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IB History of Americas: 

IB History of Americas Civil War Review

Typical Paper 3 Questions: 

Typical Paper 3 Questions Compare the political, economic and military strengths and weaknesses of the North and South United States at the beginning of the US Civil War in 1861. Assess the successes and failures of Reconstruction in granting civil and political equality for former slaves in the southern states of the US To what extent was the expansion of slavery into the territories the primary cause of the US Civil War “Abraham Lincoln has been given greater credit than he deserves for the emancipation of slaves in the US.” How far do you agree with this statement? To what extent did economic and social differences cause of US Civil War

Antebellum America: 

Antebellum America Abolitionism dominated reform mid-century Controversy between gradual/immediate and colonization/assimilation William Lloyd Garrison (1830s) – radical abolitionist (Liberator) Disagreement among abolitionists on what means should be used to handle the slavery issue – Political? Moral arguments?

King Cotton: 

King Cotton 1793 invention of the cotton gin resulted in explosion of slavery Huge agricultural factory Cotton exported to England (accounted for 80%); $ used to buy Northern goods Cotton growing centered in lower south (slave trade 1790 -1860 always moved south)

Why did King Cotton fail : 

Why did King Cotton fail 1861, British had oversupply By the time British needed cotton, the Emancipation Proclamation had been issued and the North had the moral cause Working people in England and to some degree France, hated slavery – pressured gov’ts As union armies captured the South, they sent supplies of cotton to England Booming war industries (north and south) helped British economy Northern grain shipped to Britain who suffered through bad harvests

Regional attitudes toward abolitionisits: 

Regional attitudes toward abolitionisits North was split by rivalries w/in the movement South was united in its opposition to the North South could not dominate the nation, but it was powerful enough to prevent attacks on the institution of slavery

Example of Southern influence: 

Example of Southern influence Washington DC was considered a “Southern” city -- active during the slave trade “gag rule” From Washington to Buchanan, all Presidents apart form the Adams had been Southerners or had sympathized with Southern interests Abraham Lincoln was the first to be elected on a Northern platform, and his election split the nation

1850s: 

1850s Slavery conflict calmed by political compromises Distraction of western issues Victory in the Mexican War HOWEVER, it was with the vast territory gains acquired from Mexico that came further questions regarding the expansion of slavery

The compromises: 

The compromises Slave trade abolished in 1808 – internal sales unaffected ($800 - $1500) Missouri Compromise 36 degrees 30’ – hope to keep balance of power between slave and free Wilmot Proviso “neither slavery not involuntary servitude shall ever exist” in any territory acquired from Mexico

Compromise of 1850: 

Compromise of 1850 NM and UT popular sovereignty CA enters as a free state No slave trade in WA DC Slavery could EXIST in WA DC Tougher fugitive slave law Gov’t to pay TX pre-annexation debt Congress would not have jurisdiction over interstate slave trade

Problems w/ Compromise: 

Problems w/ Compromise CA as a free state upset the balance in the Senate - -South angry Fugitive Slave Law – GREAT propaganda and ammunition for abolitionists (martyrs and victims!) Led to the publication of Uncle Tom’s Cabin in 1852

Local self-determination: 

Local self-determination Slavery issue moved from Congress to the territories themselves Partisan fighting Resulted in extremism Breakdown of political party system

Kansas Nebraska Act: 

Kansas Nebraska Act 1854 Stephen Douglas attempt to unite Democratic Party behind him (also trying to get the transcontinental RR to go through his home state rather than southern) Territories rely on popular sovereignty which would nullify the Missouri Compromise Fear that enough Southerners could move in and vote in slavery

Bleeding Kansas: 

Bleeding Kansas 1856 200 people killed Southerners rushed into the new territory trying to claim it for the South John Brown raid #1 – later resurfaced at Harper’s Ferry (1859) captured by Robt E. Lee, executed, martyred

Dred Scott Case: 

Dred Scott Case Slave Brought to a free state Six to three majority – Scott did not have a claim before the court – he was not a citizen, he was a slave Struck down idea of popular sovereignty by declaring that the gov’t had no right to deprive a citizen of his property -- slave = property = gov’t could be required to protect it

Election 1860: 

Election 1860 Lincoln’s election led to seccession February 1861 – seven southern states formed the Confederate States of America This did not necessarily mean war Southern states hoped to build a new nation and economic empire around “King Cotton”

Lincoln’s reaction: 

Lincoln’s reaction KEEP THE BORDER STATES “I hope to have God on my side, but I must have Kentucky.” Final showdown came over federal forts in the South. South wanted them Lincoln “let” them fire the first shots

Northern advantages and Southern assests: 

Northern advantages and Southern assests North Industrial strength ¾ railroads Population (22 mil + immigrants) ¾ nations wealth Controlled the sea Moral higher ground Better logistical planning South Better military leadership – Lee and Jackson Only needed a stalemate to win Until the Emancipation Proclamation, believed they held the higher moral ground Better soldiers

Confederate chances: 

Confederate chances Lack of significant industrial capacity Severe shortages of shoes, uniforms, blankets Railroads cut or destroyed Did not get foreign intervention (often necessary for a revolution to succeed)

Emancipation Proclamation: 

Emancipation Proclamation Jan 1, 1863 Union army could confiscate slaves as they invaded the South on the basis that they were contraband Moral crusade All slaves in rebellion declared now and forever free Slaves in border states not included Lincoln’s goal was to strengthen the moral cause at home and abroad

Reconstruction: 

Reconstruction What was reconstruction? Attempt to achieve national reunification and reconciliation and to improve the status of former slaves Reality – goals are hard to meet The North prevailed during the war. The South prevailed after the war.

Proposals and Plans: 

Proposals and Plans 1864-65: Lincoln’s 10% plan 1865: 13th Amendment 1865-66: Presidential Reconstruction: Johnson’s version of Lincoln’s proposal (Wade Davis Bill) Black Codes (1866): designed to regulate affairs of freedmen – purpose – guarantee stable labor supply 1866-67: Congressional Plan; 10% plan with the 14th Amendment 1867-77: Military Reconstruction (Congress) 14th Amendment plus black suffrage that was later established nationwide by 15th Amendment Compromise of 1876: ends Reconstruction

Fallout of Reconstruction: 

Fallout of Reconstruction Road to institutional discrimination Failed to empower blacks politically 14th and 15th Amendment ignored for several generations Sharecropping became a wide-scale practice keeping blacks tied to plantation owners with crop lien laws, which facilitated the binding of blacks unable to pay their debts Wholesale disenfranchisement began in 1890 Poll taxes & prop requirements, literacy tests, “Jim Crow” laws (segregate), lynchings

Booker T Washington: 

Booker T Washington 44% nonwhite illiterate in 1900 Head of Tuskegee Institute Taught “useful” trades as means toward self-respect and economic equality Advocated ACCOMODATION in which he accepted segregation in return for the right to develop economic and education resources of the black community Urged blacks to adopt white middle class standards in speech, dress, and habits so blacks would gain respect of whites “Atlanta Compromise” 1895

W. E. B. DuBois: 

W. E. B. DuBois Opposed Washington and demanded immediate social and economic equality for blacks Agitation and litigation Niagara Movement Demanded immediate end to segregation and to discrimination Wanted immediate equal opportunity Argued that the “talented tenth” of the black community be given full and immediate access to the mainstream of American life NAACP

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