Global Warming and Climate Changes Effects on the

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A comprehensive presentation with an interesting focus on what is often a neglected area, soils. I would be grateful for a copy of the presentation . John Donald

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Global Warming and Climate Change Effects on the Soil Fauna Predictions and Analysis : 

(c)Dr.Vinod Khanna,Zoological Survey of India 1 Global Warming and Climate Change Effects on the Soil Fauna Predictions and Analysis Dr.Vinod Khanna Zoological Survey of India Dehra Dun <> NATIONAL SEMINAR ON RESPONSES OF ECO-BIOLOGICAL COMPONENTS TO THE PHENOMENON OF GLOBAL WARMING (NSREG-2009) Department of Zoology, Kumaon University, Nainital 26th-27th SEPTEMBER 2009

Global Warming? : 

(c)Dr.Vinod Khanna,Zoological Survey of India 2 Global Warming? “Rise in the atmospheric temperature near the surface of the earth, ocean or mountains, above average measured and acceptable temperature ”

Immediate Impact : 

(c)Dr.Vinod Khanna,Zoological Survey of India 3 Immediate Impact Causes Glaciers to Melt. Resulting into the rise in level of ocean water. To the extent that small Islands Nations may get completely submerged.

Climate Change? : 

(c)Dr.Vinod Khanna,Zoological Survey of India 4 Climate Change? “Change in the average weather that a given region experiences”. The average weather includes all the associated features such as: Temperature Wind patterns Precipitation Climate change brings natural disasters and disease

What causes the abrupt rise in Atmospheric Temperature? : 

(c)Dr.Vinod Khanna,Zoological Survey of India 5 What causes the abrupt rise in Atmospheric Temperature? The green house gases play vital role in determining the earth’s average temperature Greenhouse Gases(GHG) ? 1. Carbon dioxide, 2. Water vapor, 3. Nitrous oxide, 4. Synthetic Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and 5. Methane

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(c)Dr.Vinod Khanna,Zoological Survey of India 6 1.Carbon Dioxide (CO2): Enters the atmosphere through burning of Fossil fuels (oil, natural gas, and coal), Solid waste, Trees and wood products, and also As a result of other chemical reactions (e.g., manufacture of cement). cycle. 4.Methane (CH4): Emitted during The production and transport of coal, natural gas, and oil. Methane emissions also result from livestock and other agricultural practices and By the decay of organic waste in municipal solid waste landfills 2.Nitrous Oxide (N2O): Emitted during Agricultural and industrial activities, as well as during combustion of fossil fuels and solid waste. 3. Water Vapour 5. Fluorinated Gases Hydro fluorocarbons, Fluorocarbons, and Sulphur hexafluoride are synthetic, powerful greenhouse gases emitted from a variety of industrial processes. Fluorinated gases are sometimes used as substitutes for ozone-depleting substances (i.e., CFCs, HCFCs, and halons). These gases are typically emitted in smaller quantities, but because they are potent greenhouse gases, they are sometimes referred to as High Global Warming Potential gases (“High GWP gases”).

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(c)Dr.Vinod Khanna,Zoological Survey of India 7 Industrial Pollution Vehicular Pollution Water Vapour Solid Waste Aviation Fuel Oil Refineries Refrigeration Gases Live Stock Fossil Fuel

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(c)Dr.Vinod Khanna,Zoological Survey of India 8 These gases (GHG or High GWP gases) allow sunlight to enter the atmosphere freely. When sunlight strikes the Earth’s surface, some of it is re-radiated back towards space as infrared radiation (heat). These GHGs absorb this infrared radiation and traps the heat in the atmosphere. THUS RESULTS INTO ABRUPT RISE IN ATMOSPHERIC TEMPERATURE

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(c)Dr.Vinod Khanna,Zoological Survey of India 9 Greenhouse gases are essential to maintaining the temperature of the Earth; without them the planet would be so cold. Greenhouse gases naturally blanket the Earth and keep it about 33 degrees Celsius warmer than it would be without these gases in the atmosphere. This is called the Greenhouse Effect. Most of the global warming observed today is attributable to the human activities. Increased emissions of greenhouse gases are projected to lead to global change in soil and atmospheric moisture and temperatures

Deforestation : 

(c)Dr.Vinod Khanna,Zoological Survey of India 10 Deforestation After carbon emissions caused by humans, deforestation is the second principle cause of atmospheric carbon dioxide. And at the same time the released CO2 is not being sequestrated by the trees due to large scale felling, deforestation and drying up of forests.

Impact of Climate change ? : 

(c)Dr.Vinod Khanna,Zoological Survey of India 11 Impact of Climate change ? Climate change is changing the species through: 1.Shifting habitat 2.Changes in distribution pattern of the fauna and flora. 3.Changing life cycles 4.Changes in reproduction timings 5.Changes in length of growing seasons for plants. 6.Development of new physical traits. 7.The increased extinction rates, that mainly affects i. Less mobile species, ii. Species confined to in highly fragmented habitats iii. Species requiring combinations of environmental factors that will disappear. Ultimately, the climate change is a serious threat to biodiversity

Slide 12: 

(c)Dr.Vinod Khanna,Zoological Survey of India 12 The phenomena of global warming and climate change leads to Hazardous climate events having enormous impacts to the environment and human livelihood, Threatened farming , Threatened clean water availability, 3. Threatened Human and ecosystem health to the extent that 4. Threatens the very existence of small island nations because of the rising of sea level. Impact of Global Warming ?


(c)Dr.Vinod Khanna,Zoological Survey of India 13 (A) MAKES THE SEA LEVEL RISE, AND WHEN THE SEA LEVEL RISES, THE WATER 1.COVERS MANY LOW LAND ISLANDS; 2.COVERS THE PLANTS & ANIMAL LIFE and causes some of them to die causing a break in the food chain. 3. IMBALANCE ON THE NATURAL ECOSYSTEM Affect on one cause the serious impact on other . 4. DESTROYING MANY HUGE FORESTS

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(c)Dr.Vinod Khanna,Zoological Survey of India 14 5.The pollution that causes global warming is linked to ACID RAIN that gradually destroys almost everything it touches. 6. LEADS TO LOW HARVEST. Seasons are becoming very irregular; drastic crop reductions. 7. ERRATIC RAINFALLS. Repeated flooding, monsoons and heavy rainfalls for long periods, drought, cyclone, and tornado increase the temperature and sea levels. 8. STREAMS AND RIVERS DRYING UP. 9.SCARCITY OF DRINKING WATER. 10. Global warming is also causing many more FOREST FIRES that wipe out whole forests. In forests, some plants and trees leaves can be so dry that they catch on the fire.


(c)Dr.Vinod Khanna,Zoological Survey of India 15 B- CHANGES IN THE TIMING OF BIOLOGICAL EVENTS (PHENOLOGY) CHANGES IN THE TIMING OF BIOLOGICAL EVENTS (PHENOLOGY): Changes in insect and bird migration with earlier arrival dates of spring migrants . Later autumn departure Changes in migratory patterns . and Mismatch in the timing of breeding of bird species EARLIER FLOWERING AND LENGTHENING OF THE GROWING SEASON of some plants If they're changing their breeding time by 5 days in 10 years the Animals are just reacting to what's going on out

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(c)Dr.Vinod Khanna,Zoological Survey of India 16 C.FLORA AND FAUNA AT RISK ON SHRINKING MEADOWS


(c)Dr.Vinod Khanna,Zoological Survey of India 17 POSSIBLE WAYS THAT SPECIES MIGHT RESPOND TO THE CLIMATE CHANGES Their can be four possible 1. The species to migrate northward or move to higher elevations. The ubiquitous presence of humans, however, is making this option difficult for some species. 2. Shift in timing of natural events like flowering, migration, and egg-laying. Ecosystems are intricately connected webs, and even if a species doesn't rely on temperature and daylight cues to trigger certain behaviors, it may interact with other species that do. 3. Business as usual? 4. Ecosystems and wildlife aren't the only things that increasing temperatures will affect. Global warming is going to be a big stress to all animals, including Homo sapiens.

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(c)Dr.Vinod Khanna,Zoological Survey of India 18 Groups of Soil animal

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(c)Dr.Vinod Khanna,Zoological Survey of India 19 Detritivores(animals which feed on decomposing material), Herbivores, Carnivores (predators), Fungivores, Parasitic organisms and Omnivores. COMPOSITION OF SOIL AND LITTER FAUNA (based on their Functions)


(c)Dr.Vinod Khanna,Zoological Survey of India 20 ECOSYSTEM SERVICES PROVIDED BY THE SOIL FAUNA Mollusca Snails and slugs feed on dead plant material, Arthropods: Decomposers, Shredders, Predators, Herbivores, Fungal feeders , burrowers, stimulate the growth of microbial activity and agent for biological control of insect pests. Earthworms: Mix and aggregate Soil, Increase Infiltration, Imrove water holding capacity, Provide channels for root growth, Burry and shed plant residue and as VERMICOMPOSTERS. Nematodes: Some feed on the plants and algae (first trophic level); while Others are grazers that feed on bacteria and fungi (second trophic level); 1."Bacterial-feeders,.2."Fungal-feeders, 3.Predatory nematodes"4."Omnivores,5.Rootfeeders are plant parasites, and thus are not free-living in the soil Protozoan Feed primarily on bacteria, but also eat other protozoa, soluble organic matter, and sometimes fungi Bacteria Vital to the food web in many environments, including the soil and its processes Decomposition and Recycling Process

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(c)Dr.Vinod Khanna,Zoological Survey of India 21 Predicted that the consequent climate change will affect several attributes like Populations and communities , Density, Biomass and diversity, Activity, Rates of consumption, Life history parameters and Migration ability. Changes in the quality and quantity of litter is expected to modify soil fauna. RESPONSES OF THE SOIL FAUNA TO INCREASED CONCENTRATIONS OF ATMOSPHERIC CO2

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(c)Dr.Vinod Khanna,Zoological Survey of India 22 In addition , some other aspects due to the consequences of Climate change and Global Warming includes (1) Changes in the food resources for soil fauna in the litter layer and in the rhizosphere, (2) The consumption of low quality litter by the macro fauna, (3) The change in life span in response to temperature elevation, (4) The enhancement of earthworm burrowing activity and (5) The changes in community composition arising because of specific differential resistance to adverse conditions.

Slide 23: 

(c)Dr.Vinod Khanna,Zoological Survey of India 23 Detritivorous (like Collembola, Oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida) and Enchytraeids (Oligochaeta: Enchytraeidae) ) that take part in important ecosystem functions such as decomposition, nutrient mobilisation, soil mixing and aggregate formation; and Predatory soil fauna –(mesostigmatid mites (Acari: Mesostigmata) and larger arthropods such as beetles, spiders, centipedes, millipedes and ants–through predation) that regulate the populations of other faunal groups may possibly influence decomposition processes. INVERTEBRATES however, can have great real influence on the structure and performance of plant communities. Their influence may be direct through herbivory including occasional pest outbreaks. Changes in herbivore or soil fauna activity may lead to changes in other ecosystem processes like plant growth and development and species composition. IMPACTS OF CLIMATE ON THE SOIL FAUNA


(c)Dr.Vinod Khanna,Zoological Survey of India 24 EFFECTS OF MOISTURE AND TEMPERATURE ON SOIL FAUNA To avoid drought or desiccation during dry conditions, many soft-bodied soil animals (such as enchytraeids and collembolans, including centipedes and millipedes,) which are sensitive to drought may undertake vertical movements deeper into the soil or redistribute to moist patches. They can also enter inactive stages, or survive as dormant eggs, which are reactivated by moisture. The moisture content of the litter may affect the ability of juveniles to penetrate their substrates successfully. Moisture changes may also affect the fungal community and thereby, have indirect effects on the fungivorous fauna and the oviposition of oribatid mites. Heavy rains or floodings may lead to waterlogged conditions that cause mortality among adult collembolans . The developmental rate of collembolans, a mesostigmatid and oribatid mite is often temperature-dependent. In some collembolans, fecundity and sex ratio in the populations may also be affected.


(c)Dr.Vinod Khanna,Zoological Survey of India 25 GLOBAL WARMING AND LITTER DECOMPOSITION RATES Decomposition of plant litter, a key component of the global carbon budget, is hierarchically controlled by the triad: I. Climate ii. Litter quality iii. Soil organisms. Given the sensitivity of decomposition to temperature, especially in cold biomes, it has been hypothesized that global warming will lead to INCREASED LITTER DECOMPOSITION RATES, both through direct temperature effects and through indirect effects on litter quality and soil organisms, only if there is sufficient soil moisture.


(c)Dr.Vinod Khanna,Zoological Survey of India 26 ANALYSIS Altogether this indicates that a changing climate with altered moisture and temperature regimes probably will have profound effects on soil fauna. In conclusion, The climate change and droughts resulting from Global Warming will probably Decrease abundance and diversity of forest soil fauna. Moister conditions may primarily result in shifts in community structure. Will probably affect the composition of soil fauna communities. Disturbances on a large spatial scale may affect the resilience of soil ecosystems, as disturbances may cause permanent changes in community composition.

Slide 27: 

(c)Dr.Vinod Khanna,Zoological Survey of India 27 It is predicted that the soil fauna which is responsible for providing many ecosystem services for the existence of the above ground diversity, will definitely be effected on account of its altered density, population, biomass and decomposition and degeneration rates of the leaf litters and formation of humus . ANALYSIS (CONTD.)

Thank you : 

(c)Dr.Vinod Khanna,Zoological Survey of India 28 Thank you Dr. Vinod Khanna Zoological Survey of India Northern Regional Station, Dehra Dun-248 195 PROTECT TREES SAVE MOTHER EARTH