hort2 beddingplants

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Bedding Plant Production: 

Bedding Plant Production Competencies: 10.00-13.00

Bedding Plant Production Categories (Click to view): 

Bedding Plant Production Categories (Click to view) Begonias Geraniums Impatiens Marigolds Pansies Petunias Potential Problems Media Transplanting

Begonias: 

Begonias Grow 6”-12” high with pink, red, or white flowers Spaced 6”-10” apart and need direct sunlight May be propagated from seeds or cuttings and transplanted

Begonias: 

Begonias Time from seeding to market in packs is about 14 weeks (16 weeks in pots) Small seeds should be lightly pressed into surface of germinating medium Germination requires light and 65-70 degree F medium temperature Can be propagated by stem cuttings Plants do well in full sun to shade

Geraniums: 

Geraniums Grow 12”-18” Dark green leaves are rounded with scalloped edges Flowers are red, white, or pink and grow on a stem Flowers have many petals in a cluster shaped like a ball

Geraniums: 

Geraniums About 2/3 of all geraniums sold are red Direct sunlight is needed 10”-12” spacing is needed May be propagated from seeds or cuttings and transplanted

Geraniums: 

Geraniums Time from seeding to market in packs is about 14 weeks (16 weeks in pots) Seeds are large and have to be scarified because of hard seed coats Seed suppliers usually scarify before packing for sale. Seeds should be coved with 1/8 inch of medium Medium should be about 75 degrees F.

Impatiens: 

Impatiens Grow 6”-18” high and have succulent stems Lance shaped leaves Flower colors include pink, lavender, white, red, purple, salmon, and coral.

Impatiens: 

Impatiens Flowers are small and round with five petals One flower petal is shaped like a tube that protrudes from the underside of the flower Spaced 12”-18” and needs partial sun or shade May be propagated from seeds or cuttings

Impatiens: 

Impatiens Time from seeding to market in packs is about 8 weeks Seeds should be placed on surface of medium and covered lightly Germination requires light and temperature of 60-70 degrees F Have been the number one bedding crop for many years Grow well in shade

Marigolds: 

Marigolds Grow from 6” to 4’ tall Orange or yellow flowers have a pungent aroma Spaced 6”-12” apart and grow best in full sunlight Grown from seeds and transplanted

Marigolds: 

Marigolds Time from seeding to market in packs is about 9 weeks (10 weeks in pots) Seeds should be covered by ¼” of germinating medium Medium should be 70-75 degrees F Outdoor plants should grow in full sun for best quality Very few cultural problems

Pansies: 

Pansies Grow from 6-8” tall Moon-faced flowers in many colors (blue, purple, yellow, white, pink, red) Spaced 6-8” in full sun Grown from seeds and transplanted Cool-season bedding plant

Pansies: 

Pansies Time from seeding to market in packs is about 12 weeks (13 weeks in pots) Seeds should be planted on surface of medium and covered with paper to keep dark Germination medium should be 70 degrees Fahrenheit Grow in full sun

Petunias: 

Petunias Grow from 6”-18” tall Flowers have a tube-shaped base Colors include red, pink, white, blue, and pastels Spaced 10”-12” Grown from seeds and transplanted

Petunias: 

Petunias Time from seeding to market in packs is about 10 weeks (11 weeks in pots) Sow seeds on surface of medium Seeds are very small (285,000 per ounce) Need light and 70-80 degrees F germinating medium temperature Many different types and colors One of top five annuals in the U.S. for over 100 years

Potential Problems (Click to view): 

Potential Problems (Click to view) Cultural Disorders Germination Problems Fertilization Problems Uneven growth Tall and spindly growth Diseases Seedlings falling over Lower leaves brown, rotting, and drying Insects Plants missing Holes in leaves or plant parts missing

Cultural-Germination Problems: 

Cultural-Germination Problems Causes Improper temperatures Over-watering or underwatering Chemical residues in medium Seed planting depth Low quality seeds

Cultural-Germination Problems: 

Cultural-Germination Problems Correction or Prevention Use high-quality seeds Plant at proper depth Use medium with no chemical residues Maintain proper temperatures Maintain proper moisture levels

Cultural-Fertilization Problems: 

Cultural-Fertilization Problems Causes Lack of nutrients Root injury Improper pH of medium Excessive fertilization Manganese Deficiency

Cultural-Fertilization Problems: 

Cultural-Fertilization Problems Correction or Prevention Test soil or media Apply correct amounts and kinds of nutrients Use pH correcting materials

Cultural-Uneven Growth: 

Cultural-Uneven Growth Causes Poor mixing of medium Uneven moisture levels Unlevel flats Poor grading of seedlings

Cultural-Uneven Growth: 

Cultural-Uneven Growth Correction or Prevention Proper mixing of media Even watering Grading seedlings by size and quality Placing flats level

Cultural-Tall and Spindly Growth: 

Cultural-Tall and Spindly Growth Causes Too much nitrogen fertilizer Overwatering Low light intensity (too much shade) High temperatures

Cultural-Tall and Spindly Growth: 

Cultural-Tall and Spindly Growth Correction or Prevention Use the correct amount of nitrogen Reduce frequency of watering Lower temperature Provide more light Use growth retardant such as B-Nine SP

Diseases-Seedlings Falling Over: 

Diseases-Seedlings Falling Over Causes Stem rot Damping-off

Diseases-Seedlings Falling Over: 

Diseases-Seedlings Falling Over Correction or Prevention Use sterilized media Apply fungicides Improve air circulation around plants

Diseases-Brown, rotting leaves: 

Diseases-Brown, rotting leaves Causes Botrytis

Diseases-Brown, rotting leaves: 

Diseases-Brown, rotting leaves Correction or Prevention Increase air temperature Increase air circulation around plants Use proper fungicide

Insects-Plants Missing: 

Insects-Plants Missing Causes Slugs Snails Cockroaches

Insects-Plants Missing: 

Insects-Plants Missing Correction or Prevention Use baits and pesticides

Insects-Holes in Leaves: 

Insects-Holes in Leaves Causes Aphids Mealy Bugs Scale Insects Thrips Whiteflies Flea beetles Fungus Gnats Leaf miners Cutworms Caterpillars

Insects-Holes in Leaves: 

Insects-Holes in Leaves Correction or Prevention Use of recommended pesticides to control insects

Bedding Plant Media: 

Bedding Plant Media Media-materials used to start and grow plants Soil Inorganic materials Commercially prepared mixes

Soil: 

Soil Soil must be mixed with other materials such as peat moss to add organic matter and improve aeration and drainage.

Inorganic Materials: 

Inorganic Materials Improve aeration and drainage Sand-finely ground stone Gravel Perlite Expanded volcanic rock Neutral pH 7.0-7.5 sterile Vermiculite Expanded mica sterile

Commercially Prepared Mixes: 

Commercially Prepared Mixes Sterile (no insects, weeds, or diseases) Jiffy-Mix Redi-Earth Pro-Mix Sunshine Mix Metro Mix Other brands also available

Containers: 

Containers Flat-plastic tray used for planting seeds Cell packs-several small cell-like pots of plastic molded together used for planting one or two seeds per cell Sold without transplanting to another container Peat pots can be planted directly in the soil Jiffy 7 pellet can be planted directly in the soil

Containers: 

Containers Plastic pots of various sizes and shapes Clay pots of various sizes and shapes Styrofoam pots of various sizes Hanging baskets Standard pot is the same width at the top as it is high Azalea pot is ¾ as high as its top diameter or width

Transplanting Instructions: 

Transplanting Instructions Seedlings should have true leaves not just seed leaves or cotyledons before being transplanted. Waiting too long to transplant causes shock to transplanted seedlings.

Transplanting Instructions: 

Transplanting Instructions Hold plants by their leaves. Do not hold by the stem because a badly bruised stem will cause the seedling to die. The media may need to be loosened with a pot label to keep from breaking stem and roots. Do not shake medium off roots.

Transplanting Instructions: 

Transplanting Instructions Use a dibble or other means to make a hole for the transplanting seedling.

Transplanting Instructions: 

Transplanting Instructions 5. Plant seedling in the media in the new container slightly deeper than it grew in the flat and gently press media around roots.

Transplanting Instructions: 

Transplanting Instructions 6. Water gently to settle media around roots.

Transplanting Instructions: 

Transplanting Instructions Keep moist for a few days to prevent wilting and dying. Grow and harden-off before selling.

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