Review for Spring Semester Final Exam!!!!: Review for Spring Semester Final Exam!!!! Great Depression to Vietnam & Watergate
Slide2: The New York Stock Exchange Black Friday, October 24, 1929
CAUSES OF THE GREAT DEPRESSION: CAUSES OF THE GREAT DEPRESSION OVERPRODUCTION (Industrial & Agricultural)
UNEVEN DISTRIBUTION OF WEALTH
OVERSPECULATION +MARGIN BUYING
EASY MONEY (CREDIT)
STOCK MARKET CRASH Herbert Hoover: Herbert Hoover According to Hoover, Government’s job was to stay out of the way of big business
OVERSPECULATION: OVERSPECULATION “GET RICH QUICK SYNDROME”
LACK OF GOVT. REGULATION
‘29 MARKET CRASH
Q: What is Foreclosure?: Q: What is Foreclosure? A: When you can’t afford mortgage payments or loan payments and the bank comes and takes your stuff away. Unemployment Statistics for 1932 The Depressions Cruelest Year: Unemployment Statistics for 1932 The Depressions Cruelest Year 16,000,000 to 25,000,000 in 1932
25% of the workforce
In 2006 that would mean: 32,500,000 unemployed!
For our workforce today in the 2000’s
5.8% in 2006
BUSINESS CYCLE TROUGHS: BUSINESS CYCLE TROUGHS RECESSION = TWO SUCCESSIVE 1/4’s (3 MONTH PERIODS) OF DECLINING GDP ($ OF GOVT, CONSUMER AND BUSINESS SPENDING)
DEPRESSION = UNEMPLOYMENT GREATER THAN 12%
Depression = rise in unemployment + fall in GDP AGRICULTURAL OVERPRODUCTION: AGRICULTURAL OVERPRODUCTION INCREASED TECHNOLOGY
GOOD GROWING CONDITIONS
SUPPLY GREATER THAN DEMAND The Great Dust Bowl: The Great Dust Bowl Over use & Over grazing
No crop rotation
No soil conservation
No wind breaks
Loss of natural grasses and animals
Climatic change – the drought of the 30’s
Great Depression effected the rest of the World also!: Great Depression effected the rest of the World also! US stops importing goods
US can’t make loans to Germany any longer
US raises Tarriffs
Smoot-Hawley Act Depression Era Survival: Depression Era Survival Rent a hot bed for $0.05
Hot because it was rented out for 8 hours and it never cooled off
Eat in a soup kitchen or stand in a breadline.
Wash in train/bus stations Depression Era Survival: Depression Era Survival Hobos and bums
250,000 children under age 18
Need a blanket use newspapers
Need a house use cardboard
Riding the Rails FDR’s New Deal: A new philosophy: FDR’s New Deal: A new philosophy FDR believes government should help to solve major social and economic problems I. The New Deal: I. The New Deal Three R’S of Government
The New Deal: One Big Experiment: The New Deal: One Big Experiment New Deal Math: New Deal Math Bad Economy + Huge Increase in Government Spending = ??????
Huge Deficit = ???
Lack of a Balanced Budget
Debt?? Causes of World War II: Causes of World War II Hitler, Mussolini, and Tojo did not cause World War II.
The Treaty of Versailles which ended World War I is the chief cause of World War II.
This is the single most important cause of WWII! Treaty of Versailles & Germany: Treaty of Versailles & Germany Germany’s Rhineland Demilitarized
German land is given to Poland
The Saar region of Germany is occupied by France
Germany has to pay mass amounts of reparations
Appeasement: Appeasement Giving Hitler what he wants to avoid war!
Lost mostly at Munich Conference
Prime Minister of Great Britain 1930’s
Slide22: Nonaggression Pact August 1939 Russian Ambassador Molotov German Ambassador von Ribbentrop Slide24: Coordinated use of Airpower, Mobile Armour, and Ground Troops! Lighting War!! Slide25: The Phony War and the Maginot Line:
From the Fall of Poland to the Invasion of France! A tourist
attraction today! Slide26: Mussolini
Japan Slide27: Winston Churchill FDR – Franklin D. Roosevelt Joseph Stalin Chaing Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle The Allies
USA, USSR, China,
Great Britain, and
France Slide28: FDR suffers a stroke in Warm Springs Arkansas
Harry S. Truman becomes President of the United States Slide29: From September 1940 to July 1941, London suffered severe damage from German air attacks. Known as the London Blitz, this period of World War II resulted in many British casualties. “Never have so few done so much for so many!” The Battle of Britain The RAF The RAF The RAF The RAF Slide30: 50 old destroyers for Island Bases in the Caribbean! Lend Lease: “You’d lend a neighbor a garden hose if his house were on fire?” FDR in a Fireside Speech 1940 Slide31: Lend-Lease assistance was more than just military equipment. It was food and other necessities to keep the British people as well as their soldiers in the fight against Hitler. Slide32: Turning Point in the
Pacific: Coral Sea
& Midway May and
June of 1942. The emergence of the AIRCRAFT CARRIER as a major tactical weapon of war!!! Stalingrad : Stalingrad The turning point on the Eastern Front
Perhaps the Turning Point for all of WWII
500,000 Nazi soldiers go into Stalingrad
Van Paulus surrenders 325,000 troops
Only 9,000 ever get home!
1,500,000 Russian Troops Die at Stalingrad
One of the bloodiest battles in HISTORY! Bloodiest Battle : Bloodiest Battle Bloodiest of all time
Caused Germans to suffer unrecoverable loss of men Slide35: Rommel sweeps
Across N. Africa! Monty & the British 8th Army
Wait for Rommel at El Alamein! Slide36: Monty stops Rommel at El Alamein!
November 1942! The Americans, Canadians, and
Free French land in West Africa
Under the command of Dwight
Eisenhower. Slide37: December 7th 1941 Slide38: December 7th 1941 US Losses at Pearl Harbor:: US Losses at Pearl Harbor: 5 Battleships
1,200 Wounded American divers work around the aft turrets of the battleship USS Arizona at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii on Feb. 2, 1942 during World War II. The Arizona was sunk and destroyed during the Japanese aerial attack on Pearl Harbor on Dec. 7, 1941.
The Japanese Lose the War: The Japanese Lose the War Dec. 7th, 1941
Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor angers and unifies the American people like nothing else has ever done. Slide41: Island hopping: The US strategy of taking just
strategic islands on the way to Japan isolating people
like Hiro Onada! Operation Overlord: Operation Overlord The Allied invasion of Normandy France
June 6, 1944
Also known as D-Day! D-Day: D-Day June 6, 1944 – American
Landings at Utah & Omaha Beaches Slide44: Ike and the 101st Airborne right before takeoff! Slide49: D-Day the largest amphibious landing in HISTORY:
2,800,000+ troops, 2,500,000 tons of supplies,
11,000 air craft, and 3000+ ships!!! Slide50: Omar Bradley - US George Patton - US Monty - British De Gualle – Free French Ike – the Supreme
Commander of Allied
Forces in W. Europe The Allied Generals Slide53: V-1 over London Slide54: U.S. Marines of the 28th Regiment of the Fifth Division raise the American flag atop Mt. Suribachi, Iwo Jima, on Feb. 23, 1945. Strategically located only 660 miles from Tokyo, the Pacific island became the site of one of the bloodiest, most famous battles of World War II against Japan.
Slide55: Truman’s Potsdam Ultimatum! Slide56: Hiroshima August 6th
Nagasaki August 9th Reasons for Dropping the A-Bomb: Reasons for Dropping the A-Bomb Impress Stalin and the Soviets with US technology and power
Punish the Japanese for Pearl Harbor and everything else during WWII
End the War in the Pacific because the Japanese would not give up easily Slide61: All matter of items
No rationing of fresh
Fruits and vegetables
As most Americans
Grew victory gardens
Slide62: Not only war bonds
In taxes helped
to fund the war The Cold War: The Cold War World War II Ends
The Cold War Begins Judgment at Nuremberg: Judgment at Nuremberg War crimes
Crimes against peace
Crimes against humanity The Cold War-A Struggle forWorld Domination: The Cold War-A Struggle for World Domination Capitalism v Communism
USA v USSR
An attempt to control the entire world in every aspect
Fought 1947 - 1989 Creating the United Nations: Creating the United Nations FDR’s dream of a United Nations located in the USA is realized.
Located in New York city, the UN today plays a major role in worldwide Peace keeping. Which one doesn’t belong?: Which one doesn’t belong? Soviet Control over Eastern Europe
Berlin becomes a divided city
Communists take control of China
Soviets get control over Greece and Turkey
Which one didn’t happen? Which one didn’t happen?: Which one didn’t happen? Soviet Control over Greece and Turkey never happened, in part thanks to the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan Troubles in Berlin: Troubles in Berlin Air Lift
The Wall Germany & Berlin Symbols of the Cold War: Germany & Berlin Symbols of the Cold War After the Berlin Airlift: After the Berlin Airlift Western Europe, Canada, and the US created the NATO Alliance
Stalin counters this with the
Warsaw Pact Cold War Alliances: Cold War Alliances NATO
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization
Created by Harry S. Truman
Led by Dwight Eisenhower The Warsaw Pact
Created by Stalin
A counter to the American led North Atlantic Treaty Organization Slide76: Warsaw Pact: USSR, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania,
Bulgaria, East Germany, Albania US Goal for the Cold War Stop the Spread of Communism: US Goal for the Cold War Stop the Spread of Communism The American Policy Designed to do this is called:
Containment Containment: Containment Aid to Greece and Turkey
The Truman Doctrine
The Marshall Plan
The Berlin Airlift
The Korea War
The Vietnam War
Slide80: A US & UN Police Action: June 1950 – July 1953 Slide81: Macarthur demands permission to bomb China and personally negotiate peace with the Chinese in direct violation of Truman’s orders! Truman fires Macarthur! Slide82: In July 1953 North Korea and China, allies in the Korean War, signed a truce agreement at Panmunjom with the United Nations command that had supported South Korea. The agreement ended fighting on the Korea Peninsula, but a permanent peace settlement between South Korea and North Korea has not been reached.
US. Troops are still stationed along the 38th parallel today!!! Slide83: Weather Plane, Spy Plane, or Musical Group? U-2 Slide84: U-2 Photo taken from 100,000+ Feet Above Target. Slide85: U-2 pilot Francis Gary Powers sits in dock in Moscow's Hall of
Columns, August 17, 1960, during the opening of his espionage
trial. He was convicted and sentenced to 10 years.
Castro takes over Cuba: Castro takes over Cuba Castro overthrows Batista the US supported dictator of Cuba
When Castro announces his support of Communism, the US CIA sponsors the Bay of Pigs Invasion. Slide89: Cuban exiles captured during the Bay of Pigs
invasion walk past Cuban soldiers April 19,
1961 in this file photo from the archives
of Granma, the Cuban government
newspaper. The unidentified prisoner in the
foreground is followed by Jorge King,
known as "El Chino," who was later
executed by the Cuban government. About
1,500 Cuban exiles, supported by the CIA,
landed in Cuba in the Bahia de Cochinos
(Bay of Pigs) on April 17, 1961 with the
purpose of sparking a popular uprising and
ousting the government of Cuban leader
Fidel Castro. Most rebels were quickly
captured or killed by the Cuban armed forces.
In December 1962 Cuba traded 1,113
captured rebels in exchange for food and
medicine raised by private donations in
Cuban Missile Crisis: Cuban Missile Crisis Results of Cuban Missile Crisis: Results of Cuban Missile Crisis Castro is still in power
Soviets pull missiles out of Cuba
USA & USSR install a “hotline” to try and prevent further problems
JFK is considered a hero The Space Race!: The Space Race! The Soviets launch the first satellite, are the first to have a man in space, are the first to have a women in space, are the first to walk in space!!!!
It’s not much of a race at first. Slide93: The start of the Space Race--the launching of a Soviet man-made
earth satellite, Sputnik 1!
Slide94: This first official picture of the
Soviet satellite Sputnik I was
issued in Moscow October 9, 1957,
showing the four-antennaed baby
moon resting on a three-legged
pedestal. Pravda described the
satellite as one foot, eleven inches
and gave its weight as 184 pounds.
The outer hull is polished
aluminum covered with a special
protective material. Nitrogen gas
is sealed inside.
Slide95: Sputnik #1 October 4, 1957 Soviet satellite Sputnik 2, which carried the dog Laika was successfully launched. Laika was never to return to earth and asphyxiated after a week in orbit. Her cabin burned up on re-entry to the earth's atmosphere.
Slide96: Sputnik 2
Slide98: Baby Boomer
Bill Clinton 1948! Slide100: Urban sprawl and suburban growth! Slide101: Picture speaks for
Itself. The great
Jackie Robinson. Slide102: The refusal of the public school to admit Brown, then nine years old in
1951, because she was black led to the Brown v. Board of Education
of Topeka, Kansas. In 1954, the U.S. Supreme Court overruled the
"separate but equal" clause and mandated that schools nationwide must
Slide103: The Brown victory ends
segregation in Public
Schools. Economic Boom!: Economic Boom! The Housing Boom
The Highway and Auto Building Boom
New Technologies Boom
The Baby Boom
Plenty of Jobs with increasing Pay and Benefits! The Post War Boom!: The Post War Boom! 1950’s Economic Changes:
Growth of Suburbia
TV & other New Technology
The Transistor Dr. Jonas Salk: Creator of Salk & Sabine Vaccine to stop the spread of Polio: Dr. Jonas Salk: Creator of Salk & Sabine Vaccine to stop the spread of Polio A Young girl receiving the Salk & Sabine vaccine: A Young girl receiving the Salk & Sabine vaccine Montgomery Bus Boycott: Montgomery Bus Boycott Rosa Parks refusal to give up her seat essentially kick starts the Civil Rights Movement! Slide111: John F. Kennedy-Dallas Texas
November 22, 1963
Did Lee Harvey Oswald fire
the fatal bullet? The Warren Commission: The Warren Commission According to the Warren Commission, Lee Harvey Oswald, who was killed shortly after being arrested by Jack Ruby, was the lone gunmen.
Jack Ruby: Killed Lee Harvey Oswald before Oswald every stood trial for the murder of President Kennedy: Jack Ruby: Killed Lee Harvey Oswald before Oswald every stood trial for the murder of President Kennedy Slide114: MLK jr. Assassinated 1968 Slide115: Robert Kennedy-Campaigning for the Democratic Party Nomination in California in June of 1968!
Assassinated! Dien Bien Phu: Dien Bien Phu Vo Nguyen Giap
North Vietnamese military leader
The French at Dien Bien Phu
Signals an end to French control of Vietnam
The United States in Vietnam Slide117: Eisenhower Cites "Domino Theory" Regarding Southeast Asia Responding to the defeat of the French by the Vietminh at Dienbienphu, President Eisenhower outlines the Domino Theory: "You have a row of dominoes set up. You knock over the first one, and what will happen to the last one is the certainty that it will go over very quickly.” Needing a strong leader Ngo Dinh Diem, a Roman Catholic, is chosen by Ike to lead South Vietnam! Slide118: A series of Buddhist Monk unhappy with Diem’s leadership protests by immolating themselves! Kennedy asks, “Who are these people?” Slide119: A guerrilla fighter (Viet Cong) during the Vietnam Conflict, The conflict grew out of the Vietnam policy of former U.S. presidents Kennedy, Johnson, and Nixon. LBJ escalates the war!: LBJ escalates the war! Eisenhower and Kennedy helped the US get involved, but LBJ escalated the effort in Vietnam into a war like action. The Incident that Led to War!: The Incident that Led to War! The Gulf of Tonkin Incident
The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution! The Tet Offensive: The Tet Offensive Turning point for the USA
A Military Victory
A Psychological Defeat!!! Tet – The Lunar New Year: Tet – The Lunar New Year January 31, 1968
Attacked 36 of 44 provincial capitals
67,000 NVA & VC
Repelled within 24 to 48 hours
No popular Vietnamese support TET - The Turning Point: TET - The Turning Point US citizens turn against the war!
US military finds it difficult to fight a war its people and in some cases it soldiers don’t want to fight
Slide125: Former residents of My Lai hamlet who were killed by U.S. soldiers. During the most notorious publicly-acknowledged military atrocity of the Vietnam War, between 200 and 500 Vietnamese civilians were massacred by U.S. soldiers at My Lai hamlet on March 16, 1968. A cover-up kept the massacre a secret for a year, after which 14 soldiers were charged with the crime and only one was found guilty and sentenced to prison. The Election of 1968: The Election of 1968 Richard Nixon Elected
Promised to end the war!
Proposes De-escalation and Vietnamization
Invades Cambodia Cambodian Invasion!: Cambodian Invasion! A military failure!
A political blunder!! This is Kent State Ohio, not Cambodia! April 30, 1975: April 30, 1975 The US prepares to leave Vietnam.
“Our long national nightmare is over!” President Gerald Ford Hippies!: Hippies! Long hair
Experimented with drugs & sex
Lived in communes
Protested the war and anything that wasn’t peace or love man! Hell No We Won’t Go!: Hell No We Won’t Go! Ways that US protestors opposed the War in Vietnam
Fled to Canada
Burned draft cards or refused to register for the draft
Went to jail rather than fought a war they did not believe in Watergate: I am not a crook!: Watergate: I am not a crook! President Richard Nixon is forced to resign after the Watergate scandal.