Adaptive co-management in the artisanal fishing sector in Ghana

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Presented by Dr Tendayi Maravanyika, presented at WorldFish HQ, Penang, Malaysia 9th August, 2012.

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Initiating adaptive co-management in the artisanal fishing sector in the Western Region of Ghana. Experiences and challenges. : 

Initiating adaptive co-management in the artisanal fishing sector in the Western Region of Ghana. Experiences and challenges. Tendayi Mutimukuru -Maravanyika and David Mills

Layout of Presentation: 

Layout of Presentation Background Hen Mpoano Project objectives Hen Mpoano fisheries activities Findings Lessons learned Way forward

Ghana’s Fishing Industry : 

Ghana’s Fishing Industry Since independence, the fisheries sector has played a vital role in socio-economic dev. Potential to contribute substantially to national economy through employment, GDP, foreign exchange earnings, food security and poverty reduction 20% of workforce rely directly or indirectly Ghana’s dependence on fisheries for nutrition is among the highest globally, and higher than all other African nations Despite this, over the last 3 decades there is evidence of declining fish stock

PowerPoint Presentation: 

Catch of ‘small pelagic’ species 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 Population growth Effort increases Open access Overexploitation

PowerPoint Presentation: 

Scholtens , Allison & Badjeck in prep

Ghana’s small scale fisheries : 

Ghana’s s mall scale fisheries Long tradition of fishing The industry started with artisanal fishing dugout canoes using a range of fishing gears Fish caught was mainly for subsistence Small scale fishery now evolved into vibrant industry with a mix of improved traditional and modern fleets

Ghana’s small scale fisheries : 

Ghana’s s mall scale fisheries About 11213 dugout canoes, 57% are motorised Operate from 334 landing sites Land 70% of total marine production Small scale fisheries therefore contribute significantly to food production, employment and wealth creation in rural areas. The small scale sector also include a post harvest sector that includes women fish processors, wholesalers and retailers

The Integrated Coastal and Fisheries Governance Program - Hen Mpoano: 

The Integrated Coastal and Fisheries Governance Program - Hen Mpoano four-year pilot Initiative Initiated after US President Barrack Obama urged Ghanaians to build ‘strong institutions ’… And offered a generous purse to promote the ‘building of institutions’ for coastal and fisheries governance in Ghana. Implemented by Coastal Resources Centre, University of Rhode Island together with: Friends of the Nation (Ghana), WorldFish Center SustainaMetrix (USA), the Fisheries Commission, the Western Regional Coordinating Council six coastal districts of the Western Region

The Western Region: 

The Western Region Contains the largest rubber plantations in the country Leading producer of vegetable oils (palm oil and coconut) Second highest producer of gold Lands a third of the national fish harvest Has potential as a tourist destination

Focal areas: 

Focal areas Anlo Beach: Shama Akwidaa : Ahanta West Dixcove : Ahanta West Newtown: Jomoro

Hen Mpoano Project Objectives: 

Hen Mpoano Project Objectives to support the Government of Ghana achieve its development objectives poverty reduction food security sustainable fisheries management biodiversity conservation . to contribute to the achievement of the following vision: Ghana’s coastal and marine ecosystems are sustainably managed to provide goods and services that generate long-term socio-economic benefits to communities while sustaining biodiversity .

PowerPoint Presentation: 

The dominance of pelagic (highly mobile) species makes the successful implementation of nested governance systems particularly critical Pelagic Benthic Resource Use – Canoe Fleet (2010) APW Set net Beach seine DGN Line

PowerPoint Presentation: 

Hen Mpoano Fisheries Work Regional institutions (FC, FWG) District Fisheries Commission/ assemblies District Fisheries Commission/ assemblies District Fisheries Commission/ assemblies CBFMC CBFMC CBFMC National institutions (FC, others?) Building/ strengthening institutions at all scales within the nested system

The Hen Mpoano Fisheries work: 

The Hen Mpoano Fisheries work National Level Advocacy for reforms towards co-management of fisheries (1 st and 2 nd stakeholder fisheries governance dialogues) Working with national level institutions (e.g. the Fisheries Alliance) to build their capacities in advocacy for fisheries co-management Analysis of the fisheries data capture systems to identify gaps Develop legal frameworks to support adaptive co-management of fisheries

Preparation for the 2nd Dialogue: 

Preparation for the 2 nd Dialogue Field trip for international scientists to fishing communities Capacity building for community members: Capacity building for community communicators; Study tours (Senegal and Tanzania); Assisting them to develop a vision for fisheries management & Capacity building on presentation skills

2nd Governance Dialogue: 

2 nd Governance Dialogue A imed to help stakeholders in the fisheries sector generate a shared understanding of critical lessons and pathways for fisheries co-management success in Ghana a direct response to the call from both fisheries communities and the Government of Ghana for a radical change from the way fisheries resources are currently being managed Total of 60 participants (Including International) C ommenced with presentations on co-management experiences from local, regional and international presenters. F ollowed by panel discussions to extract lessons for co-management success in Ghana’s fisheries. Finally , break-out groups to address issues of importance to fisheries governance reform in Ghana

The Hen Mpoano Fisheries work (Cont.): 

The Hen Mpoano Fisheries work (Cont.) Regional level Putting in place regional fisheries management institutions (e.g. The fisheries Working group) and capacity building for these Capacity building for the prosecution chain (e.g. training of the marine police) to improve enforcement

The Hen Mpoano Fisheries work (Cont.): 

The Hen Mpoano Fisheries work (Cont.) District level Advocating for the districts to put fisheries on their agenda Assisting districts to develop fisheries and coastal management by-laws Assisting districts to put in place fisheries management sub-committees to lead in the fisheries management issues Assisting districts to come up with district spacial plans Helping districts to include fisheries and coastal management issues in their MTP

The Hen Mpoano Fisheries work (Cont.): 

The Hen Mpoano Fisheries work (Cont.) Community level Context studies and baseline survey Vulnerability analysis Capacity building for communities to participate in adaptive co-management Training of community communicators to spearhead peer learning activities Look and learn tours Radio dramas

The Hen Mpoano Fisheries work (Cont.): 

The Hen Mpoano Fisheries work (Cont.) Community level Facilitating stakeholders to develop a shared understanding of their problem and a shared vision Action planning to move towards the desired vision Implementation of action plans Reflection and learning Re-planning

Findings: Key Challenges: 

Findings: Key Challenges lack of involvement and representation of women in formal decision making platforms lack of capacity for the Fisheries Commission to offer technical support to fishing communities fisheries data systems that quantify catch without capturing effort Data also not available at community level to act as a baseline for management Highly vulnerable communities Lack of property rights

Findings: Key Challenges: 

Findings: Key Challenges conflicts exists among stakeholders and these need to be dealt with because of the nature of their work, fisher folks have little time for meetings – this makes participatory action research difficult migrant fishing communities do not have control over land resources, including wetland areas where fish spawn. Low education for fisher folks Algae bloom – green green Impact of oil and gas on fisheries

Emerging lessons: 

Emerging lessons b ecause the artisanal fishing sector is complex with conditions varying between communities, a thorough understanding of the context is essential to enhance the resilience of coastal communities facilitation of adaptive co-management processes must be done by a multi-disciplinary team in dire situations where people have little or no hope for positive change, facilitators must be innovative to assist stakeholders to think outside of the box.

Way forward: 

Way forward Continue working at the 4 levels but putting emphasis community level to develop co-management models Conduct a thorough analysis of the existing fisheries legislation Strengthen capacity of stakeholders in adaptive co-management Policy briefs Journal articles

The Ghana WorldFish Team: 

The Ghana WorldFish Team

Ghana WorldFish Office: 

Ghana WorldFish Office

Thank you!: 

Thank you!