Considerations about dissemination of improved strains for aquaculture

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Presented by Dr Curtis Lind, WorldFish Geneticist, on the 21st of March, 2013, at WorldFish: Considerations about dissemination of improved fish strains for aquaculture.

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Considerations about dissemination of improved fish strains for aquaculture Ponzoni, R.W., N.H. Nguyen, H.L. Khaw, C.E. Lind & B.M. Rodriguez Jr:

Considerations about dissemination of improved fish strains for aquaculture Ponzoni, R.W., N.H. Nguyen, H.L. Khaw, C.E. Lind & B.M. Rodriguez Jr Food For Thought Seminar: WorldFish HQ, Penang, MALAYSIA, 21 st March 2013

overview:

overview C urrent status and general approach to genetic improvement Effective dissemination of genetic gains Technical considerations Institutional arrangements and partnerships Summary Some food for thought…

A few remarks about cultured aquatic animals:

A few remarks about cultured aquatic animals Most production from aquatic animals is based on unimproved stock, or has undergone only limited genetic improvement (this is particularly so in developing countries) So, in the rare instances that we have an improved strain, we have to make sure it reaches the farmers Multiplication and dissemination of improved stock are a challenge because: We have little experience (few improved strains) They entail influencing people

Design and implementation of a genetic improvement program:

Design and implementation of a genetic improvement program Describe the production system(s) Choose the species, strains and breeding system Formulate the breeding objective Develop selection criteria Design system of genetic evaluation Select animals and mating system Monitor and compare alternative programs Design system for expansion

Design and implementation of a genetic improvement program:

Design and implementation of a genetic improvement program Describe the production system(s) Choose the species, strains and breeding system Formulate the breeding objective Develop selection criteria Design system of genetic evaluation Select animals and mating system Monitor and compare alternative programs Design system for expansion

Effective dissemination:

Effective dissemination ?

Effective dissemination:

Effective dissemination ?

Effective dissemination:

Effective dissemination Genetic improvement takes place in a very small fraction of the overall population effective multiplication of genetic gains is critical

Effective dissemination:

Genetic improvement takes place in a very small fraction of the overall population effective multiplication of genetic gains is critical most often, breeding centers don’t exist Effective dissemination

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Genetic improvement takes place in a very small fraction of the overall population effective multiplication of genetic gains is critical most often, breeding centers don’t exist hatcheries attempt their own breeding often leads to problems inbred, genetically vulnerable stocks

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basic elements in multiplication and dissemination brood stock replaced periodically (2-3 years) producing brood stock not required specialized facilities not needed

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basic elements in multiplication and dissemination general aspects to be addressed total demand for seed and its geographical distribution presence or absence of private and govt. hatcheries skill level and access to resources of hatcheries farmers’ need for additional training, education and technical support

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centralized model single operation conducts breeding and multiplication ‘centralized’ in terms of geographic location or control over germplasm deals directly with farmers may require significant resources for infrastructure

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decentralized model generally easier to implement but will forego some control investment risk is shared better geographical coverage, accessible to more farmers

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technical considerations problem in aquaculture is... high reproductive rate (a good thing too!) large populations from a few breeders rapid inbreeding, poor productivity low effective population size ( Ne ) difficult to maintain pedigree how to manage industry-wide?

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inbreeding can be managed through proper hatchery practices and training …and a developed industry structure production level diversity not critical if maintained in nucleus generally not present technical considerations

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rotational mating schemes to avoid inbreeding inbreeding can be managed through proper hatchery practices and training technical considerations

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rotational mating schemes to avoid inbreeding inbreeding can be managed through proper hatchery practices and training technical considerations

PowerPoint Presentation:

rotational mating schemes to avoid inbreeding inbreeding can be managed through proper hatchery practices and training technical considerations

Institutional arrangements and partnerships:

Institutional arrangements and partnerships Doing so can benefit the industry as a whole, through better access to genetic gains made in nucleus Problem is sociological and economic, much more than genetic Convincing hatcheries that they need not produce brood stock replacements not easy, requires change in perception

Institutional arrangements and partnerships:

Institutional arrangements and partnerships Both private and government hatcheries should be considered in effective dissemination strategy Private : established production areas attractive investment opportunities Government: areas insufficiently served by private hatcheries areas where lack of competition may result in abuse of market stimulate industry in regions with future production potential eventually role taken over by private sector

Structuring multiplier-nucleus arrangements:

Structuring multiplier-nucleus arrangements Hatchery access to the nucleus could take on various forms Open access ; no agreements, open to all Accreditation ; specific criteria established Restricted access ; criteria established, sole discretion of the nucleus Nucleus-multiplier agreements could also have many variations Joint ventures Licensing (e.g. fees) Contracted production Combinations of the above

Creation of a network of accredited hatcheries:

Terms of the agreement Financial Operational (brood stock replacement ) Training and education of hatchery managers B rand name for marketing Product standards - Fingerling size and survival - Transport and count accounting - Management of inbreeding - Breeders ’ age (lag) - Lag and options for refreshing Controlling ‘genetic piracy’ Creation of a network of accredited hatcheries

Branding:

B randing most (all?) aquaculture seed is distributed without verification of strain or origin NONE OF THIS

Branding:

B randing branded fish seed would likely capture attention of farmers positive experiences, testimonies can help add value to a brand, increase willingness to pay like with all brands, novelty wears out quickly if product not satisfactory most (all?) aquaculture seed is distributed without verification of strain or origin MORE LIKE THIS

A recap…:

A recap… genetic improvement current technology enables sustained gains of at least 10 per cent per generation attention to design of genetic improvement program essential national breeding programs can have very favourable cost-to-benefit ratios

A recap…:

effective dissemination of gain high reproductive rate of fish offers great opportunities in terms of multiplying genetic gains an area where often we have not been as successful as in achieving and demonstrating genetic gains creation of a formal structure at multiplication or hatchery level, complemented by training and education programs, appears essential A recap…

A recap…:

A recap… effective dissemination of gain experience shows that effective dissemination will not occur ‘naturally’, spontaneously means trained people with means to influence producers, and to feed back information to the Breeding Center It will happen infrequently unless resources are specifically allocated to this activity

A recap…:

A recap… Improved fish have no impact unless they reach the farmers easier to achieve genetic improvement than to be successful at dissemination dissemination is difficult because it involves influencing and changing the way people do things only through effective dissemination can we expect a positive impact on farmers

Still more issues to consider:

Still more issues to consider

PowerPoint Presentation:

we strongly encourage developing this basic structure aspects may appear prescriptive, and some are, but there are many opportunities for participatory engagement the situation will almost certainly vary from region to region; technically and socio-economically

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Technical issues: Inbreeding management Terms of accreditation Training and capacity and more… Social issues: Participation and role of women Access to extension and training Decision making roles and more… Economic issues: Business models for the nucleus Marketing improved seed Access to finance and more…

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gender approaches participatory research Where does it fit in? What accessibilities are lacking? Could they cause gender gap? Why? What influences farmers choices? Willingness to pay? Community-based options? Long-term viability?

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If a tree falls in a forest… …is it having any impact? Impact assessment Monitoring & Evaluation

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? how many fish? how many farmers? how often? regional patterns? we are already having widespread impact short-changing ourselves by not monitoring?

Think about::

Think about: effective supply structure… roles and relationships… location based approach… IMPORTANCE OF BREEDING PROGRAM…

Thank you:

Thank you

Acknowledgements :

photo credits: Hooi Ling Khaw 2. Flickr/US Fish & Wildlife Service 3. Flickr/Guy Mason 4-5. Roger Smith 6 . top: Hooi Ling Khaw bottom: Flickr/ Sukil 7. top: Hooi Ling Khaw bottom: Curtis Lind 11. Curtis Lind 12. Flickr/ WorldFish Center 15. anon 17. Flickr/ wokerjabby 20. Flickr/ Hapal 23. Flickr/Patrick Dugan 24. danmeth.com 25. Flickr/ linuts full manuscript: Ponzoni, R.W. ; Nguyen, N.H. ; Khaw, H.L. ; Rodriguez, B.M. Jr.(2012) Considerations about effective dissemination of improved fish strains. WorldFish, Penang, Malaysia. Working Paper: 2012-47 http://www.worldfishcenter.org/resources/publications/considerations-about-dissemination-improved-fish-strains Acknowledgements

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