Basic Carbon Chemistry

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Slide 1:

Chemical Mechanisms Halogenoalkanes to alcohols + NaOH + Na I Conditions: Warmed Through Reactants: Aqueous NaOH Nucleophilllic Substitution Nucleophillic, as OH - is a nucleophile

Slide 2:

Chemical Mechanisms Halogenalkanes to Alcohols OH - is the attacking species, attacks Carbon atom This makes an unstable intermediate species The corresponding alcohol is made + Na I NaOH Slow

Slide 3:

Chemical Mechanisms 1/2 Alcohols to Aldehyde / Ketone 2 Alcohol Ketone 1 Alcohol Aldehyde Carboxylic Acid Reactants: Strongest: H + /Na 2 Cr 2 O 7 Acidified Sodium Dichromate Weaker: H + /K 2 Cr 2 O 7 Acidified Potassium Dichromate Oxidation

Slide 4:

Chemical Mechanisms REVERSE: Alcohols to Alkenes + H 2 SO 4 180.C Conditions: 180.C Reactants : Conc H 2 SO 4 catalyst ELIMINATION Elimination of Water

Slide 5:

Chemical Mechanisms REVERSE:Aldehyde / Ketone to Alcohol LiAlH 4 : STRONGEST REDUCING AGENT. MUST BE IN ETHER Lithium- TetraHydrido - aluminate NaBH 4 : WEAKER. MUST BE IN WATER Sodium- TetraHydrido -Borate LiAlH 4 NaBH 4 REDUCTION

Slide 6:

Chemical Mechanisms Other reactions AlO 3 > 300.C (vapour) AlO 3 Catalyst Cu > 500.C Cu Catalyst (vapour)

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