Norberto Liwski

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“The Family as the Institution with the Primary Responsibility for the Protection, Upbringing, and Integral Development of Children and Adolescents” : 

“The Family as the Institution with the Primary Responsibility for the Protection, Upbringing, and Integral Development of Children and Adolescents” Norberto Liwski ARGENTINA Mexico, 27-29 October, 2004

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INTERNATIONAL YEAR OF THE FAMILY 1994 “Family, resources and responsibilities in an evolving world”

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“The family constitutes the basic unit of society and therefore warrants special attention” “Families assume diverse forms and functions… Consequently, the International Year of the Family encompasses and addresses the needs of all families” “YPF will seek to promote the basic human rights and fundamental freedoms… whatever the status of each individual within the family, and whatever the form and condition of that family” “Policies will aim at fostering equality between men and women within families, to bring about a fuller sharing of domestic responsibilities and employment opportunities” “Programs should support families in the discharge of their functions, rather than provide substitutes for such functions” Principles of the International Year of the Family

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“To stimulate local, national and international action as part of a sustained long-term effort to: Increase awareness of family issues among Governments as well as in the private sector; Strengthen national institutions to formulate, implement and monitor policies in respect of families; Stimulate efforts to respond to problems affecting, and affected by, the situation of families; Enhance the effectiveness of local, national and regional efforts to carry out specific programs concerning families by generating new activities and strengthening existing ones; Improve the collaboration among national and international non-governmental organizations in support of multi-sectoral activities; Build upon the results of international activities concerning women, children, youth, the aged and the disabled.” Objectives of the International Year of the Family

RESEARCH: 

RESEARCH “ What do children in the Americas think about families?” DEFENSA DE NIÑAS Y NIÑOS INTERNACIONAL DNI DEFENSE DES ENFANTS INTERNATIONAL DEI DEFENCE FOR CHILDREN INTERNATIONAL DCI

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General trend to replicate the configuration of the nuclear family, independently of the social class, age and type of family of the respondents Validity of the extended nuclear family Children’s trend to accept their families as they are, beyond their problems and instability to meet both material and spiritual needs The family is understood as a niche of safety and stability Enhanced family valuation as a niche for support and protection as children grow up, until he/she has to face emerging conflicts and insecurities. In this stage children gradually build up their own personality and this creates a greater need for guidance and support The concerns stated by most respondents relate to alcoholism, marital disputes and physical abuse The strongest element in any type of family experience is the presence or absence of the feelings, affections and emotions that give a sense to human coexistence Conclusions

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TABLA STIVEN MEJORARLA

Organizations of the Inter-American System for the Promotion and Advocacy of the Rights of Children and Adolescents: 

Organizations of the Inter-American System for the Promotion and Advocacy of the Rights of Children and Adolescents (Convention on the Rights of the Child) Inter-American Court of Human Rights Inter-American Commission on Human Rights Inter-American Children’s Institute

Public Policy Programming: 

Public Policy Programming NEED-BASED APPROACH Short-term prospects aimed to close existing gaps Services made available Specific projects addressing specific groups of children Children deserve being helped Governments should do something but nobody has well-defined responsibilities Children may participate in order to enhance service availability Some children may be excluded due to lack of resources. RIGHT-BASED APPROACH Long-term prospects Greater awareness of all groups (parents, children, decision-makers) Integral approach Children are entitled to be helped Governments have moral and legal obligations Children are active participants by Law Every work contributes to an overall goal

Public Policy Programming: 

Public Policy Programming NEED-BASED APPROACH Voluntary It addresses the symptoms Partial targets (80 percent of children is immunized; efforts are made to serve the largest number of people) Need ranking. Some needs are more important than others (nutrition before education) Needs vary according to the situation, the individual and the environment Needs are subjectively assessed RIGHT-BASED APPROACH Compulsory It addresses the origin and causes Overall targets – everybody has the same rights (80 percent immunization means that the immunization right has not been enforced) Rights cannot be broken down, they are indivisible and interdependent Rights are universal (the same rights everywhere) Rights are based on international standards

Conclusions and Recommendations: 

Conclusions and Recommendations To strengthen the design of state policies addressing family problems related to their younger members, with an integrated and universal approach. To deepen the efforts made in the area of legislative reform to make them consistent with the principles and provisions in the Convention on the Rights of the Child. To intensify adolescence-oriented policies by favoring their community participation and integration into the democratic life of their respective societies: a) Increased budgetary allocation b) Greater investment in professional training programs for those who are excluded from the formal system c) Development of national strategies aimed to prevent and eradicate the various forms of violence affecting children and adolescents d) Creation and access facilitation to health services (mental health and HIV/AIDS)

Conclusions and Recommendations: 

Conclusions and Recommendations To promote legislative reforms aimed to the disarmament of society, thus liberating adolescents from such potential risk. To promote in the community and the family the need to demand the enforcement of fundamental rights, to consider the state as the major guarantee of such enforcement, and to advocate their binding nature in cases of non compliance and non fulfillment. To increase the state allocation of adequate budgetary allocations for enhancing the living conditions of children and adolescents with respect for the equity, solidarity and social justice principles.

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