Agriculture Research and Extension Impacts in Cambodia and South Asia

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Presented by Prof. Craig Meisner at WorldFish HQ, Penang, Malaysia 7th August 2012. Craig has many years experience in agricultural research and for the last 3 years has been managing a multi million dollar project for ACIAR in Cambodia. He has welcomed the opportunity to share his experiences in this Food for Thought seminar

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By: Wents1971 (26 month(s) ago)

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Research and Extension Impacts in Cambodia and South Asia—Achievements and Lessons Learned:

Research and Extension Impacts in Cambodia and South Asia—Achievements and Lessons Learned Craig A Meisner World Fish Center, Penang, Malaysia August 7, 2012

What do I want to say?:

Introduction of myself Educational Background Professional Background Leadership Style Team Scientific Accomplishments or Impacts and Lesson Learned: Leadership and organizational experience & abilities What do I want to say?

Educational Background:

Ph.D. from University of Georgia, USA Agronomy/physiology M. Agriculture from North Carolina State University (NCSU) USA Agronomy B.Sc. from NCSU USA Agronomy Educational Background

Professional Background:

Research and Extension Manager, ACIAR Cambodia 2009-2012 Professor (Adjunct) Cornell University 2001-2011 Consultant Morgan-Stanley, Apollo, IDE, JOBS… 2006-2009 Senior Scientist, IFDC, an International Center for Soil Fertility & Agriculture Development 2005-2006 Principle Scientist International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) 1990-2005 Agriculturalist, Presbyterian Church USA in Faridpur Bangladesh 1980-87 Professional Background

My Leadership Model:

Servant-Leader I work best in a ‘team’ mode like a football/soccer team There is only ONE Captain for the team When a player stumbles and falls, the rest of the team MUST fill in the gaps to reach the Goal CIMMYT Bangladesh won the ‘Best Team’ Award by CIMMYT HQ My Leadership Model

Team Scientific Accomplishments and Impact and Lessons Learned:

Highlights from work in Cambodia, South Asia, and Bangladesh Team Scientific Accomplishments and Impact and Lessons Learned

Highlights of Work in Cambodia:

Cambodia Agricultural Value Chain Programme (CAVAC)—jointly funded by ACIAR and AusAID I was the CAVAC Research and Extension Sector Manager Four large research projects were facilitated by CAVAC: Rice Germplasm led by IRRI—4 years, $3 million Rice Establishment led by New South Wales—4 years, $2 million On-farm Water Management led by CSIRO—5 years $1 Vegetable Value Chain led by New South Wales—4 years, $1 million Grant and monitor 30 3-year funding of Cambodian proposals, ~$1 million investment Highlights of Work in Cambodia

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Whole Family Model Farmer Training Linkages and empowerment of local District Agricultural Officer as trainer of farmer families Invite a “Whole” Family: Husband, Wife, children are welcome Together with 10 families who are neighbors but also model farmers Present a well-focused, participatory training exercise in 3 hours in 3 demand driven and impactable topics: Soil fertility/plant nutrition Herbicide application Rice seed preservation The Vision- A Training Methodology Meeting Women’s Needs

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Highlights of Work in Cambodia:

Using Whole Family Training and very participatory teaching for 3 hours, 6,000 Households have been trained so far Pre- and post-test indicated 87% understood the topics Outsourced study on the changes in Knowledge Attitude Practice showed that 75% of the hh changed their fertilizer practices to follow recommended and got a perceived yield increase of 30% 45% hh used herbicides and 84% stated they would try the next season 29% used air tight plastic sealed bags for seed storage HH shared their information with an average of 13 other neighbors whom they claim also changed their practices! Highlights of Work in Cambodia

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Highlights of Work in Bangladesh as Country Rep and CoP for USAID funded Project :

Dual-Purpose Fodder-Grain Triticale Impacts of Arsenic Contamination on Agricultural Sustainability and Food Quality Whole Family Training in Wheat & Maize Papaya Improvement Through Viral Disease Resistance GIS-Bangladesh Country Almanac Human Resource Development Facilitation & Promotion for Adoption of Mechanization Permanent raised beds for wheat/ mungbean /rice Soil Solarization & Soil Liming Super-granular Urea Rickets & Agro-food Nutrition Program in Chakaria Chittagong Hill Tracts Monitoring and Evaluation of the Programs Highlights of Work in Bangladesh as Country Rep and CoP for USAID funded Project

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Dual-purpose triticale in Bangladesh

Triticale being harvested as first cut…:

Triticale being harvested as first cut…

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Dual-Purpose Fodder-Grain Triticale Impacts of Arsenic Contamination on Agricultural Sustainability and Food Quality Whole Family Training in Wheat & Maize Papaya Improvement Through Viral Disease Resistance GIS-Bangladesh Country Almanac Human Resource Development Facilitation & Promotion for Adoption of Mechanization Permanent raised beds for wheat/ mungbean /rice Soil Solarization & Soil Liming Super-granular Urea Rickets & Agro-food Nutrition Program in Chakaria Chittagong Hill Tracts Monitoring and Evaluation of the Programs

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Arsenic contaminated ground water As contaminated Irrigation water Soil Arsenic Arsenic uptake by plants Arsenic leaching As contaminated rice straw As contaminated Animal products As contaminated drinking water Straw burning As contaminated rice Volatile arsenic Volatilization Human exposure to arsenic As Hazard to Humans from the Environment HTW STW

Arsenic in Food Grain : A Serious Public Health Problem in Bangladesh:

Arsenic in Food Grain : A Serious Public Health Problem in Bangladesh Shallow tube well (STW): Pumping out high-arsenic water Irrigation of rice Water-soil-plant interactions Retention of 80-90% arsenic in roots: 40-50 mg/kg To shoots Retention of about 10% arsenic in straw: 4-5 mg/kg To grains As uptake Accumulation of about 1% arsenic in grains : 0.4-0.5 mg/kg To humans About 0.2 mg/person/day from rice Safe?? Drinking water

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With low soil arsenic, rice yield was 7 tons/ha With high soil arsenic, rice yield was 2 tons/ha

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Dual-Purpose Fodder-Grain Triticale Impacts of Arsenic Contamination on Agricultural Sustainability and Food Quality Whole Family Training in Wheat & Maize Papaya Improvement Through Viral Disease Resistance GIS-Bangladesh Country Almanac Human Resource Development Facilitation & Promotion for Adoption of Mechanization Permanent raised beds for wheat/ mungbean /rice Soil Solarization & Soil Liming Super-granular Urea Rickets & Agro-food Nutrition Program in Chakaria Chittagong Hill Tracts Monitoring and Evaluation of the Programs

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Whole Family Training Empowered National Scientists as trainers of trainers Linkages and empowerment of local NGO as trainer of farmer families Invite a “Whole” Family: Husband, Wife, Two Adult Children Together with 7 families who are neighbors Present a well-focused, participatory training exercise The Vision- A Training Methodology Meeting Women’s Needs

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Trainers Training Whole Family Training

Why Whole Family Training?:

Why Whole Family Training?

Benefits . . . . . . .:

Benefits . . . . . . .

Benefits . . . . . . .:

Benefits . . . . . . .

Benefits . . . . . . .:

Benefits . . . . . . .

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Dual-Purpose Fodder-Grain Triticale Impacts of Arsenic Contamination on Agricultural Sustainability and Food Quality Whole Family Training in Wheat & Maize Papaya Improvement Through Viral Disease Resistance GIS-Bangladesh Country Almanac Human Resource Development Facilitation & Promotion for Adoption of Mechanization Permanent raised beds for wheat/ mungbean /rice Soil Solarization & Soil Liming Super-granular Urea Rickets & Agro-food Nutrition Program in Chakaria Chittagong Hill Tracts Monitoring and Evaluation of the Programs

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42 Khon Kaen, Thailand and transgenic papaya at the experimental station GOAL: Affordable sweet papaya for the poor

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43 Transgenic Existing Susceptible 6 times more productive Field Testing in Thailand

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Dual-Purpose Fodder-Grain Triticale Impacts of Arsenic Contamination on Agricultural Sustainability and Food Quality Whole Family Training in Wheat & Maize Papaya Improvement Through Viral Disease Resistance GIS-Bangladesh Country Almanac Human Resource Development Facilitation & Promotion for Adoption of Mechanization Permanent raised beds for wheat/ mungbean /rice Soil Solarization & Soil Liming Super-granular Urea Rickets & Agro-food Nutrition Program in Chakaria Chittagong Hill Tracts Monitoring and Evaluation of the Programs

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Dual-Purpose Fodder-Grain Triticale Impacts of Arsenic Contamination on Agricultural Sustainability and Food Quality Whole Family Training in Wheat & Maize Papaya Improvement Through Viral Disease Resistance GIS-Bangladesh Country Almanac Human Resource Development Facilitation & Promotion for Adoption of Mechanization Permanent raised beds for wheat/ mungbean /rice Soil Solarization & Soil Liming Super-granular Urea Rickets & Agro-food Nutrition Program in Chakaria Chittagong Hill Tracts Monitoring and Evaluation of the Programs

My Philosophy:

My Philosophy International Scientist National Scientist Access to Knowledge International Scientist

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Dual-Purpose Fodder-Grain Triticale Impacts of Arsenic Contamination on Agricultural Sustainability and Food Quality Whole Family Training in Wheat & Maize Papaya Improvement Through Viral Disease Resistance GIS-Bangladesh Country Almanac Human Resource Development Facilitation & Promotion for Adoption of Mechanization Permanent raised beds for wheat/ mungbean /rice Soil Solarization & Soil Liming Super-granular Urea Rickets & Agro-food Nutrition Program in Chakaria Chittagong Hill Tracts Monitoring and Evaluation of the Programs

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Promoting Conservation Agriculture Across South Asia and . . .

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The Chinese Hand Tractor with the reaper:

The Chinese Hand Tractor with the reaper

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PERMANENT RAISED BED PLANTING Bed and furrow system maintained for all crops Developed to reduce labor and input costs as well as efforts to rebuild soil structure and increase carbon levels

Resource Conserving Technologies Promote: :

Resource Conserving Technologies Promote: Timely sowing Higher yields Better nutrient and water use efficiency More diverse rotations Less use of fossil fuel Prevent residue burning Better crop stands Lower costs Less water pollution, less ground water mining Fewer weeds and pests Reduced cost &CO 2 emission More C sequestration and better soil health Beds are THE way for rice in high As soils to yield normal due to the aerobic nature of beds

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Technology Transfer Process Hands on training at station Bed former attachments loaned to each group Agreed to wheat-mung-rice rotation and comparison with conventional flat planting Technical backstopping provided throughout

Raised-Bed Planting Training:

Raised-Bed Planting Training

Raised-Bed planting:

Raised-Bed planting

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Comparison of the Permanent Beds for Wheat-Rice (right) With conventional planted wheat (left)

Raised-Bed planting:

Raised-Bed planting Year n Yield (t/ha) Bed Flat Increase with bed % n Yield (t/ha) Bed Flat Increase with bed % n Yield (t/ha) Bed Flat Increase with bed % Wheat Mungbean Rice 2004 26 3.61 3.20 13 23 0.55 0.47 18 23 4.83 4.22 14 2005 29 3.51 3.06 15 8* 1.23 0.98 29 23 4.74 4.59 3

Raised-Bed planting:

Raised-Bed planting Factor Bed Flat Change Cropped Area ( bigha ) 1 54 16.4 Land Prep. -Tillage (Tk/bigha) -Bed prep. (Tk/bigha) 362 123 360 0 35% Seed Cost (Tk/bigha) 350 440 -20% Fertilizer & Pesticides (Tk/bigha) 517 605 -15% Irrigation No 2.1 2.2 Irrigation Cost (Tk/bigha) 231 381 -39% Weeding Cost (Tk/bigha) 98 9 Harvest Cost (Tk/bigha) 259 259 Threshing Cost (Tk/bigha) 129 94 Total Costs 2,070 2,148 -4% Yield (kg/bigha) 399 249 60% Total Value @ Tk15/kg (kg/bigha) 5,985 3,735 60% Net Return 3,915 1,587 2.4X Net Return is 2.4 times compared to traditional planting

2012 Statistics on crops planted/sown in beds alone by bed planter:

2012 Statistics on crops planted/sown in beds alone by bed planter Crops Areas( Bed sown) ha Maize a) Rabi 690 b . Kharif 720 Mungbean 830 Rice a ) T- aman 240 b ) Boro 110 c ) T aus 180 Sesame 45 Jute 40 Lentil 35 67

Statistics on crops planted/sown in Permanent beds using bed-former :

Statistics on crops planted/sown in Permanent beds using bed-former 68 2011-12 : 40 ha

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Dual-Purpose Fodder-Grain Triticale Impacts of Arsenic Contamination on Agricultural Sustainability and Food Quality Whole Family Training in Wheat & Maize Papaya Improvement Through Viral Disease Resistance GIS-Bangladesh Country Almanac Human Resource Development Facilitation & Promotion for Adoption of Mechanization Permanent raised beds for wheat/ mungbean /rice Soil Solarization & Soil Liming Super-granular Urea Rickets & Agro-food Nutrition Program in Chakaria Chittagong Hill Tracts Monitoring and Evaluation of the Programs

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HEALTHY SEEDLINGS FOR RICE/VEGETABLES Root health problems from root knot nematode, sheath blight and other soil borne diseases were identified as a major constraint for rice and vegetatbles Simple, low cost, non-chemical technology Solarization of seedbeds/nurseries Normal Solarized

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Handout Flip Chart

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Unsolarized Plot Growers’ Practicing Solarization Solarized Plot

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East-West Seeds & Contract Growers

Healthy seedling production for rice and vegetables :

Healthy seedling production for rice and vegetables Solarized Seedlings Non-Solarized Seedlings Chili plants at an East West Seed, Inc. contract seed farm

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Success Case Study Customers Guarantee Sold healthy tomato seedlings for double the price of normal seedlings Obtained 2x yield from healthy seedlings Sold larger fruit from healthy seedling plants for twice the price of normal fruit Overall economic gain of at least 4x

Liming Soils for System-wide Crop Sustainability in Acid Soils:

Liming Soils for System-wide Crop Sustainability in Acid Soils

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Response of Rice to Lime

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6 t/ha lime 0 t/ha lime 2 t/ha lime 4 t/ha lime Response of Rice to Lime

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6 t/ha lime 0 t/ha lime 2 t/ha lime Response of Wheat to Lime

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6 t/ha lime Response of Maize to Lime 0 t/ha lime 2 t/ha lime 2 t/ha lime

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Dual-Purpose Fodder-Grain Triticale Impacts of Arsenic Contamination on Agricultural Sustainability and Food Quality Whole Family Training in Wheat & Maize Papaya Improvement Through Viral Disease Resistance GIS-Bangladesh Country Almanac Human Resource Development Facilitation & Promotion for Adoption of Mechanization Permanent raised beds for wheat/ mungbean /rice Soil Solarization & Soil Liming Super-granular Urea Rickets & Agro-food Nutrition Program in Chakaria Chittagong Hill Tracts Monitoring and Evaluation of the Programs

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Prilled Urea Urea Super Granule (tablet) Urea Super Granule (briquette) Urea Super Granule (spherical) The Urea Super Granule (USG) product…

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Prilled urea Briquettes bagged and sold to farmers near the village Its production in the village…

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                Its application in the field… 7-10 cm depth Within one week of transplanting

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Boro Aman UDP = 1.02 + 1.00 FP R 2 = 0.84 1:1 line Side-by-side comparisons, Bangladesh, 2000-2004 (74 kg N ha -1 ) (134 kg N ha -1 ) Bottom Line: Increased Yields by 1 ton!

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Number of USG Machines 0 to 0 1 to 5 6 to 10 11 to 20 21 to 30 31 to 40 41 to 50 51 to 59

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Dual-Purpose Fodder-Grain Triticale Impacts of Arsenic Contamination on Agricultural Sustainability and Food Quality Whole Family Training in Wheat & Maize Papaya Improvement Through Viral Disease Resistance GIS-Bangladesh Country Almanac Human Resource Development Facilitation & Promotion for Adoption of Mechanization Permanent raised beds for wheat/ mungbean /rice Soil Solarization & Soil Liming Super-granular Urea Rickets & Agro-food Nutrition Program in Chakaria Chittagong Hill Tracts Monitoring and Evaluation of the Programs

Why rickets in Bangladesh:

It is not a vitamin D deficiency It is a Calcium deficiency rickets Minimal daily intake = 500mg /day Mean daily intake for Bengali children of less than 5 years of age = 160 mg/days International Conference on Rickets 2006 Why rickets in Bangladesh

How many Rickets Children are affected ?:

In Cox’s Bazar district in 2006: 1 % of the population have deformities (20,000 children) 10 % of the population are clinically ricketic but may not show deformities In Bangladesh 4.5 millions of Children are supposed to be affected International Conference on Rickets 2006 How many Rickets Children are affected ?

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Cowpea is locally grown and consumed in the area

But we need a Greener Revolution NOW!:

Why? Because there were weaknesses But we need a Greener Revolution NOW!

Human Nutrient Deficiencies and Arsenic in Bangladesh: All examples of a food system gone wrong!:

Malnutrition Night Blindness Anemia Zinc deficiency causing/aggravating diarrhea and decreased mental capacity Ca-deficiency induced Rickets Arsenic contamination in water (drinking & irrigation), soil and plant & into humans (but into animals also?) Human Nutrient Deficiencies and Arsenic in Bangladesh: All examples of a food system gone wrong!

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(Map from USAID) Global Micronutrient Deficiencies In Humans > 3 billion people afflicted

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(FAO data, 1999) % Changes in Cereal & Pulse Production & Population Between 1965 & 1999 0 50 100 150 200 250 % Increase in Production (from 1965-1999) 0 50 100 150 200 250 % Increase in Population (from 1965 to 1999) Cereal Production Pulse Production Population India Pakistan Bangladesh World Developing Nations India Pakistan Bangladesh Developing Nations Developing Nations Success Failure

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Holistic Food Systems Model Jerry Combs, USDA, S. Dakota Ross Welch, USDA Cornell University

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More legumes/veggies Make crops less risky to environ. Multi-faceted approaches like drama, DVD WFT More micronutrient loading by plants Mgmt that enhances nutrient uptake Cooking to enhance nutrients More efficient productive crops Interventions to the System Improved soil health

Making a greener revolution: A nutrient delivery system for food production to address malnutrition:

Making a greener revolution: A nutrient delivery system for food production to address malnutrition Presented to the Poverty, Food Security and Hunger Conference in Lisbon Portugal, Aug 2003 Craig Meisner (CIMMYT Bangladesh), R Welch (USDA), JM Duxbury (Cornell), JG Lauren (Cornell), GF Combs (Cornell-USDA), N Hossain (Dhaka U)

Making a greener revolution: A nutrient delivery system for food production to address malnutrition through Crop Science:

Making a greener revolution: A nutrient delivery system for food production to address malnutrition through Crop Science Presented to International Crop Science Congress, Brisbourne Australia Sept 2004 Craig Meisner (CIMMYT Bangladesh), R Welch (USDA), J M Duxbury (Cornell), J G Lauren (Cornell), Making a greener revolution: A nutrient delivery system for food production to address malnutrition through crop science. Craig Meisner, R. Welch, J.M. Duxbury, and J.G. Lauren. 2004 Journal of Crop Science Society of Japan http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/browse/jcs

Wrote a review paper in Advances in Agronomy on Rice-fish systems:

Robin D. Graham, Ross M. Welch, David A. Saunders, Ivan Ortiz-Monasterio, Howarth E. Bouis, Merideth Bonierbale, Stef de Haan, Gabriella Burgos, Graham Thiele, Reyna Liria, Craig A. Meisner , Steve E. Beebe, Michael J. Potts, Mohinder Kadian, Peter R. Hobbs, Raj K. Gupta, Steve Twomlow. Rice-Fish Systems. In: Nutritious Subsistence Food Systems . 2007 Advances in Agronomy, American Society of Agronomy. Volume 92: 1-74 Wrote a review paper in Advances in Agronomy on Rice-fish systems 8/15/2012 Template copyright 2005 www.brainybetty.com 101

Elevating WFC's Science in the Light of Global Challenges:

Elevating WFC's Science in the Light of Global Challenges

What do I want to say?:

Introduction of myself Educational Background Professional Background Leadership Style Team Scientific Accomplishments or Impacts and Lesson Learned: Leadership and organizational experience & abilities What do I want to say?

Garnering Funds:

$2 million CND from CIDA in 1992; $1.7 million AUS from AusAID in 1994; $0.5 USD in 1996 and $0.5 million USD in 1999 from the Government of Bangladesh; $5.5 million from USAID in 2000-2005 $1 million from DANIDA in 2005-2007 Helped garner ~$5 million USDA Food for Peace funds for Cornell U to continue work in Bangladesh on Arsenic from 2010-2015 Garnering Funds 8/15/2012 104

Garnering Funds:

Significantly, from 1990 until 2005, CIMMYT HQ rarely had to pay my salary or benefits: through constant proposals I initiated with local donors, I was able to find the funds that covered the operation of the program, the full CIMMYT office expenses including staff , and returned 15-25% to CIMMYT HQ as overhead Garnering Funds 8/15/2012 105

Leadership as Country Director CIMMYT Bangladesh:

In 1990, there were 2 staff with CIMMYT when I arrived After garnering from local donors, by 2005, CIMMYT has 25 staff including 4 national Associate Scientists, Program Managers, Admin, etc Was often called upon by Dr. Sowkat Ali, Nizami, Motihar Chowdhury—all Ministers of Agriculture—for unbiased advice Facilitated research with Cornell, ACIAR, RIU, IRRI, CIAT, IWMI, World Fish, NARS, Universities and private businesses. Leadership as Country Director CIMMYT Bangladesh 8/15/2012 106

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Enabling Environment Macroeconomic and Sectoral Policies and Regulations The Agribusiness System: A Holistic Approach Or the Value-Chain Approach Agro-Industry Inputs Agro-Industry Outputs Supply of Farm Inputs Farm Production Marketing and Processing of Farm Products Demand Pull Linkages Farming

Potentially with WFC in Bangladesh::

While I am no ‘aquaculture specialist’, by representing WFC, I represent all aquaculture science and scientists both here at WFC and throughout the world Ideas could be brought in, tried, tested, disseminated Linkages to WFC HQ are vital to progress in Bangladesh Openness to innovative ideas coupled with 25 years living and working in Bangladesh, implementing all, finding impact/successful ones and scaling up. Potentially with WFC in Bangladesh: 8/15/2012 Template copyright 2005 www.brainybetty.com 109

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