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The writer may just report facts The writer may also include personal opinions Often there is a mixture of both Readers must read criticallyCRITICAL READING: CRITICAL READING Look at writer’s background Look at writer’s purpose Look at writer’s attitude Look at writer’s audienceJOURNALISM: JOURNALISM Newspapers Magazines Online sourcesTYPES OF JOURNALISM: TYPES OF JOURNALISM Interviews Columns Reviews Articles Editorials Editorial CartoonsESSAYS: ESSAYSTYPES OF ESSAYS: TYPES OF ESSAYS Formal Essay A prose discussion on a serious topic in a serious manner, usually rigidly structured and organized. Informal Essay A prose discussion on any topic in a light, humorous, amusing manner; often loosely organized, rambling and casual in approach.CHARACTERISTICS OF ESSAYS: CHARACTERISTICS OF ESSAYS Essays in general Prose treatment Brief Incomplete in its discussion of topic A literary wholeCHARACTERISTICS (CONT.): CHARACTERISTICS (CONT.) The Formal Essay Purpose: to inform, explain, convince Tone: serious, rhetorical, balanced The Informal Essay Narrative structure Tone: conversational, sometimes witty and humorousHUMOR AND THE ESSAY: HUMOR AND THE ESSAY Wit Incongruity The unexpected Exaggeration Humor Ability to show, with sympathy, the things in life and human behavior that are funny.SATIRE: SATIRE A literary work in which vices, follies, stupidities, abuses, etc., are held up to ridicule and contempt. A pointing out of the difference between how things are and how they ought to be.OTHER TYPES OF ESSAYS: OTHER TYPES OF ESSAYS Comparison and Contrast Essays Persuasive Essays Cause and Effect EssaysPERSONAL CHRONICLES: PERSONAL CHRONICLESDIARIES AND JOURNALS: DIARIES AND JOURNALS Diaries: a private form of writing with no further intended audience Journals: varying styles and topics. Give a glimpse of the writer’s value of his or her worldLETTERS: LETTERS Private Letters Public Letter Letters can Reveal character Express opinions Ask for information Give information Audience and Purpose influence tone.PERSONAL REFLECTIONS: PERSONAL REFLECTIONS Personal Reflections must be memorable and significant and : Give character insight Lead to an unexpected conclusion Show how a lesson was learned Awaken feeling of pity, compassion, joy and nostalgiaAUTOBIOGRAPHY: AUTOBIOGRAPHY Written by the subject for publication Author has some purpose for writing To teach To arouse awareness To warn Simply to entertainMEMOIRS: MEMOIRS A TYPE OF AUTOBIOGRAPHICAOL WRITING, DEALING WITH THE RECOLLECTIONS OF PROMINENT PEOPLE OR PEOPLE WHO HAVE BEEN A PART OF OR HAVE WITNESSED SIGNIFICANT EVENTS. CONSIDERED BOTH AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL AND HISTORICALBIOGRAPHY: BIOGRAPHY The accurate presentation of a life story from birth to death of an individual. Historical biographies include strands of an individual’s life interwoven with historical persons, places and events.OTHER TYPES OF NONFICTION: OTHER TYPES OF NONFICTION Speeches Historical Writing Science Writing Technical writing Writing online Miscellaneous writingELEMENTS OF NONFICTION: ELEMENTS OF NONFICTION Characters, Plot, and Setting. Like fiction, nonfiction has characters, plot, and setting. However, these elements are real, not made up. The main character in an autobiography or biography is called the subject. The subject's words, thoughts, and actions are presented.MORE ELEMENTS: MORE ELEMENTS Purpose. Different types of nonfiction have different purposes. Biographies and autobiographies, for example, have the purpose of informing the reader. They use explanatory, descriptive, and narrative paragraphs. Other types of nonfiction, such as newspaper editorials, are intended to win readers over to a certain opinion. They use persuasive paragraphs. Sometimes a piece of writing combines purposes.AND MORE ELEMENTS: AND MORE ELEMENTS Tone. The writer's attitude toward his or her subject matter is called tone. A writer's tone may be sympathetic, It may be bitter, It may be comic, hopeful, solemn, or anything the writer likes.HOW TO READ NONFICTION: HOW TO READ NONFICTION Try to separate Facts from Opinions. The writer has chosen facts that present a certain picture of the subject. Think about what might be missing as well as what is there.MORE READING TIPS: MORE READING TIPS Think about the writer's purpose. Is the writer trying to win you over to his or her opinion? Learn to appreciate how well a writer says something, even when you don't agree. Be a critical reader.FINAL READING TIPS: FINAL READING TIPS Be aware of the writer's tone. Frequently a writer reveals much about himself or herself by the tone he or she uses. 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