Chronic Kidney Disease

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Chronic Kidney Disease: 

Chronic Kidney Disease Dr. Asha Gopinath GP Registrar

Slide2: 

A 63 year female with a 12 year history of hypertension and diabetes has been treated with metformin 1g bd, Gliclazide 80 mg bd, Rosuvastatin 10mg daily, Ramipril 10 mg daily, aspirin 75 mg daily and amlodipine 10 mg daily for the last two years. At annual review her blood pressure is 138/82 mmHg, fundi reveal background diabetic retinopathy, foot pulses are normal but she has evidence of a peripheral sensory loss to the ankles in both feet. Her results show: HbA1c7.2%(3.8-6.4)Creatinine176 µmol/L(60-110)Which of the following drugs should be withdrawn? Aspirin Gliclazide Metformin Ramipril Rosuvastatin

Slide3: 

A 43-year-old male is diagnosed with diabetic nephropathy. If this patient had type 1 diabetes his chances of progressing to End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) would be approximately 50%. What percentage of type II diabetics with diabetic nephropathy would be expected to progress to ESRD? 15 30 45 50 55

Slide4: 

A 32-year-old male with type 1 diabetes undergoes a 24 hour urine collection. Which of the following urine albumin concentrations signify microalbuminuria? 10 mg/day 50 mg/ day 500 mg/ day 1 g/day 3.5 g/day

Slide5: 

A 72-year-old male is being treated for hypertension, gout, gastro-oesophageal reflux and has a three year history of type 2 diabetes. He takes a variety of medications. You are concerned after requesting serum biochemistry on this patient.These investigations have revealed: Serum sodium138 mmol/L (137-144)Serum potassium4.4 mmol/L (3.5-4.9)Serum urea12.8 mmol/L (2.5-7.5)Serum creatinine162 µmol/L (60-110)In which of the following drugs would the dose NOT need to be reduced in light of these findings? Allopurinol Gliclazide Lansoprazole Lisinopril Metformin

Slide6: 

5 A 25-year-old female presents for annual review. She developed diabetes mellitus at the age of 15 and currently is treated with human mixed insulin twice daily. Over the last one year she has been aware of episodes of dysuria and has received treatment with trimethoprim on 4 separate occasions for cysytits. Examination reveals no specific abnormality except for two dot haemorrhages bilaterally on fundal examination. Her blood pressure is 116/76 mmHg. Investigations show: HbA1c9%(3.8-6.4)Fasting plasma glucose12.1 mmol/L(3.0-6.0)Serum sodium138 mmol/L(137-144)Serum potassium3.6 mmol/L(3.5-4.9)Serum urea4.5 mmol/L(2.5-7.5)Serum creatinine90 µmol/L(60-110)UrinalysisGlucose +24 hour urine protein220 mg/24hrs(<200)What would be the best therapeutic option to prevent progression of renal disease? a. Improve glycaemic control with insulin b. Prescribe low protein diet c Treat with ACEI d Treat with prolonged antibiotics e Treat with steroids

Slide7: 

44 yr old man has a serum creat of 476 micromols/ l itre and urea 38. Which of the following would be most useful in diff CRF from ARF Hb 9.8 BP 165/100 USS kidneys 7.8 cm bipolar length 1.2 g prot/ 24 hrs PTH 92 ( 10-55 )

CKD: 

CKD Chronic kidney disease is due to the progressive loss of nephrons resulting in permanent compromise of renal function Possible causes of chronic kidney diseae include: glomerulonephritis - accounts for 25% of cases multisystem disease: eg Diabetes acute pyelonephritis / tubulointerstitial disease hypertension and vascular causes polycystic kidney disease - the most common cause of familial chronic renal failure idiopathic in 15% of cases Rarely: drugs - toxic nephropathy e.g. analgesic nephropathy connective tissue disease e.g. polyarteritis nodosa

Clinical features: 

Clinical features Symptoms Fatigue Dyspnoea Pleuritic pain Ankle Swelling Restless legs Nausea Anorexia Vomiting Diarrhoea Pruritus Reduced concentration Bone pain Impotence/ infertility Menorrhagia Signs Pallor ^ BP Cardiomegaly Pleural effussion Pericarditis Pulm / peripheral oedema Retinopathy Prox myopathy Periph neuropathy Late: Aryythmias, encephalopathy, seizures, coma

Classification of CKD: 

Classification of CKD Stage Description Minimum test frequency 1 Normal GFR GFR >90 mL/min/1.73 m2 with other evidence of CKD* 12 monthly 2 Mild impairment GFR 60-89 ml with other evidence of CKD 12 monthly 3 Moderate impairment GFR 30-59 ml 6 monthly (12 if stable**) 4 Severe impairment GFR 15-29 ml 3 monthly (6 if stable)** 5 Established renal failure GFR < 15 ml or on dialysis 3 monthly * The “other evidence of CKD may be one of the following: • Persistent microalbuminuria • Persistent proteinuria • Persistent haematuria (after exclusion of other causes, e.g. urological disease) • Structural abnormalities of the kidneys demonstrated on ultrasound scanning or other radiological tests, e.g. polycystic kidney disease, reflux nephropathy • Biopsy-proven chronic glomerulonephritis ** stable = < 2ml/min/1.73 m2 change over 6 months or more

Estimation of the Glomerular Filtration Rate : 

Estimation of the Glomerular Filtration Rate The GFR may be estimated using the 4-variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation: GFR (ml/min/1.73 m2)=186 x {[Serum Creatinine µmol/l/88.4] –1.154} x {age (years) -0.203} x 0.742 if female and x 1.21 if African American.

Criteria for referral to specialist services: 

Criteria for referral to specialist services Estimated GFR <15 ml/min/1.73 m2 Immediate referral 15 – 29 Urgent referral (routine referral if known to be stable) 30 – 59 Routine referral if: • Progressive fall in GFR/increase in serum creatinine • Microscopic haematuria present • Urinary PCR > 45 mg/mmol • Unexplained anaemia (Hb <11g%), abnormal potassium, calcium or phosphate • Suspected systemic illness, eg SLE • Uncontrolled BP (>150/90 on 3 agents) 60 – 89 Referral not required unless other problems present

Information needed for referral: 

Information needed for referral 1. General medical history 2. Urinary symptoms 3. Medication 4. Examination, eg. BP, oedema, palpable bladder or other positive findings 5. Urine dipstick for blood and protein 6. Urine protein/creatinine ratio, if proteinuria present -early morning urine (EMU) preferable (in diabetes, result of urine albumin/creat ratio if dipstick proteinuria negative) 7. Blood count 8. Serum creatinine, sodium, potassium, albumin, calcium, phosphate, cholesterol, 9. HbA1C (in diabetes) 10. All previous serum creatinine results with dates 11. Result of renal ultrasound scan if available

Serum creatinine concentration should be measured at initial assessment and then at least annually in:: 

Serum creatinine concentration should be measured at initial assessment and then at least annually in: • Previously diagnosed CKD including: o Identified renal pathology (e.g. polycystic kidney, Biopsy proven GN, reflux nephropathy) o Persistent proteinuria o Urologically unexplained haematuria • Conditions associated with a high risk of silent development of obstructive kidney disease: o Bladder voiding dysfunction (outflow obstruction, neurogenic bladder) o Urinary diversion surgery o Urinary stone disease (>one episode/year) • Conditions associated with a high risk of silent development of parenchymal kidney disease: o Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, heart failure, o Atherosclerotic vascular disease • Conditions requiring long-term treatment with potentially nephrotoxic drugs o e.g ACEIs, ARBs, NSAIDs, Lithium, Mesalazine, Cyclosporin, Tacrolimus • Multi-system diseases that may involve the kidney o e.g. SLE, vasculitis, myeloma, rheumatoid arthritis.

Testing for urinary protein: 

Testing for urinary protein Dipstick urinalysis for protein should be undertaken: • As part of the initial assessment of patients with o Newly discovered hypertension, haematuria or reduced GFR o Unexplained oedema or suspected heart failure o Suspected multi-system disease, e.g. SLE, vasculitis, myeloma o Diabetes mellitus • As part of the annual monitoring of patients with o Biopsy-proven glomerulonephritis o Reflux nephropathy o Urologically unexplained haematuria or persistent proteinuria o Diabetes mellitus (patients with diabetes mellitus should also have annual testing for albumin:creatinine ratio to exclude ‘microalbuminuria’ if the dipstick urinalysis for protein is negative) • As part of routine monitoring for patients receiving nephrotoxic agents eg gold, penicillamine

Confirmation of proteinuria : 

Confirmation of proteinuria If protein dipstick test is positive (=1+) the following should be undertaken • MSU for culture to exclude UTI • Laboratory confirmation of proteinuria, preferably on early morning urine (EMU) sample, to exclude postural proteinuria • Positive tests for proteinuria are - Urine protein:creatinine ratio >45 mg/mmol or Albumin:creatinine ratio of >30 mg/mmol • Persistent proteinuria - two or more positive tests for proteinuria, preferably spaced by 1 to 2 weeks In annual diabetes monitoring if dipstick test negative request albumin/creatinine ratio. Microalbuminuria is defined as ACR > 2.5 mg/mmol (men) or >3.5 mg/mmol (women) on 2 or 3 occasions

Proteinuria: If found, management should include: 

Proteinuria: If found, management should include • Quantification of proteinuria, test for haematuria, estimate GFR. -Urine PCR > 100 mg/mmol – refer to Nephrologist irrespective of GFR. - Urine PCR >45 mg/mmol with microscopic haematuria – refer irrespective of GFR.

DM with microalbuminuria or proteinuria : 

DM with microalbuminuria or proteinuria • Achieve good glycaemic control (HbA1c 6.5-7.5%). • Prescription of an ACEI (or ARB in the presence of a firm contraindication to ACEI), titrated to full dose, irrespective of initial blood pressure • Control of hypertension if necessary: Addition of other antihypertensive drugs in combination to reach the blood pressure goal. • Measurement at least once a year of • urine albumin:creatinine ratio (or PCR) • serum creatinine concentration (for estimated GFR). • Referral to diabetes team for review. • Referral to a nephrologist • as for patients without diabetes.

Referral for further investigation for atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (ARAS): 

Referral for further investigation for atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (ARAS) • Refractory hypertension (ie BP > 150/90 mm Hg despite 3 anti-hypertensive agents). • Recurrent episodes of pulmonary oedema despite normal LV fn on Echo ( “flash pulmonary oedema”). • Rising serum creatinine concentration (rise of >=20% or fall of GFR of >15%) -over 12 months with a high clinical suspicion of widespread atherosclerosis. -or during the first 2 months after initiation of ACEI or ARB treatment (Level 3DA) • Unexplained hypokalemia with hypertension.

Recognition of acute renal failure (ARF) : 

Recognition of acute renal failure (ARF) ARF is characterised by rapid deterioration of renal function over a period of hours or days ARF should be suspected in the context of an acute illness in the presence of: • A 50% rise in serum creatinine concentration • A fall in estimated GFR of >25% (if baseline unknown assume 75 ml/min/1.73m2) • Oliguria (urinary output <0.5 ml/kg/hr) Because it requires emergency treatment, all patients with newly detected abnormal renal function should be assumed to have ARF until proven otherwise, although the majority will turn out to have CKD

In newly diagnosed GFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m2: Management should include:: 

In newly diagnosed GFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m2: Management should include: Review of all previous measurements of serum creatinine o to estimate GFR and assess rate of deterioration. • Review of medication, particularly o recent additions (e.g. diuretics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), or any drug capable of causing interstitial nephritis eg penicillins, cephalosporins, mesalazine, diuretics) • Urinalysis: o haematuria and proteinuria suggest glomerulonephritis, which may progress rapidly • Clinical assessment, o eg. looking for sepsis, heart failure, hypovolaemia, palpable bladder. • Repeat serum creatinine measurement within 5 days o to exclude rapid progression. • Check criteria for referral o if not indicated ensure entry into a chronic disease management programme.

Management of haematuria should include:: 

Management of haematuria should include: • Check serum creatinine concentration in all patients refer to nephrologist if GFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 . • Check for proteinuria in all patients. If GFR normal: Macroscopic haematuria, +/- proteinuria: fast track urology referral; refer to nephrology if initial investigations negative. Microscopic haematuria without dipstick proteinuria: • Age >50 yrs: refer to urology • Age <50 yrs, or >50 yrs after exclusion of urological cancer: treat as CKD Microscopic haematuria with urine PCR > 45 mg/mmol - refer to nephrology.

Management of CKD: 

Management of CKD • Regular measurements of kidney function and other laboratory tests depending on the severity of kidney impairment • General health advice as appropriate on: smoking cessation. , weight loss ,aerobic exercise , limiting alcohol intake limiting sodium intake • Cardiovascular Prophylaxis For patients with 10 year risk of cardiovascular disease of > 20% Aspirin treatment if BP < 150/90 mm Hg Lipidlowering drug therapy • Blood pressure monitoring at least annually • Control of hypertension • If urine PCR <100 mg/mmol ,• Threshold 140/90 mmHg – Target 130/80 • If urine PCR >100 mg/mmol ,• Threshold 130/80 mmHg – Target 125/75 o ACEIs or ARBs to be included: • if urine PCR >100 mg/mmol • in diabetic patients with micro-albuminuria • If Hyperkalaemia present (serum K >6 mmol/l) • stop relevant drugs, eg. NSAIDs and potassium-retaining diuretics • check diet and proprietary treatments, eg. LoSalt. If hyperkalaemia persists the ACE or ARB should be stopped.

CKD stage 3: 

CKD stage 3 Annual measurement of Hb, potassium, calcium and phosphate • If Hb <11 and other causes excluded: • treat with erythropoiesis stimulating agents to maintain Hb 11-12 g/dl •Request renal ultrasonography in • patients with lower urinary tract symptoms, • refractory hypertension • unexpected progressive fall in GFR. • Immunise against influenza and pneumococcus. • Review all prescribed medication • avoid nephrotoxic drugs including NSAIDs wherever possible . • Check PTH concentration when Stage 3 first diagnosed. • If raised check serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D; • if this is low treat with ergocalciferol or cholecalciferol with calcium supplement (not calcium phosphate) • Repeat PTH after 3 months and refer if still raised.

CKD Stages 4-5 additional management : 

CKD Stages 4-5 additional management Management should be shared and should include: • 3-monthly tests: serum creatinine (for GFR), Hb, calcium, phosphate, bicarbonate, PTH • dietary assessment • immunisation against hepatitis B • investigation and treatment of phosphate retention and hyper-parathyroidism • correction of acidosis • information about options for treatment • timely provision of dialysis access depending on treatment choice

QOF: 

QOF CKD1 - to keep a register 6 points CKD2 - BP in last 15 months 6 ( 90%) CKD3 – BP < 140/85 11 ( 70%) CKD4 – CKD and BP taking ACEI or ARB 4 ( 80%) Read codes- IZ12, IZ13, IZ14 for CKD 3, 4 and 5 respectively