Shelter Preventing Child Abuse Neglect

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Preventing Child Abuse & Neglect in Disaster Emergency Shelters: 

Preventing Child Abuse & Neglect in Disaster Emergency Shelters Developed by the National Resource Center for Child Protective Services under grant # 90XW0015/01 with the Children’s Bureau, Administration on Children, Youth and Families, Administration for Children and Families, US Department of Health and Human Services November 2006

Welcome and Introductions: 

Welcome and Introductions

Training Objectives: 

Training Objectives Provide information to help understand how abuse and neglect occur. Present ideas about how you can help keep children safe. Let you know how to report suspected abuse or neglect if necessary. Emphasize some key principles.

Impact of Family Displacement: 

Impact of Family Displacement A shelter is a response to a temporary need for refuge. Family displacement and change create stress, and everyone responds individually. Past experiences will impact how individuals respond. Children will react in their own ways. Some children are more vulnerable and at risk in crisis.

What Is Child Abuse & Neglect?: 

What Is Child Abuse & Neglect? Recent acts or failures to act which result in death, serious physical or emotional harm, sexual abuse or exploitation. Act or failure to act which presents an imminent risk of serious harm. Child abuse happens with “regular” people. There is no easy way to identify someone who will abuse or neglect children. Some children are at higher risk by having special needs. Abuse can happen to any child, any age, including teenagers.

What Is Physical Abuse?: 

What Is Physical Abuse? Non-accidental injuries: Bruises, cuts, burns, broken bones. Discipline is not physical abuse unless it leaves injuries. The offender is normally a parent or caretaker but can also be a stranger or older child. Often the injury is not intentional.

What Is Emotional Abuse?: 

What Is Emotional Abuse? There is an assault on child’s self-esteem, mental health or social development. The offender most often is a parent or caretaker--someone whose approval is important to the child. It is sometimes coupled with physical abuse or neglect, but not always.

What Is Neglect?: 

What Is Neglect? Failure to provide for child’s basic needs Can be: Physical Medical Educational Emotional Physical and emotional neglect are most relevant in the shelter. Poverty and neglect are not synonymous –make use of available resources.

What Is Physical Neglect?: 

What Is Physical Neglect? Deprived of basic essentials Lack of adequate food, clothing, shelter, hygiene, medical/dental care Lack of supervision – many variables – use judgment re: risk of harm

What Is Emotional Neglect?: 

What Is Emotional Neglect? Lack of positive attention Ignored, rejected No comforting when upset No positive reinforcement No physical affection Often coupled with emotional abuse and/or physical neglect

What Is Sexual Abuse?: 

What Is Sexual Abuse? Inappropriate interaction, sexual in nature No easy ways to tell who will sexually abuse children Offender deliberately seeks victim *Any child can become a victim: One in three girls One in seven boys May be from dysfunctional home Also may be victim of physical or emotional abuse Increased vulnerability: Family under severe stress or trauma Young children with less developed cognitive skills Adolescents – sexually curious and inexperienced *(Tobin & Kessner, 2002)

Sexual Abuse by Strangers: 

Sexual Abuse by Strangers Stranger danger Unknown to child/family Hangs around places children congregate (playground – video arcade, etc.) Looking for opportunity – child alone May target a certain age/sex, but not always Controls child through force May “trick” the child into coming close or going to an isolated location

Sexual Abuse by Family Members: 

Sexual Abuse by Family Members Parent, step-parent, grandparent, uncle, older sibling, cousin etc. Control child through private access and family authority. Grooming process helps child think abuse is “normal.” Threats may imply the child will be “in trouble,” not necessarily physical violence.

Sexual Abuse by Acquaintances (1): 

Sexual Abuse by Acquaintances (1) Builds trust with child. Very involved with children’s activities. Pays attention, demonstrates affection, brings gifts, listens to the child. Lowers child’s sexual inhibitions. For younger child, may turn attention to parents first, win their trust.

Sexual Abuse by Acquaintances (2): 

Sexual Abuse by Acquaintances (2) Difficult to detect: Society encourages healthy involvement with children. Offender looks like “us”; harder to believe it’s happening. No hard evidence. If it seems too good to be true, it probably is.

Potential for Abuse or Neglect: Vulnerable Children: 

Potential for Abuse or Neglect: Vulnerable Children Children need adult assistance to remain safe. Elements that make children more vulnerable include: Age, Physical or mental disability, Illness, Provocative behavior, Non-assertive behavior, Powerless, defenseless, and Trauma, stress. Even older children (pre-adolescents, teenagers) can be vulnerable.

How to Prevent Child Abuse or Neglect (1): 

How to Prevent Child Abuse or Neglect (1) Plan ahead. Consider sleeping arrangements appropriate for families and individuals. Arrange for special dietary and hygiene needs of infants and toddlers. Develop activities for children of different ages. Provide trained professionals to assist with trauma and family needs. Ensure adequate and safe child care is available in the shelter. Choose staff/volunteers wisely.

How to Prevent Child Abuse or Neglect (2): 

How to Prevent Child Abuse or Neglect (2) While shelter is open Notice where children are and who is with them. Be aware of activities involving children and adults. Look for patterns of behavior. Offer assistance to parents who are struggling. Smile and give words of encouragement. Arrange for a break in child care responsibilities. Routinely check isolated places in the building. Be suspicious if non-related person asks for information about a child. Respond quickly if a child or parent asks for help.

How to Report Child Abuse or Neglect: 

How to Report Child Abuse or Neglect Don’t have to know for sure--can report suspicions--but must be specific. Be specific about behaviors. Be able to give time, date and location where behavior occurred and identify participants. Do not attempt to interview any parties. If child comes to you, stay calm, non-judgmental and help child report.

What Happens After Child Abuse Is Reported?: 

What Happens After Child Abuse Is Reported? What happens next? The shelter will contact law enforcement and/or social services and information will be assessed. Interviews may be conducted, usually quietly and unobtrusively. You may or may not be interviewed. The outcome will depend on the evidence gathered. Due to confidentiality, you may not know the outcome.

Conclusion: 

Conclusion Try to set up community relations and establish response protocols before disaster strikes. Remember that we all share the responsibility to prevent child abuse and neglect. Each and every one of us can make a difference. Thank you for your time and interest and for the work you do to assist families and keep children safe!

Other Resources: 

Other Resources Child Welfare Information Gateway (www.childwelfare.gov) National Resource Center for Child Protective Services (www.nrccps.org) American Humane Association (www.americanhumane.org) National Center for Missing and Exploited Children (www.missingkids.com) 2006 Child Abuse Prevention Community Resource Packet (order from Child Welfare Information Gateway 1-800-394-3366) Stop It Now! Toll-Free Helpline at 1-888-PREVENT

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