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Premium member Presentation Transcript Slide1: Jari Lavonen, Professor of Physics and Chemistry Education Department of Applied Sciences of Education University of Helsinki FINLAND Students’ Interest in Physics Teaching and Learning: A survey of Students’ Expectations (in Finland)Question in the International ROSE Survey”I like school physics (science) better than most other subjects”: Denmark Norway Sweden Finland Iceland Israel England Japan Ireland Greece Estonia Latvia Poland Russia Spain Turkey Egypt Philippi Ghana Uganda 1,6 1,8 2,0 2,2 2,4 2,6 2,8 3,0 3,2 3,4 Question in the International ROSE Survey ”I like school physics (science) better than most other subjects” Almost in all countries, boys like science better than girls . Girls Boys In some countries, girls dislike science very much! In most countries, science is less popular than most other subjects In some countries, mainly developing countries, pupils like science 4 point likert-scale: Totally disagree □ □ □ □ Totally agree 1 2 4Problems in physics teaching discussed in several conferences and in literature: Problems in physics teaching discussed in several conferences and in literature 1. Students’ decreasing interest in physics (science) 2. Students’ difficulties in learning concepts (misconceptions) 3. Students do not select physics courses or science and technology related occupations Interest in physics Learning of concepts Choosing of Physics courses or occupations Student’s interest in the subject matter leads to deep learning One of the main reason for interestQuestions to be answered: Questions to be answered How students’ interest in physics can be aroused and deep learning supported: What contents and contexts are interesting for students? Are there differences in male and female students’ interests? How students would like physics to be taught? In practice three surveys will be presented and discussed Standard survey methodology in all surveysSampling is same: Standard survey methodology in all surveys Sampling is same A questionnaire - partly International ROSE survey (Svein Sjøberg, Oslo), - partly designed based on previous research on students’ attitudes or interest, e.g. Donnelly & Jenkins, 2001 75 secondary schools (grades 7-9) and 43 upper secondary schools were selected randomly The questionnaire was distributed to participants in spring 2003 (two reminders). 3626 secondary school pupils (grade 9) and 2734 upper secondary school students (grade 11) answered the survey (81 % of selected schools)Some background about interest: Some background about interest Interest is composed of value-related and feeling related components Interest is aroused in interaction with surrounding Individual and situational interest (Krapp et al. 1992): Individual interest is aroused gradually, it has an effect on both individual knowledge and values and it is rather stable. Situational interest can be aroused very fast occasionally, it is emotional and may fade rapidly (Hidi 1990). According to current psychological research …: According to current psychological research … Situational interest can be transmuted gradually into individual interest motivation and interest is no longer seen an individual variable is seen as an integrated component of interacting factors (aspects of the social and material context in a certain learning situation …) (Volet & Järvelä, 2001). Interest research: Interest research Typically, student interest has been explored by looking at their interests towards 1. the domains of physics or content, 2. the context, where a certain scientific domain is met, 3. the activity, the type of teaching methods 4. … Interest, contents and contexts: Interest, contents and contextsStudents’ interests in contents and contexts of physics?: Students’ interests in contents and contexts of physics? Items of the type: How interested you are in learning the following things? 4 point likert-scale: Not interested □ □ □ □ I am very interested Atoms and molecules: Atoms and molecules Boy GirlX-ray and ultrasound use in medicine: X-ray and ultrasound use in medicine Petrol and diesel engine: Petrol and diesel engine Astronomy: Astronomy Closer look to contexts: Closer look to contextsContext sum variables : Context sum variables Through grouping of items (reliability analysis) six contexts were formed by calculating sum variables, (e.g. in mechanics) Here four are presented: Idealised situations (force and movement) Society (traffic safety) Technical applications (bridge construction, support strength and forces) Human beings and body, (muscular forces) Ideal context: Ideal context Number of students female male Difference of means moderate Middle of the scaleSociety: Society Communication satellites etc. Traffic safety (starting, braking, ...) How to save energy and avoid misuse? Musical instruments and how they produce different sounds How to use and keep in shape everyday electrical appliances? How electricity has influenced the development of our society? Social context: Social context Number of students female male Difference of means moderate Technical applications context : Technical applications context Number of students female male Difference of means largeHuman context: Human context Muscular strain and forces in sports Hearth, blood pressure and circulation, control of body temperature Effects of solarium and sunlight on skin Electrical shock / electrical muscular phenomena Effect of ionising radiation on human body Human context: Human context Number of students female male No significant difference of meansTeaching methods: Teaching methodsTeaching method: Teaching method Use of a teaching method helps students to acquire - concepts, ways of thinking, - skills, and - values. Teaching methods are - goal-oriented and - emphasise social interaction among students and between students and the teacher. “Teaching method” is used here as a synonym for a - learning or instructional method/model/strategy, - student activity or classroom practice. What kind of teaching methods are interesting for ninth grade students? : What kind of teaching methods are interesting for ninth grade students? 5 point likert-scale: Teaching method is USED NOW never □ □ □ □ □ very often Teaching method SHOULD BE USED never □ □ □ □ □ very often Secondary students’ (nStudent = 3626) evaluations of how often teaching methods are used in physics classroom (means): 1 never 2 rarely (1-4 times a term) 3 sometimes (2-4 times a month) 4 often (2-3 times a week) 5 daily now Secondary students’ (nStudent = 3626) evaluations of how often teaching methods are used in physics classroom (means) Visit to science centre or museum An expert visit our lesson Reading an encyclopedia or a web page Visit to industry, site visit Learning by writing essay, referats Making network presentations Teacher presenting network presentations Teacher uses students' ideas Work with tasks individually Teacher presenting demonstrations Reading a textbook Practical work in small groups Discussion in small groups Project work in small groups Work with tasks in small groups Teacher leads discussion Teacher presents/ solves problems Teacher presents new material Results discussed in the framework of motivation and teaching/learning research: Results discussed in the framework of motivation and teaching/learning research There are two main approaches to wake up pupils’ motivation: - “autonomy supporting teacher” help pupils to feel them autonomously (e.g., Teacher uses students' ideas) - teacher wake up pupils’ curiosity (e.g., site visit to museum, CERN, … Quark Net collaboration: ) Teacher is an expert, who knows subject matter, principles of learning (PCK) and, therefore, it is valuable that a teacher presents new material … Result of the current “teacher talk” –research (Scott and Leach): When a teacher is leading discussion it is possible to move: Authoritative talk Dialogue talkSlide28: Upper secondary students’ (nStudent = 2661) evaluations of how often teaching methods are used in physics classroom (means) Visit to science centre or museum An expert visit our lesson Reading an encyclopedia or a paper Visit to industry Learning by writing essay, referats Discussion in small groups Making network presentations Teacher presenting network presentations Teacher uses students' ideas Project work in small groups Work with tasks in small groups Work with tasks individually Teacher leads discussion Teacher presenting demonstrations Reading a textbook Practical work in small groups Teacher presents/ solves problems Teacher presents new material 1 never 2 rarely (1-4 times a term) 3 sometimes (2-4 times a month) 4 often (2-3 times a week) 5 daily nowChoosing/not choosing physics: Choosing/not choosing physics Why choosing or not choosing physics?Answers of 2661 upper secondary schools, 2nd graders : Why choosing or not choosing physics? Answers of 2661 upper secondary schools, 2nd graders 19 items surveying the reasons for not choosing and 18 items surveying the reasons for choosing elective courses in physics. 5 point likert-scale: not important reason □ □ □ □ □ very important reason Through grouping of variables (reliability analysis) five reasons are important for choosing or not choosing physics: Examples of items:: Examples of items: Reasons to reject ”My future studies do not require physics” ”I am not competent in physics” ”Content in physic is too masculine” ”Negative message from media” ”Mother have negative opinion” about physics studies” Reasons to choose ”Physics is useful in my future occupation” ”Physics is interesting subject” ”I am talented in physics” ”Positive attitude of my friends (e.g. my friend choose too)” ”Physics teacher supported to choose”Reasons to choose Physics: Reasons to choose Physics * * * 0 1 2 3 4 Future relevance (further studies or occupation) Interest and importance Own competence Family and friends Media, teacher and councelling Girl Boy a) According to t-test statistically significant difference p < 0.05. b) Small effect Cohen’s d > 0.2 a) a) a), b) Not at all important reason Very important reasonReasons to reject Physics: Reasons to reject Physics * * * 0 1 2 3 4 Physics too technical (not interesting) No own competence Family and friends Media, teacher and councelling Girl Boy Not at all important reason Very important reason No future relevanceSummary: SummaryHow to wake up interest?: How to wake up interest? There are differences how interesting contents or contexts are: 1) astronomy is interesting for both boys and girls 2) human contexts is interesting for both boys and girls Major changes wished to the present teaching methods: 1) more site (industrial) visits etc., 2) teacher-led discussions, 3) small-group activities (discussion in small group, practical work, concept maps)Versatile pedagogical approaches are needed: Versatile pedagogical approaches are needed Teacher has to remember that - there are different kinds of students in the classroom (no cloned medians) - there are different types of goals (knowledge, skills, …) - there is a need for various pedagogical approachesReasons to choose or reject physics and implications: Reasons to choose or reject physics and implications Future relevance most important reason Role of parents, counselling, media etc. are viewed small! Small gender differences, especially in group of choosers Pupils should be informed about future relevance by the physics teacher Pupils should be helped to be aware of actors influencing their choicesThank you!: Thank you!Slide39: Basic Education Act 1998 General National Objectives and Distribution of lesson hours 2001 Teacher training (universities, NBE, municipalities) Local curriculum (municipalities, schools) Study materials (publishing houses, NBE) National Core Curriculum 2004 (NBE) Teaching and learning Finland: FinlandEducational system in Finland shortly: Educational system in Finland shortly 5 million people “Knowledge-based-society” Consistent, long-term, strategy based educational policy One comprehensive school to all pupils Over 50 % of the students continue their studies in upper secondary school National core curriculum Strong autonomy at school level Teachers are experts in curriculum development (all teachers have master level degree) Success in PISSA : Success in PISSA Slide43: 440 6 16 26 Greece Korea Hong Kong-China Finland Netherlands Canada Switzerland Belgium Japan Australia Iceland Sweden France Germany Austria Slovak Republic Luxembourg Poland Hungary Norway Spain United States Latvia Portugal Italy You do not have the permission to view this presentation. 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