mitsutsune yamaguchi

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Factors that affect innovation, deployment and diffusion of energy-efficient technologies - Case studies of Japan and iron/steel industry May 23, 2005 In-session Workshop on Mitigation at SBSTA22 Prof. Mitsutsune Yamaguchi Teikyo University, Japan


Outline 1. Effects of energy efficiency measures in Japan 2. Energy efficiency technologies of iron/steel industry 3. Factors that affect diffusion of energy efficiency technologies - Case study of technology transfer between Japan and China 4. Lessons learned


Effects of energy efficiency measures in Japan - macro perspective The energy intensity of Japanese manufacturing industry improved by 30% because of investment in energy efficiency technologies during 1980s. The accumulated energy cost-saving during 1980s due to such investment is estimated at 18 trillion yen (US$ 170 billion), while the total investment in energy efficiency measures was 3.3 trillion yen (US$ 31 billion). (1010kcal/Index of Industrial Production (FY1995=100)) Actual Without investment 8% Change in production process Change in capacity utilization rate, etc. 30% Effect of energy efficiency measures Source: Institute of Energy Economics of Japan (2005)


Effects of energy efficiency measures in Japan - micro perspective (case study of a Japanese steel plant) Introduction of Heat/gas pressure recovery system to generate electricity (Coke Dry Quenching (CDQ), Top-pressure Recovery Turbine (TRT), etc. Reduction in number of processes (continuous casting etc) Improvement in efficiency of each process Waste recycling (use of plastic waste in cokes ovens, recycling of dust and sludge, etc) Improvement of energy intensity: 22% (in comparison with late 1970s) Saving of 20% of all electricity demand (= saving of US$ 80 million per year per plant) - Reuse of more than 90% of steam - Reuse of H2 and CO in exhaust gas to generate electricity (base year: 1979) Improvement of energy intensity


Japan Korea EU15 USA China large average Russia Energy efficiency technologies of iron/steel industry - international comparison Source: Japan Iron and Steel Federation (Index for Japan set at 100) Trends in crude steel production Source: International Iron & Steel Institute Potential of CO2 reduction for steel industry in China and Russia (Assuming national average energy efficiency is improved to the level of Japan) China: 180 M tons of CO2/year Russia: 25 M tons of CO2/year International comparison of energy intensity of iron/steel industry Diffusion rate in Japan CDQ: 90% TRT: 100%


Energy efficiency technologies of iron/steel industry - typical examples CDQ (Coke Dry Quenching) Heat recovery system in which heated inert gas is used to generate electricity after quenching hot cokes. Effects of CDQ - Energy conservation (generation of electricity) CO2 emission reduction - Improvement of quality and strength of cokes - Prevention of air pollution (SOx, dust, etc.) - Reduction in usage of water Cost of installation US$ 20-40 million Payback period 3-5 years (model case in China) Cooling chamber  Generator Heat recovery boiler Conveyor Fan Dust collector Steam produced Cokes basket Cokes Heated cokes Steam turbine


Energy efficiency technologies of iron/steel industry - typical examples TRT (Top-pressure Recovery Turbine) Turbine generator system using the pressure of gas generated in blast furnaces Effects of TRT - Energy conservation (generation of electricity from conventionally wasted gas) CO2 emission reduction Cost of installation US$ 20-30 million Payback period 4-5years (model case in China) DC: Dust Catcher VS: Venturi Scrubber Among many energy efficiency technologies, CDQ & TRT were selected because of their energy-saving potential, ease of installation, etc. by experts in the steel/iron industry


Energy efficiency technologies of iron/steel industry - emission reduction potential in China CO2 emission reduction potential of specific technologies in China (Unit: Mt-CO2/year) *This means the CO2 reduction potential corresponding to the CER price up to 10$/t-CO2. Source: “CDM Potential in the power generation and energy intensive industries in China, A technology-based bottom up study”, Climate Policy, Vol. 5, Issue 2, 2005, Mitsutsune Yamaguchi, forthcoming


Factors that affect diffusion of energy efficiency technologies - demonstration projects *Average project size: approx. US$ 10 -20 million for 2-3 years The Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry has implemented 36 projects since 1993 and contributed to the diffusion of energy efficiency technologies in the Asian region. China Steel (16: CDQ (1), TRT (1)) Cement (2) Indonesia Pulp (1) Cement (1) Power generation (1) Oil (1) Steel (1) India Steel (2: CDQ (1)) Cement (1) Thailand Steel (1) Pulp (1) Industrial waste (1) Textiles (1) Viet Nam Cement (1) Brewery (1) Kazakhstan Cogeneration (1) Malaysia Pulp (1) Myanmar Fertilizer (1) Power generation (1) 9


Demonstration project at a steel plant in Beijing to install CDQ Period: 1997-2001 Budget: \ 2.97 billion (US$ 28 million) Site: Shougang Corporation, No.1 Cokes Oven Technical support: Nippon Steel Corporation Energy conservation: 24,700 toe/year CO2 emission reduction: 68,300 t-CO2/year Follow-up program of the demonstration project (on-site seminars, operational advice, etc.) A joint venture between Chinese and Japanese steel companies (Oct 2003) to design, produce and sell CDQ and other energy conservation facilities 8 CDQ will be installed in China because of this demonstration project Factors that affect diffusion of energy efficiency technologies case study of CDQ in China


Keys for success (1) Awareness of local industry (3) Local environmental policy (2) Initial cost reduction through localization of manufacturing 10th 5-year National Plan in China (target of diffusion rate of CDQ: 60% by 2005) Pressure from local governments (air quality, water usage, etc.) Business strategies, such as IPR, of the investing company from Japan Local competitor Energy-saving effect Co-benefits such as better air quality (very visible in CDQ) Factors that affect diffusion of energy efficiency technologies - implications from case study of CDQ in China Local steel manufacturers tend to choose investment to increase production capacity, but this can be changed by:


Lessons learned The energy-saving potential is enormous. By exploring these opportunities, a win-win situation can be created: energy security, lower energy cost, better air quality, higher competitiveness, etc. This is clear from Japan’s experience. Technology transfer and diffusion are not unilateral actions but collaboration between developed and developing countries. Business incentives for investment: reform of CDM (next slide) IPR protection Local industry’s awareness and host government’s environmental policy Bilateral and multilateral cooperation should have a sectoral focus which would enable us to enhance technology transfer by clearly identifying technology needs and energy-saving opportunities.


Lessons learned - promotion of CDM activities CDM should be designed to facilitate technology transfer by providing business incentives for investment in energy efficient technologies. Such CDM projects would contribute best to sustainable development in developing countries. <Recommendation> For host country - Clear rules - Collection of accurate data For developed countries - Scheme to promote CDM (ex. financial support, such as Japan’s Upfront Payment) For CDM Executive Board - Turning from perfectionism to “learning by doing” <GOJ’s initiative> The GOJ has been holding workshops, seminars and establishing WGs for energy efficiency etc. by CDM experts to identify challenges.


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