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Industries : 

Industries Made by Vivek Sharma 8th A Roll no. 39

Contents : 

Contents Types of industries Infrastructure necessary for industries Industrial History Industrial development Industrial technology

Types of industries : 

Types of industries On the basis of size On the basis of raw material On the basis of ownership Industry and society Industrial labour Industry and war

On the basis of size : 

On the basis of size The size of an industry depends upon the amount of capital invested, number of labour employed and the amount of production. We can classify the industries in three groups :- Cottage industry Small scale industry Large scale industry

Cottage industry : 

Cottage industry It utilizes local raw material. The products are mainly for the local market. Labour work is mostly done by family members and ordinary tools and equipments are used. The farmers in their free time or craftsman in rural areas make goods like ropes, baskets, cloth, etc.

Small scale industry : 

Small scale industry It uses power driven machines and labour, raw material can be obtained from outside and goods are sold through traders. They play an important role in the developing countries and produce cloth, paper goods, toys ,furniture, etc.

Large scale industry : 

Large scale industry It use power driven machines, thousands of labours, large capital investment, complex management, raw material from far off places. The products are sent to distant markets. Iron and steel mills, textile mills, etc are some examples of large scale industry

On the basis of raw material : 

On the basis of raw material Agro based industry Mineral based industry Pastoral based industry Forest based industry

Agro based industry : 

Agro based industry It obtain their raw materials from agriculture. Cotton and jute text tiles, sugar industry, food processing vegetable oils, etc are agro based industry.

Pastoral based industry : 

Pastoral based industry It obtain their raw material from animals like sheep, goats, cattle,etc. they use hides, skins, bones, flesh , horns, milk, etc. the woolen textiles, leather goods, dairy products, etc. are pastoral;- based industries.

On the basis of ownership : 

On the basis of ownership Depending upon the nature of ownership, the industries can be classified as under-: Private sector industries Public sector industries Joint sector industries Cooperative sector industries Multi-national sector industries

Private sector Industries : 

Private sector Industries They are owned and managed by the individuals or a group of individuals. Reliance Industries, TISCO, TELCO are private sector industries

Public sector Industries : 

Public sector Industries They are owned and managed by the central or state governments or its agencies. Bhilai steel plant, bokaro steel plant, Bharat heavy Electricals, etc are public sector Industries.

Joint sector Industries : 

Joint sector Industries They are owned and managed jointly by the private firms and the government agencies. Now the trend is towards joint sector industries, which include Oil-India, some banks, Gujarat Alkalies, etc.

Cooperative sector Industries : 

Cooperative sector Industries They are owned and managed by a group of people belonging to a cooperative society. Generally the members are producers of raw materials, such as cane-growers. The examples are handloom sector, food procession, dairy industry and sugar mills.

Multi-National Industries : 

Multi-National Industries They are setup in a collaboration with foreigners onvestros. Such industeris are owned and managed by members of two or more countries. These include companies like Coc-cola, Pepsi, etc.

Infrastructure necessary for industries : 

Infrastructure necessary for industries Industries are located only at such places, where the products can be manufactured and the goods can be easily sold at the lowest rate. Things needed in industry are-: Raw material Power resources Labour supplies Means of transport Market Water supply Site Climate Finance or capital Government policy

Raw material : 

Raw material A regular and assured supply of raw material, which is to be processed, is essential for the location and growth of industries. Many industries are located with respect to raw materials only. Raw material are of two types- weight loosing and pure materials.

Power resources : 

Power resources Coal, mineral oil and electricity are important sources of power for industries. Most of their industries tend to be located near the source of power. The power should be available not only in adequate quantities, but also at very cheap rates.

Labour supplies : 

Labour supplies The continues and successful working of an industry depends on an adequate supply of labour at reasonable wages. Some industries, where most of their work is done by machines, need skilled workers. The unskilled workers are readily available in densely populated areas.

Means of Transport : 

Means of Transport Some type of Transport is needed for the assembly of raw materials and for sending the finished goods to the market. Thus, an efficient network of transport at reasonable rates is essential for the development of industries. Railway or road junctions or ports are considering to be suitable for locating industries.

Market : 

Market After the processing of raw materials, the finished goods should reach quick the market. Nearness to market s useful for quick sale of goods. It reduces the cost of transporting the finished goods. Ready market is most essential for the perishable and heavy commodities.

Water supply : 

Water supply Most of the industries, like iron and steel, textile, rayon, paper, etc need very large quantities of water. For example- To produce one ton of steel, we need 300 tons of water. Thus, such industries near rivers, canals or lakes. The water used in industries is polluted after the use and now they are not of any other purposes to use. To use it first we have to recycle the water.

Site : 

Site Level land is always preferred over hilly areas. Large areas are needed to build factories and also for further expansion. Now the big industries are setup away from the urban areas due to less cost of land.

Climate : 

Climate Extreme climatic conditions, whether hot, cold or wet, is not suitable for developing industries. Although scientific and technologies progress has reduced the importance of climate, but it is still considered as an important factor for locating industries.

Finance or Capital : 

Finance or Capital Modern industries need huge investments. Finance from individuals, companies, banks or from government are available in big cities. Thus the planning and management of industries it concentrated in cities.

Government Policy : 

Government Policy In almost every country, the government plays an important role in determining the location of industries. Industries estates are developed in different parts to reduce regional disparities. Sometimes industries are developed in a particular region due to concessions from the government. There are many other factors of local Significance, Which can also influence of an industry.

Industrial History : 

Industrial History A cottage industry is an industry – primarily manufacturing – which includes many producers, working from their homes, typically part time. The term originally referred to home workers who were engaged in a task such as sewing or lace-making. Some industries which are usually operated from large centralized factories were cottage industries before the Industrial Revolution.

Industrial development : 

Industrial development The industrial revolution led to the development of factories for large-scale production, with consequent changes in society. Originally the factories were steam-powered, but later transitioned to electricity once an electrical grid was developed. The mechanized assembly line was introduced to assemble parts in a repeatable fashion, with individual workers performing specific steps during the process. This led to significant increases in efficiency, lowering the cost of the end process. Later automation was increasingly used to replace human operators. This process has accelerated with the development of the computer and the robot.

Industrial technology : 

Industrial technology There are several branches of technology and engineering specialized for industrial application. This includes mathematical models, patented inventions and craft skills. See automation, industrial architecture, industrial design, industrial process, industrial arts and industrial applicability.

Industry and society : 

Industry and society An industrial society can be defined in many ways. Today, industry is an important part of most societies and nations. A government must have some kind of industrial policy, regulating , Industrial pollution, financing and Industrial labour.

Industrial labour : 

Industrial labour In an industrial society, industry employs a major part of the population. This occurs typically in the manufacturing sector. A labor union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages, hours, and working conditions, forming a cartel of labor.

Industry and war : 

Industry and war The industrial revolution changed warfare, with mass-produced weaponry and supplies, machine-powered transportation, mobilization, the total war concept and weapons of mass destruction. Early instances of industrial warfare were the Crimean war and the American civil war, but its full potential showed during the World wars.

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