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CAN EUROPEAN UNIVERSITIES SURVIVE IN THE GLOBAL COMPETITION?: 

CAN EUROPEAN UNIVERSITIES SURVIVE IN THE GLOBAL COMPETITION? KARI O. RAIVIO Chancellor UNIVERSITY OF HELSINKI

WHY ARE UNIVERSITIES IMPORTANT ?: 

WHY ARE UNIVERSITIES IMPORTANT ? KNOWLEDGE-BASED ECONOMY INNOVATION-DRIVEN EDUCATED WORKFORCE UNLIMITED DEMAND BEST ENVIRONMENT FOR BASIC RESEARCH MONOPOLY FOR RESEARCHER TRAINING REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT CULTURAL MISSION

EXTERNAL PRESSURES ON UNIVERSITIES: 

EXTERNAL PRESSURES ON UNIVERSITIES MASSIVE EXPANSION DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGE PUBLIC FUNDING re. OBLIGATIONS MARKET FORCES re. EXPLOITATION OF INNOVATIONS EUROPEAN HARMONIZATION CULTURAL IMPERIALISM ETHICAL ISSUES

INTERNAL PRESSURES: 

INTERNAL PRESSURES EVOLUTION OF SCIENCE (MULTIDISCIPLINARITY) INCREASING COMPETITION EXTERNAL RESEARCH FUNDING CHANGE IN LEARNING PHILOSOPHY

GLOBAL COMPETITION ?: 

GLOBAL COMPETITION ? FOR FACULTY/SCIENTISTS/TEACHERS FOR STUDENTS FOR RESEARCH EXCELLENCE FOR MONEY FOR PRESTIGE

COMPETITION FOR FACULTY - BRAIN DRAIN: 

COMPETITION FOR FACULTY - BRAIN DRAIN GRAVITATION TOWARDS THE USA > 50 % OF NEW US PROFESSORS NON-AMERICAN 400 000 EUROPEAN SCIENTISTS IN USA ONLY 13 % INTEND TO RETURN ATTRACTION TO PRIVATE SECTOR

CAUSES OF BRAIN DRAIN: 

CAUSES OF BRAIN DRAIN LURE OF RESEARCH ENVIRONMENTS HIGHER SALARIES – LOWER TAXES ENTERPRISING ATMOSPHERE ACADEMIC CAREER DEVELOPMENT LANGUAGE/CULTURE/LIFESTYLE

HOW TO TURN DRAIN TO GAIN?: 

HOW TO TURN DRAIN TO GAIN? IMPROVE RESEARCH ENVIRONMENT REPATRIATION SCHEMES NEW POSITIONS/LABS START-UP PACKAGES PROVIDE ATTRACTION FOR FAMILIES INFORM/ADVERTISE

MOBILITY OF STUDENTS – WHY? : 

MOBILITY OF STUDENTS – WHY? QUALITY OF DEGREE/CAREER PROSPECTS PERCEIVED LEVEL OF EDUCATION FAMILY/PERSONAL REASONS CURIOSITY TUITION-FREE STUDIES

COMPETITION FOR STUDENTS - GRADUATE: 

COMPETITION FOR STUDENTS - GRADUATE

MIGRATION OF UNDERGRADUATES (1999): 

MIGRATION OF UNDERGRADUATES (1999) EU – OTHER EUROPE + 84 000 EU – USA/CANADA - 21 000 EU – ASIA/OCEANIA + 168 000 EU – AFRICA + 120 000 USA/CANADA – OTHER EUROPE + 25 200 USA/CANADA – ASIA/OCEANIA + 297 500 USA/CANADA – AFRICA + 39 000

STUDY IN THE USA IS EXPENSIVE: 

STUDY IN THE USA IS EXPENSIVE

EUROPEAN OPPORTUNITIES re. STUDENT MOBILITY: 

EUROPEAN OPPORTUNITIES re. STUDENT MOBILITY MORE ATTRACTIVE UNIVERSITIES LESS EXPENSIVE TUITION HARMONIZATION OF DEGREES US IMMIGRATION POLICIES

UNIVERSITY RESEARCH – HOW TO ASSESS?: 

UNIVERSITY RESEARCH – HOW TO ASSESS? PAPERS / CITATIONS (BIBLIOMETRY) BY COUNTRY BY INSTITUTION SCIENCE AWARDS PATENTS / ROYALTY INCOME PEER REVIEW

SCIENTIFIC COMPETITIVENESS OF NATIONS (May 1997): 

SCIENTIFIC COMPETITIVENESS OF NATIONS (May 1997)

SCIENTIFIC PAPERS PER £ MILLION SCIENCE EXPENDITURE 1996 (May 1998): 

SCIENTIFIC PAPERS PER £ MILLION SCIENCE EXPENDITURE 1996 (May 1998) UK 18.83 Denmark 16.35 Sweden 15.69 Switzerland15.60 Canada 13.94 Australia 12.13 Netherlands 11.12 USA 10.10 France 8.86 Italy 8.78 Germany 8.10 Japan 4.25

UNIVERSITY vs. INSTITUTE ?: 

UNIVERSITY vs. INSTITUTE ? ”The non-hierarchical nature of most North American and northern European universities, coupled with the pervasive presence of irreverent young undergraduate and postgraduate students, could be the best environment for productive research. The peace and quiet to focus on a mission in a research institute, undistracted by teaching and other responsibilities, may be a questionable blessing.” (Robert May, 1997)

PRIZES AS PERFORMANCE CRITERIA ?: 

PRIZES AS PERFORMANCE CRITERIA ? LIMITED SCOPE TIME LAG COUNTRY/INSTITUTE vs. INDIVIDUAL? Albert Einstein: Birth, school: Germany University, early work: Switzerland Professorship: Prague, Zürich, Berlin Citizenship: German, Swiss, US

EUROPEAN RESEARCH PERFORMANCE - TRENDS: 

EUROPEAN RESEARCH PERFORMANCE - TRENDS GAINING IN PUBLICATION NUMBERS LOSING IN IMPACT LOSING IN RESEARCH INVESTMENT LOSING IN INDUSTRIAL COLLABORATION

COMPETITION FOR MONEY - USA: 

COMPETITION FOR MONEY - USA

LICENSING INCOME OF US UNIVERSITIES (FY 2000, mill. $): 

LICENSING INCOME OF US UNIVERSITIES (FY 2000, mill. $) U of CAL 261,5 COLUMBIA 138,6 DARTMOUTH 68,4 FLORIDA St 67,5 STANFORD 34,6 MIT 30,2 U of WASH 30,2 U of PENN 26,5 U of FLORIDA 26,2 GEORGETOWN 26,0

COMMERCIAL EXPLOITATION OF UNIVERSITY RESEARCH: 

COMMERCIAL EXPLOITATION OF UNIVERSITY RESEARCH DIFFICULT TO PUT IN PRACTICE EXPERT SUPPORT SYSTEMS ESSENTIAL ROYALTIES NOT LUCRATIVE USA: AVG. 3 % OF RESEARCH COSTS LUCKY STRIKES RARE INDIRECT BENEFITS TO UNIVERSITY AND SOCIETY !

FINANCIAL DILEMMAS OF EUROPEAN UNIVERSITIES: 

FINANCIAL DILEMMAS OF EUROPEAN UNIVERSITIES BASIC BUDGETS LOW, DECREASING R & D FUNDING LOW, SCATTERED TUITION INCOME LOW OR ZERO ENDOWMENTS INSIGNIFICANT PRIVATE CAPITAL FLOW LOW COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES LIMITED

SPECIALIZATION OF INSTITUTIONS - USA: 

SPECIALIZATION OF INSTITUTIONS - USA

PRODUCTIVITY OF PUBLIC FUNDING - USA: 

PRODUCTIVITY OF PUBLIC FUNDING - USA

FEASIBLE SOLUTIONS FOR EUROPEAN UNIVERSITIES: 

FEASIBLE SOLUTIONS FOR EUROPEAN UNIVERSITIES INCREASE IN COMPETITIVE FUNDING FOR BASIC RESEARCH (ERC?) RIGOROUS REVIEW OF APPLICATIONS SPECIALIZATION OF INSTITUTIONS CENTERS AND NETWORKS OF EXCELLENCE INCREASED FINANCIAL AUTONOMY

ELEMENTS OF PRESTIGE? : 

ELEMENTS OF PRESTIGE? HISTORY/TRADITION RESEARCH EXCELLENCE STUDENT SATISFACTION/JOB PLACEMENT ALUMNI PRIDE CHARISMATIC PERSONALITIES CULTURAL ACHIEVEMENTS

SURVIVAL STRATEGIES FOR EUROPEAN UNIVERSITIES: 

SURVIVAL STRATEGIES FOR EUROPEAN UNIVERSITIES ACCEPT COMPETITION ON FAIR TERMS ALLOW SPECIALIZATION/ELITISM RETAIN RESEARCH – TEACHING LINK BUT WITH VARIATIONS LOBBY FOR INCREASED RESOURCES DEFEND AUTONOMY/ACADEMIC FREEDOM

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