A participatory approach for determining adaptation actions

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Presented by Dr Sarah Park, at WorldFish HQ, 4th April,2013. This Food for Thought session will provide details of research in development recently conducted in Timor-Leste by a multi-disciplinary team of WorldFish colleagues. In partnership with Timorese National and regional government departments and NGO’s, participatory approaches have been used to bring the voices of fishers and farmers to the forefront in identifying how climate change is likely to affect community livelihoods. More importantly, the project has facilitated a dialogue with community members to use their suggested adaptation actions and evaluate them from a social, economic and environmental perspective. The decision-focused framework developed to facilitate this dialogue and evaluation of adaptation options will be presented. The above case study will then be considered in the broader context of the need for adaptation pathways to potentially include both incremental (sometimes referred to as proximal) responses to a changing climate, and more fundamental transformative change. In this respect, we share details of a current activity aimed at exploring if and how rights-based approaches may provide a useful perspective for supporting community capacity to adapt to climate, and other drivers of change.

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A participatory approach for determining adaptation actions and considerations for their implementation:

A participatory approach for determining adaptation actions and considerations for their implementation Sarah Park, Kirsten Abernethy, Simon Attwood, Doug Beare, Hugh Govan, Jennifer King, Beth Timmers , Nhuong Tran, Sharon Suri, David Mills, Eric Hoddy Thursday 4 March 2013 Project Funders: ADB, GEF

Two key messages :

Two key messages Adaptation assessment – technology Adaptive capacity – a rights-based approach to the socio-political context

Responding to climate change using an adaptation pathways and decision-making approach :

Responding to climate change using an adaptation pathways and decision-making approach Work with communities to: Determine the likely impacts of projected changes in climate on livelihood activities; Identify possible adaptation actions to reduce negative impacts and capitalise on opportunities; Evaluate adaptation options from an economic, social or environmental perspective Promote planning for implementation of adaptive actions Aim: Sarah Park, Kirsten Abernethy, Simon Attwood, Doug Beare, Hugh Govan , Jennifer King, Beth Timmers , Nhuong Tran, Sharon Suri, David Mills, Eric Hoddy Project team: Funders: ADB, GEF

Adaptation Framework – sequence of questions:

Adaptation Framework – sequence of questions Scoping What are the key natural resource issues and drivers of change impacting the robustness of fishers and farmers livelihoods? What are the current and likely future impacts of a changing climate What does a desirable future for the community’s natural resource base look like? (ii) What adaptation actions may address impacts and help realise the desired future? Identifying options Evaluation of options What do the adaptations look like and what is their relative cost ? What people, organisations and institutions are needed to facilitate the design, implementation and ongoing practice of an adaptation? (ii) What is the likely impact of the adaptations on the natural resource base? Planning implementation Can an informed decision be made about what adaptations will be implemented? What are the social, economic or environmental triggers that will indicate when it is time to implement an adaptation?

Adaptation Framework – sequence of methods:

Adaptation Framework – sequence of methods Scoping Transect walks Seasonal calendars Climate analysis (past and future) Community workshops and discussion groups Community participatory impact assessment Visioning – community youth’s annotated drawings of the future Community participatory adaptation assessment Identifying options Decision-tree analysis, and partial cost-benefit analysis - Social network analysis, - Governance capacity analysis, - Governance and institution survey - Landscape functional analysis, - Marine and coastal ecosystem service analysis Evaluation of options Evaluation of the material produced Analysis of thresholds of impact Planning implementation

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W hat natural resource issues are affecting communities? Method: Community focus groups Lack of fish and income from fishing Lack of access to fresh water Low agricultural production Lack of fish and income from fishing Lack of access to fresh water Limited access to cash for households Low agricultural production Created as part of the ‘Assessment of Potential Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Options for Timor-Leste’s Coastal Economy’ project.

How do current trends in temperature and rainfall drive fishing and farming activities ? Method: Seasonal Calendars:

How do current trends in temperature and rainfall drive fishing and farming activities ? Method: Seasonal Calendars Created as part of the ‘Assessment of Potential Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Options for Timor-Leste’s Coastal Economy’ project. Ili Timur Batugade

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Location: Dili Airport Source: Integrated dataset – NCAR 1952 to 1998; CSIRO 2003 to 2011 How do current trends in temperature and rainfall drive fishing and farming activities ? Method: Climate Analysis

How do past trends align with future projections?:

How do past trends align with future projections?

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What are the likely impacts of projected future changes in climate on fishing and farming, and what adaptation actions may address these ? Method : Community workshops Atauro Batugade Impacts 28 46 Adaptations 41 49

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What does a desirable future farming/fishing livelihood look like? Method: Visioning – children and youths draw desirable community

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Batugade fisheries: Increase ability to fish different species using new technologies and skills. Improve income and food production from non-fishing activities like aquaculture. Batugade agriculture: Increase production of trees, crops and animals using sustainable agriculture methods Improve income and food production from improved management of water collection, storage. What adaptation actions may address impacts and help realise the desired future ? Method: Community workshops

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Which sustainable agriculture practices will help farmers in Atauro respond to the challenges of a changing climate ? Method: Landscape Functional Analysis (soil structure, infiltration and capacity to hold nutrients ) Recommendations: Continue to manage perennial gardens for food and source of natural pest control, crop pollination, etc ; Reduce bare ground (leaf litter and crop trash - use banana leaves as ground cover, mulch, or compost); Integrate livestock (e.g. for manure, pest control, weed removal); Do not burn off crop trash after harvest; Improve capture, storage and distribution of water; Use woody debris (e.g. branches and tree stumps) to reduce flow of nutrients and soil away from gardens.

PowerPoint Presentation:

What do the adaptations look like and what is their relative cost? Method: Decision-tree Analysis and Partial Cost-Benefit Analysis No. Items Duration of use (years) Cost ($US) Annualized cost and benefit ($US) 1 Bucket (6) 1 5 5 2 Buoy (1) 1 10 10 3 Rope (1) 1 10 10 4 Hook (1) 1 15 15 5 Lamp (1) 2 15 7.5 A Total partial cost 47.5 B Partial benefit (aggregation of chance* possible income) 12 In a very successful year 25% 25 In a normal year 20% 15 In an unsuccessful year 55% 5 Partial net benefit (B-A) -35.5 Gross benefit-cost ratio (B/A) 0.25 Net benefit-cost ratio (B-A)/B -0.75 Partial costing and benefit of the pool landline fishing method estimated by a group of fishermen in Makili village, Atauro

PowerPoint Presentation:

Method Cost per year* Cost or benefit per dollar invested* Longline $17,178 benefit of $0.41 Traditional fishing methods $4,250 benefit of $0.33 Modern net fishing $4,423 loss of $0.13 Pool landline fishing methods $12,802 loss of $ $0.30 Rumpong $23,880 - What do the adaptations look like and what is their relative cost? Method: Decision-tree Analysis and Partial Cost-Benefit Analysis *Please note that further financial analysis is required before investments are made

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Planning implementation Community consultation – feedback of results Social Network Analysis Governance Capacity Analysis

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Community consultation – feedback of results

Planning implementation – Who are the 3 key people you will need to liaise with to make this adaptation happen? Method: Community workshops – Fishers, Atauro :

Planning implementation – Who are the 3 key people you will need to liaise with to make this adaptation happen? Method: Community workshops – Fishers, Atauro FAO ( e co-sounders , GPS, technical knowledge and training ) MAP (socialise knowledge to enforce and better manage MPA; training for deep water fishing; landing site; post catch storage facilities and knowledge) NGOs ( rumpong ) Government ( electricity - ice)

What people, organisations and institutions are needed to facilitate the design, implementation and ongoing practice ? Method: Social Network Analysis – Fishers, Atauro:

What people, organisations and institutions are needed to facilitate the design, implementation and ongoing practice ? Method: Social Network Analysis – Fishers, Atauro “We have never thought about our relationships like this. The network is very important…as all people create some good ways and links to each other”. Fisherman, Atauro

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Chefe do Suco , Chefe Aldeia , Chief of the fishing group , Local MAP (Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries ) “Action needs to be taken now and all four [of the above] need to be involved, not just one person .” Fisherman, Batugade Planning implementation – Who are the 3 key people you will need to liaise with to make this adaptation happen? Method: Community workshops – Fishers, Batugade

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Key findings: Governance at the aldeia and suco level has considerable legitimacy; The suco council includes chefe aldeia , women and youth representatives and a traditional elder and is clearly the essential body to engage with for adaptation interventions. Recommendations: Consideration for long term improvement in services and delivery mechanisms at sub-district and national levels; Consolidate a core of long-term community-development planning and monitoring (as initiated in this project) which builds ownership, increases transparency and community understanding of prioritization and budgeting processes, as well as building relations with central government; Information provision - relatively straightforward service that state authorities could improve with support from adaptation projects. What people, organisations and institutions are needed to facilitate the design, implementation and ongoing practice of an adaptation? Method: Governance analysis Aldeia and Suco level

Rights-based approaches: areas of focus:

Rights-based approaches: areas of focus

PowerPoint Presentation:

Rights Based Analysis of Adaptive Capacity

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