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Premium member Presentation Transcript FOREIGN POLICY 1920s-1930s: FOREIGN POLICY 1920s-1930s RESULTS OF WWI: RESULTS OF WWI Wilson had wanted to “make the world safe for democracy” From postwar chaos in Europe to communism in Soviet Union, this had not been realized America does not want to be brought into another European conflictISOLATIONISM: ISOLATIONISM Defined as a withdrawal from world affairs America practiced partial isolationism America will still deal with other nations, but try to avoid entangling alliances Main effort is to stay out of a European war UNILATERALISM: UNILATERALISM Independent action in foreign affairs United States did not join the League of Nations or the World Court U.S. will use diplomacy to promote peace Disarmament- limiting of weapons WASHINGTON CONFERENCE: WASHINGTON CONFERENCE Nov. 1921 Organized by Sec. of State Charles Evans Hughes Called for 10-year naval holiday No battleships or battle cruisers would be built FIVE-POWER AGREEMENT: FIVE-POWER AGREEMENT Involved United States, Great Britain, Japan, France, and Italy Warships would be scrapped until a ratio of 5:5:3 existed among U.S., Great Britain, and Japan OTHER AGREEMENTS: OTHER AGREEMENTS Four-Power Treaty- Japan, Great Britain, United States, and France agree to respect one another’s territory in the Pacific Nine-Power Treaty- United States, Great Britain, Japan, France, Italy, Netherlands, Portugal, Belgium, and China agree to China’s territorial integrity and to uphold the Open Door Policy KELLOGG-BRIAND PACT: KELLOGG-BRIAND PACT French Foreign Minister Aristide Briand proposed that the U.S. and France agree to outlaw war as a way of resolving differences Sec. of State Frank Kellogg proposes that all nations be included 62 eventually sign WAR DEBTS: WAR DEBTS During 1800s, the U.S. had become a debtor nation with respect to Europe After 1914, U.S. becomes a creditor nation European countries could not pay debts 1931- Pres. Hoover declares a one-year moratorium on payments RELATIONS WITH LATIN AMERICA: RELATIONS WITH LATIN AMERICA FDR- Good Neighbor Policy 1934- cancels the Platt Amendment 1936- gives up claim to intervene unilaterally in Panama Withdraws marines from Haiti ECONOMIC INVOLVEMENT: ECONOMIC INVOLVEMENT After WWI, U.S. companies increase their investment in banana, coffee, and sugar plantations Largest was United Fruit Company In Guatemala, it was largest landowner, exporter, and employer Known as “banana republics” Stock market crash of 1929 affects Latin America CAUDILLOS: CAUDILLOS Military leaders who came to power in the 1930s El Salvador, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Guatemala, and Honduras all come under dictatorships U.S. would sometimes support the caudillos if they were favorable to American interestsNICARAGUA: NICARAGUA 1925- General Emiliano Chamorro overthrows the government 1926- Coolidge sends in marines to protect American interests Henry Stimson sent to negotiate end to civil war 1927- Peace treaty negotiated and U.S. calls for training of a Nicaraguan National Guard Slide14: Augusto Cesar Sandino refuses to accept agreement Organizes revolt against Chamorro and his successor, Adolfo Diaz U.S. troops cannot defeat Sandino and Hoover withdraws them in 1933 Head of National Guard, Anastasio Somoza, orders the assassination of Sandino Somoza takes over in 1937 MEXICO: MEXICO March 1938- Mexican President Lazaro Cardenas nationalizes the country’s oil industry U.S. and British firms owned and operated oil companies in Mexico Calls for action by companies Because of situation in Europe and Asia, compromise is reached in 1939 CAUSES OF WORLD WAR II: CAUSES OF WORLD WAR II 7 CAUSES: 7 CAUSES PEACE OF PARIS WEAKNESS OF LEAGUE OF NATIONS FAILURE OF DISARMAMENT ECONOMIC PROBLEMS NATIONALISM RISE OF DICTATORSHIPS AGGRESSIVE EXPANSIONPEACE OF PARIS: PEACE OF PARIS Problems left by World War I Treaty of Versailles Caused Germany to be occupied, to disarm, to give up land, to pay reparations, and to admit guilt Germany faced with unemployment, runaway inflation, and shortages WEIMAR REPUBLIC: WEIMAR REPUBLIC 1919- blamed for accepting Treaty of Versailles People want change Communists and Socialists call for overthrowWeakness of League of Nations: Weakness of League of Nations No international police force U.S. did not join, thus making it weaker Most countries more concerned with their own problems, not willing to stand against other nations Failure of Disarmament: Failure of Disarmament 1921- Washington Naval Conference 1927 and 1930- less successful conferences 1932- League of Nations conference in Geneva German Chancellor Heinrich Bruning offers to stay at level set by Versailles Treaty if others will do same Slide22: France refuses without international police force to enforce Talks collapse, and Bruning government collapses also Within 8 months, Hitler is in charge and Germany withdraws from conference and League of Nations Economic Problems: Economic Problems Germany, Italy, and Japan consider their trade situation unfair U.S., Great Britain, France, Belgium, and Netherlands control world trade In prosperous times, markets were available Combination of war reparations and the Great Depression affect overall economiesNationalism: Nationalism Hindered cooperation the same as during World War I Led to alliances Germans in Sudetes Mountains of Czechoslovakia want to join with GermanyRISE OF DICTATORSHIPS: RISE OF DICTATORSHIPS RUSSIA: RUSSIA Nov. 1917- Bolshevik Revolution Communists under V. I. Lenin call for “dictatorship of the proletariet” Instead, once in power, led to one-party dictatorship After Lenin’s Death, Joseph Stalin will emerge as the new leaderSlide27: Began to seize private property Outlawed all parties, except for Communists ITALY: ITALY After World War I, communist party urges peasants to take over land and workers to take over factories To confront the communists, Benito Mussolini founds the Fascist Party in 1919 Blackshirts- Mussolini’s army of followers 1922- Mussolini named Prime Minister Takes all power of government Slide29: Italy not satisfied with land gained in World War I Mussolini calls for restoration of Italian greatness, the glory of Rome States that the Mediterranean Sea should be an Italian lake Known as Il Duce (the Leader) GERMANY: GERMANY National Socialists (Nazis) come to power under Hitler in 1933 In 1925, Hitler had written a book called Mein Kampf (My Struggle) in which he outlined his plan for a Third Reich He called for rearmament and a Greater Germany Slide31: Once named Chancellor by Paul von Hindenburg, he began to crush any opposition and to rebuild power His army was called the Brownshirts He established the Hitler Youth to instill military discipline He said that Germany needed Lebensraum (living space) Slide32: He began to cleanse Germany of those who were not true Germans Kristallnacht- Night of Broken Glass Jewish businesses are trashedJAPAN: JAPAN Militarists begin to control Tradition of the Samurai The highest achievement in war and conquest During the 1920s, a liberal governement was in charge, by the 1930s, the military dominatesAGGRESSIVE EXPANSION: AGGRESSIVE EXPANSION MANCHURIA: MANCHURIA Japan invades in 1931 Japan needs natural resources Other countries more concerned with the Great Depression than China 1937- Japan attacks China near Peking By 1938, Japan controls most major ports and rail centers League of Nations condemns, does not act ETHIOPIA: ETHIOPIA 1935- Mussolini invades Ethiopians are crudely equipped, cannot match the power of Italy Other nations refuse to get involved Makes aggressor nations feel they can act without fear of retaliation SPANISH CIVIL WAR: SPANISH CIVIL WAR 1936- Fascists rebels under Francisco Franco wage war against the Loyalists Hitler and Mussolini help the Fascists, and the Soviet Union aids the Loyalists Franco wins in 1939 Served as testing ground for WWII Hemingway- For Whom the Bell TollsRHINELAND: RHINELAND Hitler begins to build up German military 1936- Troops move into demilitarized zone west of Rhine River Europe is afraid of war, they do not stop Hitler Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis is formedAUSTRIA: AUSTRIA Hitler supports Nazi movement in Austria Chancellor Engelbert Dolfuss is assassinated 1938- Hitler marches in unopposedCZECHOSLOVAKIA: CZECHOSLOVAKIA Germans surround on three sides Hitler wants Germans in Sudetenland to join with Germany France, Soviet Union, and Great Britain pledge to help the Czechs Hitler states this is his “last territorial claim”MUNICH CONFERENCE: MUNICH CONFERENCE 1938- British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain and French Premier Edouard Daladier meet with Hitler and Mussolini to decide fate of Sudetenland Decision is made to give Sudetenland to Hitler Chamberlain states “there will be peace in our time” U.S. NEUTRALITY: U.S. NEUTRALITY 1935-1939 – A series of neutrality laws were passed Prohibited shipment of munitions to warring countries Requires warring nations to transport American goods on their own ships Forbids Americans to travel on ships of warring nations POLAND: POLAND 1939-Hitler wanted strip of land across Polish Corridor to unite Germany with East Prussia, also wanted Danzig Poles refuse Italians take Albania Hitler takes rest of Czechoslovakia Slide44: Germans work to fortify Siegfried Line across from French Maginot Line British and French realize that appeasement has been failure Chamberlain announces that Great Britain will support Poland Hitler states that the Poles are unreasonable NON-AGGRESSION PACT: NON-AGGRESSION PACT Hitler makes agreement with Stalin to divide Poland Aug 23, 1939- Non-Aggression Pact between Germany and Soviet Union is made public Hitler felt Britain will not fight Sept. 1, 1939- Germany invades Poland You do not have the permission to view this presentation. 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