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Created by: Tricia Fleming, University of Kansas Dietetic Intern Tammy Beason, MS, RD, Nutrition Education Specialist, Family Nutrition Education Program December 2001 Let’s see what you know about phytochemicals!!!: Let’s see what you know about phytochemicals!!! Take phytochemical quiz- we will take the same one at the end and see if you learned anything! Take a few minutes and jot down some foods you think might contain phytochemicals. The American Diet: The American Diet Americans do not eat enough fruits and vegetables. Surprise- Surprise! Eat 5 a day campaign Do we need yet another reason to eat fruits and vegetables?What are Phytochemicals?: What are Phytochemicals? Phyto- greek word for plants Substances in plants that may help prevent diseases like cancer and heart disease. So far, scientists know of 3,000 different phytochemicals with possible health benefits.Phytochemical Terminology: Phytochemical Terminology Definitions you may need to know: Free radicals- are byproducts of metabolism. They are capable of causing cells to lose their structure, function and eventually destroying them. Connected with the development of 50 diseases including heart disease and cancer.Phytochemical Terminology: Phytochemical Terminology What are antioxidants? Capable of stabilizing or deactivating free radicals before they attack cells. Chemoprevention- using one or several compounds to prevent, stop or reverse the development of cancer.Phytochemical Terminology: Phytochemical Terminology Designer Food- Processed foods that are supplemented with food ingredients naturally rich in disease-preventing substances. Functional Food- any modified food or food ingredient that may provide a health benefit beyond the traditional nutrients it contains. Phytochemical Terminology: Phytochemical Terminology Nutraceutical - specific chemical compounds in food, including vitamins and additives, that may aid in preventing disease. Pharmafood- Food or nutrient that claims medical or health benefits, including the prevention and treatment of disease. What is Cancer?: What is Cancer? A disease of the body’s cells Carcinogenesis is a multistage process. Initiation-transformation of cell Promotion- cells multiply to form a tumor Progression - Leads to a malignant tumor. What is Heart Disease?: What is Heart Disease? Heart Disease is a general term for a list of diseases affecting the heart. Can be caused by a variety of factors but atherosclerosis and hypertension play a major role. Is the number 1 killer in the United States. So what’s so exciting about Phytochemicals?: So what’s so exciting about Phytochemicals? Apparent ability to stop a cell’s conversion from healthy to cancerous. Inhibit various hormone actions and metabolic pathways that are associated with the development of cancer and heart disease.So what’s so exciting about Phytochemicals?: So what’s so exciting about Phytochemicals? Some phytochemicals have been found to lower LDL cholesterol. Others have been found to help prevent blood clotting. Reduce how much cholesterol the body produces and keep blood pressure down.So what’s so exciting about Phytochemicals?: So what’s so exciting about Phytochemicals? Phytochemicals are also being used in cancer treatment in dosages. Researchers still don’t know a lot about phytochemicals. They do know that people who eat large quantities of fruits and veggies have reduced cancer risks. They are doing something right!!!!Where can you find phytochemicals?: Where can you find phytochemicals? Highest anticancer activity can be found in garlic, soybeans, cabbage, ginger, licorice root, and the umbelliferous vegetables. Additional foods found to have cancer protective activity: onions, flax, citrus, tumeric , cruciferous veggies, tomatoes, sweet peppers and brown rice. The Phytochemical Family: The Phytochemical Family There are thousands of phytochemicals. But some of the basic classes of them are found in these foods: Cruciferous vegetables: broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage, dark leafy greens. Phytochemicals found are: organosulfur and glucosinolates they may help prevent cancer. The Phytochemical Family: The Phytochemical Family Tomatoes and Watermelons Phytochemical found: Lycopene Lycopene has been found to be 2 times as powerful as beta carotene in the destruction of free radicals. The Phytochemical Family: The Phytochemical Family Onions, Garlic, Scallions, Chives Phytochemicals Found: Allium compounds They help to keep healthy cells in the body from being damaged by free radicals. The Phytochemical Family: The Phytochemical Family Grapes, Strawberries, Cranberries, Nuts, Blackberries, Raspberries Phytochemicals found: Ellagic Acid Has been big in the news lately. Appears to make blood less likely to clot therefore is beneficial in preventing heart disease. The Phytochemical Family: The Phytochemical Family Citrus Fruits Phytochemical found: monoterpenes May help to prevent cancer. The Phytochemical Family: The Phytochemical Family Soybeans Phytochemicals found: Isoflavones and saponins. Have a wide range of benefits including lowering the risk for heart disease. Phytochemicals in the News!: Phytochemicals in the News! Soy has been nicknamed the Miracle Bean Chinese have regular consumption of soybeans and tofu. They have 1/2 the risk of cancer than Americans. Soy- It’s Whats for Dinner!: Soy- It’s Whats for Dinner! May also help prevent osteoporosis, and reduce the symptoms of menopause. Exact component that is responsible for the positive effect is still unknown. What are some Soy Foods?: What are some Soy Foods? Soy flours- simplest form. Can be used in baked goods. Soy isolates - used to make dairy like products. Usually used to add texture to meat products. Tofu- rich in minerals and is an excellent source of protein. What are some Soy foods?: What are some Soy foods? Soymilk- consumed by dairy sensitive individuals and strict vegetarians. Textured soy protein- used as a meat enhancer, extender and substitute. Tempeh- made of whole cooked soybeans. Soy recipe: Tofu Pumpkin CheesecakePhytochemicals in the News: Phytochemicals in the News Green Tea has also made the headlines: Green Tea- contains high levels of flavonoids. Shut off the formation of cancer cells, Turn up the body’s defense system and suppress cancer advancement. Phytochemicals in the News: Phytochemicals in the News Green Tea has also been indicated to lower LDL cholesterol and increase HDL in large quantities. More Research needs to be performed! Tea is not a substitute for the benefits of fruits and vegetables. Pigments are more than just a color!: Pigments are more than just a color! Dr. David Heber , UCLA Center for Human Nutrition, Las Angeles, CA What Color is Your Diet? Many of the pigments found in fruits and vegetables are phytochemicals. Dr. Heber and Susan Bowerman originated a seven color system organized as a color wheel. The Color Wheel: The Color Wheel Eat your colors! Red - Lycopene, phytoene, phytofluene, vitamin E- Tomatoes, tomato sauce, vegetable juice, tomato soup, watermelon. Green- Glucosinolates, Isothiocyanates, Indole-3 Carbinol, and Folic Acid Broccoli, Brussel Sprouts, Bok Choy, Cauliflower , CabbageThe Color Wheel: The Color Wheel Green/Yellow- Lutein, Zeaxanthin Spinach, Avocado, Kale , Green Beans, Green Peppers, Kiwi, Collard Greens, Mustard Greens Orange- Alpha and Beta Carotene Carrots Pumpkins, Squash, Mangos, Apricots, CantaloupeThe Color Wheel!: The Color Wheel! Orange/Yellow- Vitamin C Flavonoids Oranges, Orange Juice, Tangerines, Peaches, lemons, Limes, Pineapple. Red-Purple Anthocyanins, Ellagic Acid, Flavonoids, Grapes and grape juice, cherries, red wine, strawberries, raisins The Color Wheel!: The Color Wheel! White/ Green - Allyl Sulfides Garlic, Onion, and Chives Phytochemical Supplements: Phytochemical Supplements There are some available, but remember: They will only provide selected components in a concentrated form but not all of the compounds that occur naturally in the foods. Is there a negative side?: Is there a negative side? Studies on animals containing large amounts of phytochemicals have had negative results. Optimal levels of phytochemicals have yet to be determined. How can you get enough Phytochemicals?: How can you get enough Phytochemicals? There are things that you can do! Eating a variety of vegetables and fruits. Eat more grains. Don’t forget herbs and spices, Decrease portion size of meats.How can you increase your phytochemical intake?: How can you increase your phytochemical intake? Keep fruits and vegetables stocked and in sight. Reach for juice instead of coffee or soda. Add chopped fruit to cereal, yogurt, pancakes, muffins, or even a milkshake. Snack on fresh chopped carrots, celery, broccoli, cauliflower and peppers. How can you eat more phytochemicals?: How can you eat more phytochemicals? Add fresh greens, carrots, celery parsley, tomatoes, and / or beans to your soups. Store dried fruit (apricots, dates, raisins, and more) for a quick snack at home or work. Explore new foods and new recipes!What’s next for Phytochemicals?: What’s next for Phytochemicals? Research is KEY! Research needs to answer these questions: What types of phytochemicals provide health benefits? - some research exists but need more definite results. Establish the safety of use. - how much is too much?What’s next for phytochemicals?: What’s next for phytochemicals? Determine an effective dosage that protects against disease? Important to remember: Nothing takes the place of a healthy diet and physical exercise. - How many Phytochemicals are in this meal?: How many Phytochemicals are in this meal? Using color wheel hand-out: Tomato Soup and crackers Fruit salad ( pineapple, strawberries, peaches, and cherries) Grilled cheese - made with low-fat cheese Glass of WaterHow many phytochemicals are in this meal?: How many phytochemicals are in this meal? The answer is 9! Tomato Soup- lycopene, phytoene, phytofluene, and Vitamin E. Pineapple and peaches - Vitamin C and Flavonoids Strawberries and cherries - anthocyanins , Ellagic Acid and Flavonoids. Remember- This is only the main classes of phytochemicals, there are many more than this!Conclusion: Conclusion Phytochemicals are a complicated topic! There is sure to be new developments and news in this area! Any Questions???? You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.