Sanitary Sewage Systems

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Sanitary Sewage Systems: 

Sanitary Sewage Systems

Objectives: 

Objectives Understand basic needs of sanitary sewage systems Learn basic sanitary sewage systems Read and comprehend a State Code book

Important definitions: 

Important definitions Aerobic – treatment of sewage with the use of oxygen Anaerobic – treatment of sewage when no oxygen present Building sewer – piping from house to sewer system. Common collector – piping system that transports manure from 3 or fewer properties.

Important definitions: 

Important definitions Liquid capacity – the volume of a tank below the outlet pipe Subsurface seepage system – subsurface seepage field, seepage bed and system that treated sewage is released

How is the Code made?: 

How is the Code made? Federal regulations EPA State regulations EPA Department of Public Health ASTM – American Society for Testing and Materials NSF – National Sanitary Foundation

General Requirements: 

General Requirements Appendix A Used to determine sewage flows

General Requirements: 

General Requirements Designed to accept domestic sewage NOT Discharge from roof or footing tile lines Backwash water from water softener Go thru seepage field but not septic tank Hot tub wastewater Motorized vehicle grease, oil & chemicals

Separation distances: 

Separation distances horizontal sewer lines need to be 10 ft away from water lines If sewer line is within 10ft of water line, the water line needs to be at least 18” above sewer line

Sanitary Sewer: 

Sanitary Sewer Hook up to sanitary sewer when it is w/in 200ft of residential property w/ flow <1500gpm >1500gpm hook up to sanitary system w/in 1000 ft

Pipe Size, Materials & Slope: 

Pipe Size, Materials & Slope Type Ductile iron Vitrified clay Plastic pipe Minimum 4” diameter Gravity flow 1:100 >50’ requires clean out

Sewer System Development: 

Sewer System Development Do not design in area where surface water accumulates Proper distances away from critical areas No swimming pools, sprinkling systems, underground utilities in area No limestone or bedrock w/in 4’ from bottom of system

Variance/Experimental Design: 

Variance/Experimental Design Variance – an extension for a proposed installation that cannot be compliant with regulations Experimental design – an unapproved sewage system that is being tested for approval by Dept of Health

Garbage Disposals: 

Garbage Disposals Receives waste from kitchen At least ½ size of liquid volume in septic tank or 500 gal

Private Sewage Design Systems: 

Private Sewage Design Systems Primary Systems Septic Tanks Imhoff Tanks Aerobic treatment Plants

Private Sewage Design Systems: 

Private Sewage Design Systems Secondary Systems Subsurface seepage field Waste stabilization pond Seepage bed Sand filter Gravelless seepage Chamber Peat filter

Private Sewage Design Systems: 

Private Sewage Design Systems Holding Tanks Raised Filter Beds Mounds Other systems Privies Chemical Toilets Recirculating toilets Incinerator toilets Compost toilets

Septic Tanks: 

Septic Tanks Prefabricated Made from Poured concrete Precast concrete Concrete block Plastic Fiberglass thermoplastic

Septic Tanks: 

Septic Tanks Depth Liquid min = 42” Max depth = 72” Water tight connections Proper access 12” diameter Over inlet and outlet

Septic Tanks - Baffles: 

Septic Tanks - Baffles

Septic Tanks: 

Septic Tanks <500 gpm = 750 gal >500 gpm = 1.5 * sewage flow >1350 gpm 2 or more tanks in series Multi-compartment tanks

Distribution Boxes: 

Distribution Boxes A manifold between primary and secondary systems Need access to inside of box Inspection Maintenance Cleaning

Soil Tests: 

Soil Tests Why? Percolation Test Required by qualified person

Seepage Fields: 

Seepage Fields Gravel With gravel around piping Gravelless No gravel around piping Chamber Similar to gravelless

Seepage Fields: 

Seepage Fields Size based on soil type Between 6-24” of backfill over bed 5’ of undisturbed earth between septic tank & field Top of seepage field at least 1” lower than distribution box or septic tank outlet

Seepage Fields: 

Seepage Fields Bottom of field >3’ from bedrock w/ original soil Max 2’ of fill soil can be used Do not compact Percolation test required

Gravel Seepage Field: 

Gravel Seepage Field Bedding material Clean gravel ¾”<diameter<4” Full width of trench 6” below bottom of line 2” above top of line

Gravel Seepage Field: 

Gravel Seepage Field Distribution lines Suitable materials Perforated line ½”<holes< ¾” open joint line ¼”<tile sections< ½” 3-5” oc 2 rows Holes point downward

Gravel Seepage Field: 

Gravel Seepage Field Separation Material Straw Newspaper Untreated building paper Geotextile fabric Other permeable or biodegradable material System can be open or closed loop

Gravelless Seepage Field: 

Gravelless Seepage Field At least 8” or 10” polyethylene pipe

Gravelless Seepage Field: 

Gravelless Seepage Field Holes 2 rows 8” = 3/8” 10” = ½”

Gravelless Seepage Field: 

Gravelless Seepage Field Must have filter wrap encased in pipe Bedding material Excavated soil Bends > 5’ radius Closed loop not required but must be capped at end

Serial Distribution: 

Serial Distribution Open loop system Min 6” of earth backfill over bedding material Trench should follow surface contours Min 5’ between septic tank & trench First line lower than septic tank

Serial Distribution: 

Serial Distribution Relief lines flow waste to next trench Connects to top of pipe of higher trench

Seepage Beds: 

Seepage Beds Total bottom area = 1.5 * area specified Appendix A Illustration H

Chamber Systems: 

Chamber Systems Chambers minimum 7’ apart Example Appendix A Illustration I Exhibit E Can use backfill since it will not prevent backflow

Buried Sand Filters: 

Buried Sand Filters Will have discharge from filter area Residential = 200 ft2/bedroom Aerobic treatment before filter reduces size by 50% Minimum size to treat 100 GPD

Buried Sand Filters: 

Buried Sand Filters Media Minimum 24” depth 0.5mm<granular size< 2.0mm Clean Other media can be used Chemically & biologically inert Support biological growth Hardness equivalent >= sand

Buried Sand Filter: 

Buried Sand Filter

Recirculating Sand Filter: 

Recirculating Sand Filter

Waste Stabilization Pond: 

Waste Stabilization Pond Setbacks No trees Length 3X width Capacity = 60X daily flow 3 ft< depth < 5 ft 2 ft freeboard Impermeable bottom

Raised Filter Bed: 

Raised Filter Bed Loading rate = 4 gal/ft2/day for residential systems < 1500 GPD >1500 GPD = 2.5 gal/ft2/day Maximum area >600 ft2 More area needed = multiple beds at least 15’ apart 0.5mm < media size < 2.0mm 30” depth

Raised Filter Bed: 

Raised Filter Bed Mantle area A=Q*T/25 A = Area of mantle Q = quantity of wastewater/day T = percolation time, min/in Mantle area = area of filter bed Not designed for percolation rates > 120 min/in

Raised Filter Bed: 

Raised Filter Bed Distribution piping 4” perforated piping Level 15” o.c. Surrounded by 12” of ¾” stone Sod placed over mantle and bed

Aerobic Treatment Plants: 

Aerobic Treatment Plants Only for houses used full time Class I effluent discharge to Subsurface seepage fld at least 2/3 size necessary Surface discharge Class II effluent discharge to Subsurface seepage system Sand filter Waste stabilization pond

Aerobic Treatment Plants: 

Aerobic Treatment Plants Sizing Class I & 500 gpd can be used for houses up to and & including 4 bedroom house Table in section 905.100 Access 18” grade level entrance

Aerobic Treatment Plants: 

Aerobic Treatment Plants 2 year service policy Required service within 2 days Mandatory owners manual w/ critical information Meet biological, chemical & physical treatment requirements

Effluent Discharges: 

Effluent Discharges Class I effluent can be discharged within 10’ of any surface water w/ 5:1 dilution Discharges to water not flowing limited to 2:1 ratio Common collector can discharge as long as not within 1 mi of public place and not >1500 GPD Ground surface as long as 1discharge/ac

Discharges Requirements: 

Discharges Requirements Physical Suspended solids Settable solids Color Odor Turbidity Floating debris Oil, grease, scum, etc.

Discharges Requirements: 

Discharges Requirements Biological Fecal coliform Chemical BOD5

Disinfection: 

Disinfection Surface discharges disinfected w/ chlorine Ground surface & leaves property Into surface water where recreational activities occur Chlorine contact time 30 minutes Based on 2.5 * average flow Minimum tank capacity = 30 gal Chlorine residual between 0.2 & 1.5 mg/L

Other Items in Code: 

Other Items in Code Pumps Ancillary equipment Holding tanks Sanitary dump stations Swimming pool wastewater Transporting of waste Human waste disposal Privies Portable toilets Recirculation toilets Incinerator toilets Compost toilets Licenses & fees Installation approval

Penalties: 

Penalties Type A Prohibited discharge, repeat violations Type B Improper construction practices Type C Administration violations

Penalties: 

Penalties Repeat violation Same violation within 3 years Serious health violations must be corrected within 7 days Other violations within 30 days of notification