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Dhingra IIT Bombay http://www.civil.iitb.ac.in/~dhingraOverview: Overview Introduction Beautification of City - Case Studies Road Side Amenities Traffic Management Traffic Control Devices Parking Management Conclusion ReferencesIntroduction : Introduction Nanded, a well known Sikh Pilgrimage Center One of the Five Sikh Takhats is located here named as Hazur Sahib A famous gurudwara at Nanded, a replica of the golden temple of Amritsar will be celebrating 300 years in 2008 There will be expectancy of millions peoples to be arrive for this event Proper event management should be done to complete this event successfullySlide4: Nanded CityBeautification of City – Case Studies: Beautification of City – Case StudiesChandigarh: Chandigarh Called The City Beautiful serves as a capital of two states: Punjab and Haryana Le Corbusier produced a plan for Chandigarh that confirmed to the modern city planning principles, and a hierarchy of road and pedestrian networks Divided the city into units called 'sectors', each representing a theoretically self-sufficient entity with space for living, working and leisureChandigarh: Chandigarh The sectors were linked to each other by a road and path network developed along the line of the 7 Vs, or a hierarchy of seven types of circulation patterns The city plan is laid down in grid pattern The sectors were to act as self-sufficient neighborhoods, each with its own market, places of worship, schools and colleges - all within 10 minutes walking distance from within the sectorChandigarh: Chandigarh The original two phases of the plan delineated sectors from 1 to 47, with the exception of 13 The city was to be surrounded by a 16 kilometer greenbelt that was to ensure that no development could take place in the immediate vicinity of the town, thus checking suburbs and urban sprawlChandigarh: Chandigarh One of the unusual and popular features of Chandigarh is the Rock Garden of Chandigarh Chandigarh IT Park (also called Kishangarh IT Park) is the city's attempt to break into the IT world Divided into identical looking sectors, each sector measures 800m x 1200m. The sectors were to act as self-sufficient neighborhoods, each with its own market, places of worship, schools and collegesSlide10: Chandigarh City MapSlide13: Sector 17: City’s Heart and Retail CentreNagpur: Nagpur Winter capital of the state of Maharashtra Affectionately called as “Orange city” and also declared as a second “Green city” of India Planning process implemented by Dr. T. Chandrasekhar put the road network of Nagpur city in very good conditionSlide15: To DelhiThane – Landmark Development: Thane – Landmark Development Received “Clean City“ Award from HUDCO India for 1999-2000 Widened 133 city roads (195 kms) under the IRDP Used “Bio-remediation” process for cleaning two main lakes transforming them from dumping pools to scenic & beautiful picnic spots Beautification of junctions by providing fountains, channelizers, green chowks, illuminations etc.Slide18: Thane CityThane – Landmark Development (Cont…): Thane – Landmark Development (Cont…) City’s health solid waste management development ensures cleanliness on roads, gutters & at the public places etc. Independent Pollution Control Department to check air & water quality through its monitoring stations Welcome Gates, Auditorium, swimming pools, stadium, open grounds, gardens, high mast lighting are some of the other areas where The TMC has created landmarks Maintaining and creating green cover. More then 3 lakhs have been planted with a survival rate of 90%Ujjain: Ujjain One of the seven sacred cities of the Hindus, and the Kumbh Mela religious festival is held there every twelve years Last Kumbh Mela was held at Ujjain in April, 2004 Slide21: To Indore Location of Kumbh MelaEvent Management for April, 2004: Event Management for April, 2004 At a time, for 6000 peoples on the ghats, with the help of volunteers, each pilgrims took bath to six minutes, meaning 250,000 took bath in one hour For million peoples visited ujjain in 2004, artificial long roads were created in 20 hectres of field near the ghats for holding capacity of one million With this plan, 1.4 million peoples were managed at a time, and 5 million peoples were handled during a dayEvent Management for April, 2004 (Cont…): Arrangement was made in such a way that individual pilgrim needs to walk at most one kilometer and wait at most 2 hours All of this was observed through closed circuit video In addition to all this, mass transit was arranged so pilgrims can get to the major points of interest in Ujjain itself after their bath For big concern like Terrorism attack, 15000 police, that’s an entire army division, including 25 commando teams were provided Event Management for April, 2004 (Cont…)Solapur IRDP: Solapur IRDP MSRDC is executing works of construction of roads and junction improvement under IRDP The VIP road constructed as a model road Plants which grow thick but not tall are provided to avoid glare of headlights of incoming vehicles Also flowering plants which grow tall particularly on either side of the road for improved aesthetics are also providedRoad Side Amenities: Road Side AmenitiesRoad Side Amenities: Road Side Amenities Footpath Arboriculture Landscaping Benches, Shelters, Drinking Water Toilets, Dust bins, etc.Footpath or Side Walks: Footpath or Side Walks Provided in urban areas when the vehicular as well as pedestrian traffic are heavy, to provide protection to pedestrians and to decrease accidents Side walks are generally provided on either side of the road and the minimum width should be 1.5 m and the width may be increased based on the pedestrian traffic volume Provided with a surface as smooth as or even smoother than the adjacent traffic lane as to induce the pedestrian to keep on to the footpathSlide28: Typical Cross Section of Urban RoadArboriculture: Arboriculture Important aspects in road side development Trees provided on both sides of urban and rural road serve the following purposes: To provide attractive landscape of road sides To provide shade to the road users To protect against moving sand in desert areas To provide fruit bearing trees and timber To intercept the annoying sound waves and fumes from road vehiclesArboriculture (Cont…): Arboriculture (Cont…) In urban areas, the road side planting is mainly for the beauty or the landscape and therefore, tests of ornamental and flowering species are generally preferred On wide urban roads, the planting of shrubs is done on the medians or separators besides providing trees on road sides It is desired that the crowns of the trees planted on both sides of a road do not cover the complete carriagewayLandscaping: Landscaping Landscape Planning is concerned with the demographic, aesthetic, ecological and functional aspects of land use Includes architecture design, site planning, estate development, environmental restoration, park and recreation planning, and historic preservationPrinciples of Landscaping: Principles of Landscaping Should help to preserve pleasing and aesthetically valuable features The road should follow the natural terrain and harmoniously blend with it Medians and rotary islands should be provided with flowering shrubs and plants Turfing or shoulders and slopes should be provided with flowering shrubs and plantsSlide33: Typical Cross Section of Urban Road with Footpath and LandscapingSlide37: Mumbai Pune ExpresswaySlide38: Mumbai Pune ExpresswayTraffic Management: Traffic ManagementTraffic Management : Traffic Management Objectives of traffic management are to make productive use of road capacity and maximize safety It includes measures to manage the supply of road space aimed at improving road capacity and/or quality and/or safety Seeks to adjust, adapt, manage and improve the transport system to meet specified objectivesObjectives of Traffic Management: Objectives of Traffic Management Facilitate and enable travel of people with ease, efficiency and safety Optimize system capacity (road and operating systems) Maximize safety Provide priority for public mass transport (bus) system Facilitate convenient and safe movement of pedestrians and non-motorised vehicles Minimize environmental pollution due to trafficTraffic Management Techniques: Traffic Management Techniques Traffic circulation system Traffic control system Priority for public transport Pedestrian facilities Parking policy Accident care and incident management Installation of traffic signs and lane markings Improved street lighting Road pricingTraffic Circulation System : Traffic Circulation System The master plan for road links is to be developed to required lane widths as per estimated traffic volumes The circulation system along them need to be re-organized introducing one-ways, no way be mode type by time period, turning movements restrictions at intersections etc. to minimize conflicts, increase capacity and maximize safetyTraffic Control System: Traffic Control System The directional movements of vehicles and pedestrians need to be regulated Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) need to be installed to regulate traffic based on real time flows Control systems need to accord priority for public transport modes They must be enable easy, convenient and safe movement of pedestriansUse of ITS : Use of ITS For ensuring safety Using high resolution camera Road side detectors Variable message signs For improving the transport facility By providing real time arrival information system of transit buses Accident avoidance systems at turning points Incident management systemsSlide46: High Resolution Camera Intelligent Traffic LightsPriority for Public Mass Transport: Priority for Public Mass Transport High occupancy vehicles (HOVs), in particular buses, need to be given priority Objectives are to improve operational efficiency of the bus system, reduce travel time to bus users, promote modal shift to bus system, increase safety and reduce environmental pollutionParking Facilities: Parking Facilities In roadway transportation system, parking facilities form the terminal Parking facilities can be either on-street or off-street On street: spaces near the sides of the roads where vehicles are allowed to park Off street: spaces away from the main thoroughfare and connected to it through a service roadSlide49: On-street Parking: Straight Parking On-street Parking: Skew ParkingSlide50: Off-street ParkingParking Demand: Parking Demand Generated by the land use pattern in the vicinity This is an important variable as the average duration of parking gives an idea as to how frequently the same parking space can be used for parking different vehicles IRC:SP:12-1973 Recommendations: For shops and markets, one parking space should be provided for every 80 sq.m of floor area For apartment houses (flats), one parking space for every two flats of 50 to 99 sq.m areaTraffic Control Devices: Traffic Control DevicesTraffic Control Devices: Traffic Control Devices Signs, including Variable Message Signs (VMS) Signals Markings Street lightingRoad signs: Road signs Proper road signs aid the drivers in reaching their destinations safely and efficiently Properly designated road signs improve safety by: Instructing drivers on safe speeds Informing drivers on impending changes in road geometry Reducing driver confusion through clear signs on allowable traffic movement patternsCategories of Traffic signs: Categories of Traffic signs Regulatory signs: meant to inform the road users of certain laws, regulations and prohibitions Warning signs: used to warn the road users to certain hazardous conditions that exist on or adjacent to the roadway Informatory signs: used to guide the road users along routes, inform them of destination and distance and provide with information to make travel easier, safe and pleasantVariable Message Signs (VMS): Variable Message Signs (VMS) Traffic control devices used to provide motorists en-route traveler information The information is most often displayed in real-time and can be controlled either from a remote centralized location or locally at the site designed to affect motorist behavior to improve traffic flow and operations The objective of providing the information is to allow the motorist time to avoid an incident, prepare for unavoidable conditions, or to give travel directionsSlide57: VMSSlide58: Highway VMSSlide59: Urban SignsTraffic Signals: Traffic Signals Control devices which could alternatively direct the traffic to sop and proceed at intersections Traffic control signals: Fixed time signal Manually operated signal Smart Traffic Signals – or technically “Intelligent Transportation systems” – can actually sense when traffic volume are increasing and can adjust timing of their lights accordingly Pedestrian signal Special traffic signalSlide61: Smart Traffic SignalsRoad/traffic Markings: Road/traffic Markings Made of lines, patterns, words, symbols or reflectors on the pavement, kerbs, sides of islands or on the fixed objects within or near the roadway Also called special signs intended to control, warn, guide or regulate the traffic The markings are made using paints in contrast with color and brightness of the pavement Light reflecting paints are commonly used for traffic markingsStreet Lighting: Street Lighting Street Lighting is an important way of increasing road safety at night It also improves the quality of life for residents by deterring crime and making people more secure For safe night driving, it may be considered as an added facility to the road usersLighting Layouts: Lighting Layouts Single side lighting: economical to install, but suitable only for narrow roads Staggered lighting (both sides): adopted for wider roads with three or more lanes Central lighting: adopted for wider roads with three or more lanes Note: spacing of the lights is decided based on location, lamp size, height of mounting and lighting requirementsSlide65: Spacing 30 to 60m Single Side Lighting Staggered Lighting Central LightingParking Management: Parking ManagementParking Management: Parking Management Includes a variety of strategies that encourage more efficient use of existing parking facilities, improve the quality of service provided to parking facility users and improve parking facility design Address a wide range of transportation problems, and help achieve a variety of transportation, land use development, economic, environmental objectives. Specific Parking Management strategies Parking Management Strategies: Parking Management Strategies Shared parking: parking spaces are shared by more than one user, allowing facilities to be used more efficiently Regulate parking facility use: More convenient and visible parking spaces are managed and regulated to give priority to higher-value trips, increase efficiency and user convenience Parking maximums: Establish maximum in addition or instead of minimum parking standards to avoid excessive parking supplyParking Management Strategies (Cont…): Parking Management Strategies (Cont…) Remote parking: Encouraging longer-term parkers to use off-site or fringe parking facilities, so more convenient spaces are available for priority users Improving User Information and Marketing: Provide convenient and accurate information on parking availability and price, using maps, signs, brochures and electronic communicationSlide70: Improved Walkability: Improve pedestrian conditions to allow parkers to conveniently access more parking facilities, increasing the functional supply in an area Increase Capacity of Existing Parking Facilities: More parking spaces can sometimes be provided by using currently wasted space, sizing spaces for smaller vehicles and motorcycles, and using car stackers Parking Management Strategies (Cont…)Slide71: Parking pricing: Charge motorists directly for using parking facilities, and set fees to encourage efficient use of parking facilities Parking Facility Design and Management: Improved parking facility design to address safety, stormwater management, user comfort, security and aesthetic objectives Parking Management Strategies (Cont…)Typical Traffic Management Practices: Typical Traffic Management PracticesConclusion: ConclusionConclusion: Conclusion For event which is going to happen in Nanded in 2008 Identify the corridors which is leading to the centre of major events Increase the capacity of these corridors by widening the roads based on expected traffic and with proper geometric design Do proper parking management with increasing capacity the existing parking facilities and also provide new parking facilities by considering parking demand Conclusion (Cont…): Conclusion (Cont…) Provide suitable traffic controlling devices to control, regulate, and guide traffic and pedestrians Wherever possible, provide variable message signs (VMS) at important locations Provide facilities like benches, shelters, drinking water, toilets, dust bins, etc. for the pilgrims who are visiting the event Also to take care of terrorist attack, adequate police force should be provided along with commando teams (can take help from army divisions)References: ReferencesReferences: References IRC:93-1985 Guidelines on Design and Installation of Road Traffic Signals IRC:SP:32-1988 Road Safety for Children IRC:SP:44-1994 Highway Safety Code MORT&H Manual for Safety in Road Design IRC:67-2001 Code of Practice for Road Signs IRC:79-1981 Recommended Practice for Road DelineatorsReferences: References IRC:SP:31-1992 New Traffic Signs IRC:30-1968 Standard Letters and Numerals of Different Heights for Use on Highway Signs IRC:35-1997 Code of Practice for Road Markings (with paints) IRC:SP:43-1994 Guidelines on Low-Cost Traffic Management Technique for Urban Areas IRC:11-1962 Recommended Practice for the Design and Layout of BicyclesReferences: References IRC:99-1988 Tentative Guidelines on the Provision of Speed Breakers for Control of Vehicular Speeds on Minor roads IRC:103-1988 Guidelines for Pedestrian Facilities IRC:SP:12-1973 Tentative Recommendations on the Provision of Parking Spaces for Urban AreasSlide80: Transportation Systems Engineering Department of Civil Engineering IIT Bombay Thank You You do not have the permission to view this presentation. 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