GIS- Technology and Applications

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Slide 1: 

GIS TECHNOLOGY AND APPLI Dr.Vinod Khanna Zoological Survey of India Dehra Dun 2nd June 2005 Technology and Applications

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What is GIS ? GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEMS is a computer based tool for mapping and analyzing things that happen on the earth. It gives power to create maps, integrate informations visualize scenarios, solve complicated problems, present powerful ideas and develop effective solutions. It has emerged as a supporting tool for decision making process.

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Network applications in GIS are Oriented towards planning, administering and operational management of resource facilities. Some other Crucial application areas are; Traffic routing for transportation planners Creating Digital elevation Model(DEM) Town planning etc.

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Objectives of GIS ? Maximize the efficiency of Planning and decision making ? Provide efficient means for data distribution and handling ? Elimination of redundant data base-minimize duplication ? Capacity to integrate information from many sources ? Complex analysis/query involving geographical ` referenced data to generate new information.

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For any application there are five generic questions GIS can answer 1. Location : What exists at a particular location 2. Condition: Identify locations where certain conditions exist. 3. Trends : What has changed since? 4. Patterns : What spatial patterns exists? And 5. Modeling : What if…..?

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The Zoological Survey of India, has in collaboration with Indian Institute of Remote Sensing, undertaken the Projects on Biodiversity Characterization and Habitat suitability analysis using GIS and Remote sensing approach ,like 1. Monitoring of A Migratory Waterfowl Habitat Using Remote Sensing Techniques (1998) Habitat Suitability Analysis of Chinkara, Gazella benetti,in Rajasthan- A Remote Sensing & GIS Approach (1999-2000) Corridor Analysis in Rajaji-Corbett Elephant Reserve (2000-01) and Biodiversity Characterization at Landscape in Barsey Rhododendron Sanctuary, Sikkim using Remote sensing and GIS. The results have been produced in the form of project reports and scientific papers.

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Dr. VINOD KHANNA, Officer Trainee Zoological Survey of India, Dehra Dun and Dr. M.S. RAVICHANDRAN, Officer Trainee, Zoological Survey of India, Chennai Supervisor Dr. S .P .S. Kushwaha Scientist-SF, IIRS 29th November, 2000 by CORRIDOR ANALYSIS IN RAJAJI -CORBETT ELEPHANT RESERVE A Case Study

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Corridor analysis in Rajaji- Corbett Elephant Reserve OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY WILDLIFE CORRIDORS REPRESENT TYPICAL SITES SHOWING ONSLAUGHT OF THE DEVELOPMENTAL ACTIVITES LIKE SETTLEMENT, AGRICULTURE HYDROELECTRIC PROJECTS ETC. 1. Assessment of Wildlife Habitat Characteristics 2. Database creation in GIS environment 3. Change detection in habitat fragmentation during 1966-67, to 1998 through 1986 Khanna and Ravichandran 1

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STUDY AREA Rajaji- Corbett Elephant Reserve Rajaji National Park 821 sq. km Sonanadi Sanctuary 799 sq.km Corbett Tiger Reserve 521 sq.km Longitude 77?00´ to 79?15´N Latitude 29?00´ to 30?00´E Altitude Range 240 m to 1200m ASL Corridor Analysis in Rajaji-Corbett Elephant Reserve Flanked by R.Kosi (East) and Yamuna West), Fragmented into three zones West of Ganges, Between Ganges and Koh River and Between Koh and Kosi River

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LOCATION OF THE STUDY AREA Study Area

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Corridor Analysis in Rajaji-Corbett Elephant Reserve METHODOLGY 1. Satellite Data i.) Landsat-TM FCC for the year 1986 ii) IRS-1C WiFS data for the year 1998 2. Collateral Data SOI Toposheet 53G,J,F,K & O (all on 1:250,000 scale) 3.Interpretation, Scanning, Mosaicing, Georeferencing of data in ERDAS,Arc/Info and ArcView To Detect Changes in Forest Cover and Study Fragmentation during 1986 and 1998 Khanna and Ravichandran

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Corridor Analysis in Rajaji-Corbett Elephant Reserve Methodology 1.Mosacing and Tracing 2.Digitization and interpretation 3. Creation of database in GIS 4. Analysis 5. Writing of Report 6. Preparation for presentation Khanna and Ravichandran

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Corridor Analysis in Rajaji-Corbett Elephant Reserve MATERIAL AND INSTRUMENTS USED 1. Simple Light Table 2. Tracing Film 3. Camera - Asahi Pentax 4. ERDAS Imagine software package 5. ArcView software package 6. Arc/Info software package 7. Contex FSS 800 scanner 8. GPS 9. SOI Toposheet Nos. 53 G, F,J,K,O 10. Landsat-TM Data 1986 11. WiFS Data 1998 12. Intel Pentium PC Khanna and Ravichandran

Slide 18: 

WiFS FCC of Rajaji-Corbett Elephant Reserve (1998)

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Corridor Analysis in Rajaji-Corbett Elephant Reserve Forest Area SOI Toposheet Landsat-TM WiFS 1967 1986 1998 (T1) (T2) (T3) _________________________________________________ Forest 4533.67 4442.67 4246.04 Non-Forest 40.81 46.20 146.09 Waterbody Nil 80.27 127.74 __________________________________________________________________________ Khanna and Ravichandran

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Corridor Analysis in Rajaji- Corbett Elephant Reserve Change Detection in Forest (km2) 1967 to 86 1967 to 98 1986 to 98 (T1 x T2) (T1 x T3) ( T2 x T3) _________________________________________________________________Forest 4433.84 4203. 43 4146.36 Non Forest 40.59 40.68 41.67 Waterbody 80.21 127.73 132.90 Addl. NF(Change) 5.81 105.53 108.93 Addl.WB (Change) Nil Nil 37.52 _________________________________________________ Khanna and Ravichandran

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CHANGES IN FOREST COVER FROM 1967 TO 1998 Area in km2 Period

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Corridor Analysis in Rajaji-Corbett Elephant Reserve GROUNDTRUTH PARAMETERS Geo-coordinates Altitude Traffic ( No. of vehicles per hour) Cattle/Human Movement Density of settlements Agriculture Terrain Type Forest Type and Density Forest Condition Plantations Khanna & Ravichandran

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Number of Vehicles/hour in Corridor Areas FED/iirs

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Forest Degradation in Corridor Areas FED/iirs

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Human/Cattle Movement in Corridor Areas FED/iirs

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Disturbance Levels in Corridor Areas FED/iirs

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Corridor Analysis Rajaji - Corbett Elephant Reserve PROBLEMS OF THE STUDY AREA Habitat fragmentation High density of settlements Discontinuity of forest in Chilla and Sona Nadi Loss of Corridor along eastern and western boundary of Chilla and Koh River Habitation by the Gujjar Community Lopping of trees for fuel, fodder Poaching Khanna and Ravichandran

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Corridor Analysis Rajaji_Corbett Elephant Reserve DISTURBANCE FACTORS 1. Fragmentation of Corridors due to- i) Hindustan Antibiotics Factory ii) Raiwala Army Camp and Ammunition Dump iii)Resettlement of Tehri Dam Evacuees in Chilla Corridor 2. Kunao-Chilla Power Channel (22m wide, 9 m deep with cemented banks) 3. Delhi-Nitipass National Highway and resultant heavy traffic 4. Rail Track passing through the corridor in Chilla-Motichur Corridor 5. High Human-cattle movement 6. Encroachment of forest land in all corridors 7. Plying of transport buses along Kunao-Chilla Power Channel Khanna and Ravichandran

Slide 33: 

Corridor Analysis in Rajaji-Corbett Elephant Reserve RESULTS Loss of Forest Cover in study area incl. corridors. Chilla - Motichur Corridor Cut-off High Traffic in two corridors (Motichur and Kotdwar) Corridor quality degradation Deep Gorge situated in Kotdwar Corridor Corridor tremendously reduced in Chilla and Kotdwar Khanna and Ravichandran

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Corridor Analysis in Rajaji-Corridor Elephant Reserve RECOMMENDATIONS 1. Reduction of pressure in corridor areas 2. Corridor restoration especially at Chilla-Motichur and Kotdwar 3. Wide bridges on Kunao-Chilla Channel facilitating elephant movement. 4. Habitat encroachment reduction Khanna and Ravichandran

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CORRIDOR ANALYSIS IN RAJAJI-CORBETT ELEPHANT RESERVE BY Dr. VINOD KHANNA AND Dr. M.S. RAVICHANDRAN ZOOLOGICAL SURVEY OF INDIA And Dr.S.P.S.Kushwaha, IIRS, FED, Dehra Dun Dehra Dun Chennai THANKS