages of Methodology First stage methodologies stimulate cross value chain system learning and collaboration that prompts action, reflection and adjustment. Reveals contextually appropriate innovations that are owned, evoke enthusiastic action and lead to adoption. First alliances are formed between ourselves and development actors. Second stage methodologies build on a groundswell of contextually appropriate action and locally owned innovation to stimulate widespread practice change within value chain systems change system dynamics in ways that enable innovation and effect to spread.

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Scaling - the heart of Value Chain Transformation Effect versus intervention Roll out increases intervention but not necessarily effect Sustainable scale comes from processes that either change intervention practices to better exploit existing system dynamics, or change system dynamics in ways that enable innovations to spread and adapt

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First Stage Methodologies

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Mapping Value Chain System and Development Actors F ind out who is there and what they are doing; categorise according to impact on the value chain system . Categorisation of competency with respect to effective value chain system function .

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Inventory of Value Chain System & Development Actors Actors According to the Nature of their Activity in the Value Chain System Perceived high impact on the Value Chain system   High Power High Influence   Perceived Low impact on the Value Chain system   Low Power Low Influence Value generation (production, processing, trading etc.) Critical VC actors who add significant commodity value or volume in any locality Marginal VC actors who add modest commodity value or volume in any locality Business Development Service (BDS) providers Critical service providers to VC actors. High market volume and trust in many localities Marginal service providers to VC actors. Low market volume, restricted to locality. Policy and regulation Policy makers mandated to enforce anywhere in the value chain system Informal interest groups who articulate VC actor or segment agendas Investment Substantial investors in significant value chain system processes Small scale investors in local value chain operations Consumption Concentrated purchasers of significant volumes of value chain products and services Diffused purchasers of small to modest volumes of value chain products and services Markets and trade Institutions and traders that channel significant value chain products. Have substantial ability to affect prices and standards Small and often informal institutions and traders that enable or enact local transactions. Often linking in to centralized high volume markets and market players. Development actors Significant national and international development organisations recognized for their ability to substantially influence value chain system actor function. Funding is stable and may be large. By and large, known and trusted for their function by value chain actors Small and often local NGOs with variable quality services. These may have significant local influence, but not across the whole value chain system.

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Competency Assessment of Value Chain Actors   Good track record of response to resonant issues Supported and Trusted by Value Chain System Actors Level of understanding and knowledge of value chain system dynamics High Low Power High Key influential VC actors; Demonstrably engaged in multiple areas of the value chain system, and consistently active. Known and trusted for their roles throughout the VC system.       Influential actors who seem to operate within a limited agenda. Are often seen as partisan and capricious. Public trust is often an issue Low Citizens and small businesses in and around VC systems. Smart actions observed in and around discrete value chain segments. Locally respected, but functionally unknown beyond locality.     Weak and vulnerable VC actors. High rates of business failure, low value chain function. Often disillusioned and frustrated.  

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Convene value chain system and development actors into learning and action sets Grouping stimulated and framed around enthusiasm and interest strong enough to stimulate action . Overarching question designed to attract cross chain interest Presentation of science What of the analysis rings true What of the analysis does not ring true What is missing What do we need to know more about What assumptions and suppositions have been made

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A convergence on presented and introduced issues First cut selection of key value chain issues – where does interest lie? Mapping of issues actors relationships key data elements assumptions, Narratives Dominant, Alternative, Conflicted and Hidden

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Diseases are killing our pigs (especially ASF) ASF Cysticercosis Mange Pig Farmers And on farm workers Vet Officers Traders Researchers & training institutions Pharmaceutical Industry MAAIF Drug Dealers Feed Processors Abattoirs, slaughter areas, processors Consumers MAAIF and local government Policy Implementers (animal law enforcement) Lack of biosecurity measures practiced (sharing or boars, uncontrolled inter farm visits , open grazing, feeding swill Can be a source of infection and disease spread if they don’t observe bio security measures Limited services due to overwhelming numbers Sell off diseased pigs & products Visiting farm to farm Do no disseminate research results (if any) to other actors Substandard products Re-use packing materials (sacks) Transport and process diseased pigs due to limited inspection Increased price due to scarcity Poor biosafety measures in the home Contraction of meat borne diseases Poor policy implementation Movement regulation Corrupt Officials Policies are in place but there is weak enforcement and poor implementation strategy Political Actors: This also links with limited access by small holders to quality extension Farmers as players and policy implementation should connect to Group 2. Tick Resistance t o acaricides : allowing drugs into the hands of non-professionals leads to misuse Inbreeding over time can lead to increased disease susceptibility Group 1

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Important to Whom? Poor value chain system actors Value chain system actors at large Potential investors in the value chain system.

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What are you going to do? Participants identify key areas of action that they would want to do of their own accord, and the involvement they would like of others in this process Propose to meet again and review the findings of actions, and process these to generate new understanding and a new round of action.

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Successive Learning and Action Set Meetings V alue chain actors prepare a simple poster or narrative to describe What they did What happened What they are considering next Conduct a resonance testing exercise to explore where common themes are becoming apparent What events or elements occur several times in different narratives Are there new actions that can be crafted to address these Is there scope to converge some action sets to explore their agendas around resonant themes Ask participants to identify key areas of action that they would want to do of their own accord, and the involvement they would like of others in this process

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Conduct value chain system enquiry processes Convene a meeting of key site actors including those who were part of value chain learning and action group, and other site actors that they nominate or are able to engage With site actors, identify issues that are being worked on Conduct a field walk through elements of the value chain at the site that epitomize these issues Construct site based value chain system maps Identify areas where actions are beginning to show promise scientific support is required actors are converging around resonant issues

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With Development Actors, engage specific value chain actors to take successful innovations to scale within a site Collaborative Research and Development Agreements with Development Partners to test best-bet interventions around resonant themes, and adapt these DP assumes a leading role in facilitating ongoing action enquiry around best bet innovations DP aligns part of their organization’s work space to offer programmatic stability DP agrees to explore joint funding to try to take innovation to scale

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Second Stage Methodologies Building on a growing groundswell of contextually appropriate action and locally owned innovation to stimulate widespread practice change within value chain systems, or change system dynamics in ways that enable innovation and effect to spread

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Form Site and Country Tactical Partnerships for Collaborative Initiatives Seeking Shared Value: MoUs that offer Strategic alignment of substantial work Joint design of livestock value chain transformation initiatives Jointly seeking investment for value chain initiatives Facilitating value chain transformation in specified value chains Agreeing to commit to lines of value chain facilitation work for the duration of the MoU Agreeing to conduct adaptive research around technological, economic and social dimensions of value chain transformation.

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Form Strategic Partnerships for Scaling Across several countries, collective collaboration partnerships where trust and comfort have been established, key innovations adapted and adopted and national scale sustainably achieved. Studies plus convening regional and/or global partner and value chain review colloquium, and with our partners Determine the processes and methodologies that have worked well and not so well Determine common system patterns that have given rise to value chain system issues Define research and program areas that require additional discovery attention Form new work areas that require concerted attention Establish global alliances designed to invoke strategic action to spread action beyond CRP L&F focus countries

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Facilitation and Knowledge Services to National and Transnational Processes Academic partnerships to explore how technology is created, tested, adapted and adopted by development practitioners Wageningen University (WUR ) Institute of Development Studies, Sussex (IDS)

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