logging in or signing up Biodiversity Profile of India Vinodkhanna Download Post to : URL : Related Presentations : Let's Connect Share Add to Flag Embed Email Send to Blogs and Networks Add to Channel Copy embed code: Embed: Flash iPad Dynamic Copy Does not support media & animations Automatically changes to Flash or non-Flash embed WordPress Embed Customize Embed URL: Copy Thumbnail: Copy The presentation is successfully added In Your Favorites. Views: 12806 Category: Education License: All Rights Reserved Like it (29) Dislike it (0) Added: April 30, 2009 This Presentation is Public Favorites: 10 Presentation Description No description available. Comments Posting comment... By: ravichandra.bojja (28 month(s) ago) hello please give me download link Saving..... Post Reply Close Saving..... Edit Comment Close By: Vinodkhanna (29 month(s) ago) http://www.authorstream.com/Presentation/Vinodkhanna-472776-.. Saving..... Post Reply Close Saving..... Edit Comment Close By: RemigiusdeSouza (29 month(s) ago) I wonder why India’s great seacoast is not included in “India’s Biodiversity Maps”. Millions of people make living from the seas, apart from “oil-explorations”. However, there is tapping of “tidal energy” as alternative source. There is great danger to wildlife – plants and animals – in the sea, because of cities, worst of all from megacities like Mumbai, Delhi, and Chennai etc. which are in proximity of rivers, wetlands and seacoast that pollute waters. Now forthcoming Nuclear Power Plant at Jaitapur is an added danger of Land and Waters. I hail from coastal area, hence happened to be touchy about territory of Sea. Saving..... Post Reply Close Saving..... Edit Comment Close By: RemigiusdeSouza (29 month(s) ago) Very Stimulating! Saving..... Post Reply Close Saving..... Edit Comment Close By: Vinodkhanna (30 month(s) ago) Check the updated version also http://www.authorstream.com/Presentation/Vinodkhanna-472776-indian-biodiversity-profile-and-conservation-status-update/ Saving..... Post Reply Close Saving..... Edit Comment Close loading.... See all Premium member Presentation Transcript Slide 1: Biodiversity Profile of India Dr. Vinod Khanna Zoological Survey of India, Dehra Dun Slide 2: WHAT IS BIODIVERSITY? Ever since the happening of the earth summit at Rio De Janeiro, Brazil the term biodiversity has become a buzzword. In fact it is the contracted form of Biological Diversity . The term 'biodiversity' encompasses the variety of all life on earth. It is identified as the variability among living organisms and the ecological complexes of which they are part, including diversity within and between species and ecosystems. Quite simply it can be defined as “variety, variability,between genes, species and ecosystems” Slide 3: Biodiversity manifests itself at three levels: Species diversity which refers to the numbers and kinds of living organisms Genetic diversity, which refers to the genetic variation within a population of species. Ecosystem diversity, which is the variety of habitats, biological communities and ecological processes that occur in the biosphere. Slide 4: Why Conserve Biodiversity? Biological diversity affects us all. Biological diversity has direct consumptive value in food, agriculture, medicine, industry. It also has aesthetic and recreational value. Biodiversity maintains ecological balance and continues evolutionary process. The indirect ecosystem services provided through biodiversity are photosynthesis, pollination, transpiration, chemical cycling, nutrient cycling, soil maintenance, climate regulation, air, water system management, and waste treatment and pest control. Quite Often asked Question ? Slide 5: Convention on Biodiversity (CBD) The three preambles of Biodiversity are: Conservation of Biodiversity Sustainable use of Biodiversity and leaving enough for the future generations. Fair and equitable sharing of Profits arising out of the use of biodiversity Slide 6: MEGABIODIVERSITY COUNTRIES OF THE WORLD India is one of the twelve-mega biodiversity countries of the world and one of the four in Asia. Megabiodiversity? :Countries that contain as much as 7-8% per cent of the world's species. The twelve Megabiodiversity countries that have been identified are : India, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Mexico, Madagascar, Zaire, Australia, China, Indonesia and Malaysia. Slide 7: India's richness of biological diversity: *India lies at the confluence of African, European and Indo-Malaysian and the biota therefore, includes African,European , Eurasian and Mediterranean elements, which together with Indian and endemic elements contributes to the richness of the characteristic Indian biodiversity. Slide 8: *India, being a vast country, shows a great diversity in climate,topography and geology and hence the country is very rich in terms of biological diversity. Slide 9: The other important features that contribute to India’s rich biodiversity are 1 Physiography of India: Although nearly half of India lies outside tropics in the middle latitudes, it is customary to speak of India as a tropical country, since the region is shielded of by the Himalayas in the north from the rest of Asia and has the same general type of tropical monsoon climate throughout the land. 2.Variety in elevation and local climate 3. Wetlands: India has a rich variety of wetland habitats, may be manmade or natural where the soilremains waterlogged or submerged for whole or part of year upon which the wetland biota depends. 4. Forests:The panorama of Indian forests ranges from evergreen tropical rain forests in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, the Western Ghats, and the northeastern states, to dry alpine scrub high in the Himalaya to the north. . Between the two extremes, the country has semi-evergreen rain forests, deciduous monsoon forests, thorn forests, subtropical pine forests in the lower montane zone and temperate montane forests 5. Marine Environment :rich fishing grounds.,Coral reefs and a number of islands opposite Sri Lanka. Slide 10: India has ten biogeographic regions 1.The Trans- Himalayan, 2. The Himalayan, 3.The Indian desert, 4.The Semi-arid zone(s), 5.The Western Ghats 6. The Deccan Peninsula, 7. The Gangetic Plain, 8. The Northeast India, 9. The Islands and 10. The Coasts NE Himalyas Biogeographic Diversity in India Slide 11: India’s Zoogeography and Geological History The whole of the Indian sub-continent is not rich only in biological or ecological diversity but because it lies at the confluence of African, European and Indo-Malayan realms, the biota, therefore, includes, African, European, and Eurasian and Mediterranean elements. . Slide 12: Continental drift The very idea for the above concept also came from the theory of continental drift that the continents of south and north America, Africa, Peninsular India, Australia and Antarctica once united in one land mass (Gondwanaland) are now widely separated by southern Ocean and bear striking similarity of geological history and distribution of ancient and modern organisms Slide 13: The Assam Gate:In early tertiary, the breakaway Gondwanaland in a northward drift first hit the Asian landmass at what is presently northeast India, served as the biogeographic gateway, “ the Assam Gate”, for dispersal and migration of much of the fauna and flora. The Northeast Zone is richest of biological resources, and has affinities with Indo-Chinese and Indo-Malayan regions in the east and southeast. From west came the Palaearctic and Ethiopian elements. Relatively young Himalayan mountain ranges opened up new southwards route of migration and acted as a two-way link between West Africa to South Asia. In peninsula there may be some cross over points between southern - Western Ghats and Eastern Hills. Slide 14: India figured with two hotspots - the Western Ghats and the Eastern Himalayas – in an identification of 25 of the world's biologically richest and most threatened ecosystems. These 2 hotspots that extend into India are the Western Ghats/Sri Lanka and the Indo-Burma region (covering the Eastern Himalayas); and they are included amongst the top eight most important hotspots. The hotspots are the areas with higher concentration of endemic species and which usually experience rapid rate of habitat modifications and loss. Slide 16: 1. Western Ghats: Faced with tremendous population pressure the forests of Western Ghats and Srilanka have been dramatically impacted by demands for agriculture and Timber.The Region is home to rich endemic assemblage of Plants, reptiles and amphibians as well as elephants, tiger and endangered Lion tailed Macaque Slide 17: 2. NE Himalayas: Himalayas is home to world’s highest mountains , including Mt.Everest. Abrupt rise in rise of mountains results in diversity of ecosystems that range from Alluvial grasslands and subtropical broad leaved forests to alpine meadows above the tree line. It’s a home to a variety of large birds, mammals, including tiger, elephants rhinos and wild water buffaloes. Slide 18: WORLD HERITAGE SITES IN INDIA UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State Parties (countries) aims to catalogue, name, and preserve sites of outstanding cultural or natural importance to the common heritage of humankind. Since adopted by the General Conference of UNESCO on 16 November 1972 , today 182 State Parties ratify the convention. As of 2006, a total of 830 sites are listed: 644 cultural, 162 natural, and 24 mixed properties, in 138 States Parties. Slide 19: Each World Heritage Site is the property of the country on whose territory the site is located, but it is considered in the interest of the international community to preserve each site for future generations of humankind. The protection and conservation of these sites are a concern of all the World Heritage countries. Slide 20: World Heritage Sites in India The world body has listed 23 Heritage Sites in India, including the following five Protected Areas of great conservation significance to be a part of World Culture and Heritage: 1.Kaziranga National Park, Assam 2.Manas Wildlife Sanctuary, Assam 3.Keoladaeo National Park, Rajasthan 4.Sunderbans National Park,West Bengal and 5.Nanda Devi National Park, Uttaranchal * Five Protected Areas in India as World Heritage Sites Slide 21: Biosphere Reserves in India were created under the 'Man & Biosphere' (MAB) Programme by UNESCO in 1971 to conserve in situ all forms of life, along with its support system, in its totality, so that it could serve as a referral system for monitoring and evaluating changes in natural ecosystems. The first biosphere reserve of the world was established in 1979, since then the network of biosphere reserves has increased to 425 in 95 countries across the world (MAB, 2003). Presently, there are 14 existing biosphere reserves in India. Slide 22: Presently, there are 14 existing Biosphere Reserves in India Date of Notification : Area (Sq.Kms) States 1.Nilgiri 01-09-1986 5,520.00 Karnataka, Kerala & T.N 2.Nanda Devi 18-01-1988 5,860.69 Uttaranchal 3.Nokrek 01-01-1988 80.00 Meghalaya 4.Great Nicobar 06-01-1989 885.00 Andaman & Islands Nicobar 5.Gulf of Mannar 18.02.1989 10,500.00 Tamil Nadu 6.Manas 14-03-1989 2,837.00 Assam 7.Sunderbans 29-03-1989 9,630.00 West Bengal 8.Simlipal 22-06-1994 4,374.00 Orissa 9.Dibru-Sikhowa 28-07-1997 765.00 Assam 10.Dehang-Debang 02-09-1998 5,111.50 A.P. 11.Pachmarhi 03-03-1999 4,926.00 M.P. 12.Khangchendzonga07-02-2000 2,619.92 Sikkim 13.Agasthyamalai 12-11-2001 1,701.00 Kerala 14. Amarkantak 2005 3,835..51 M.P. and Chhattishgarh Slide 23: Himalayan Biosphere Reserves Operational: 1. Nanda Devi, Uttaranchal 2. Manas, Assam 3.Dibru-Shikowa, Assam 4.Dehang-Debang, Arunachal Pradesh 5. Kangchendzonga, Sikkim Proposed: 6. Namdhapa,Arunachal Pradesh 7.Kaziranga, Assam 8.Cold Desert, J & K Slide 24: Ramsar Convention (1971) An inter-governmental treaty on wetlands for conservation and wise use of Natural resources as also conservation of Waterfowl habitats (Ramsar,Iran,1971). There are 25 wetlands in India that have been identified as Ramsar Sites. Slide 25: Ramsar Sites in India 1. Chilika Lake, Orissa 2. Harike Wetland, Punjab 3. Keoladeo National Park, Rajasthan 4. Loktak Lake, Manipur 5. Sambar Lake, Rajasthan 6. Wular Lake, Jammu and Kashmir 7. Kanji Lake Punjab 8. Ropar Lake, Punjab 9. East Kolkata wetlands,WB 10. Deepor Beel, Assam 11. Astamudi Lake, Kerala 12. Pong Dam Lake, H.P. 13. Kolleru Lake, Andhra Pradesh 14. Bhitakanika Mangrovers, Orissa 15. Tsomoriri, J & K 16.` Point Calimere WLS, TN 17. Sasthamkota Lake, Kerala 18. Bhoj Wet;land, MP Vembanad-Kol Wetland, Kerala Chandertal Wetland, H.P. Hokera Wetland, J.& K Renuka Wetland, H.P. Rudrasagar Lake, Tripura Surinsar-Mansur Lakes,J& K Upper Ganga River(Brijghat to Narora Stretch) * Notified on 8th Nov 2005 Slide 26: Location of Ramsar Sites in India Slide 27: More Wetlands to be Designated as Ramsar Sites The Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India, has identified more new wetlands and started the process of designation as Ramsar Sites in consultation with the World Wide Fund for Nature-India (WWF-India). These sites represent different aquatic habitats .The identified sites are: 1.Lali Sanctuary (Arunachal Pradesh) 2. Kabar Tal (Bihar), 3.Pulicat Lake (Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh), and 4. Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Slide 28: Protected Area Network (PA Network) The protection of wildlife has been a long tradition in Indian history. Wise use of natural resources was a pre-requisite for many hunter-gatherer societies, which dates back to at least 6000 BC. The adoption of a National Policy for Wildlife Conservation in 1970 and the enactment of the Wildlife (Protection) Act in 1972 lead to a significant growth in the protected areas network. To maintain rich biological diversity of the Indian Himalayan Region a Protected area network (PAN) has been established and biodiversity rich areas have been conserved as Sanctuaries, National Parks and Biosphere Reserves The network was further strengthened by a number of national conservation projects, notably Project Tiger( initiated in April 1973)and the Crocodile Breeding and Management Project (Launched in April 1975 ) Slide 29: Presently , India has a Total number of 595 Wildlife Protected Areas: with an area of 155,978 km2 or 4.70% of the area, which constitutes 95 National Parks: with an area of 38,024.10 km2 or 1.16% of the area and 500 Wildlife sanctuaries: with an area of 117913.42km2 or 3.59% of the geographical area of India. 2 Conservation Reserves 2 Area Covered = 40.50 km2 Protected Areas In India ( Statistics) Slide 30: Proposed Expansion of PA Network: National Parks to 163 with an area of 54789 km2 or 1.67% of the geographical area. Wildlife sanctuaries to 707 with an area of 133,975.11 km2 or 4.07% of the countries geographical area. After Expansion the total number of Protected Areas will be 870 with an area of 188,764.35 km2 or 5.74% of the countries geographical areas. With the proposed pattern of NPs and Total PAs The State of Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh will be best covered while J & K will have the highest Total area of NPs( 5109.07 km2 or 2.29% ( WII , Rodgers,Pawar and Mathur,2002) Slide 32: Tiger Reserves in India Project Tiger was launched by the Government of India in the year 1973 to save the endangered species of tiger in the country. Starting from nine (9) reserves in 1973-74 the number is grown up to twenty seven (28) in 1999-2000. A total area of 37,761 km2 is covered by these project tiger areas, which is 1.15% of the total geographical area of the country. Slide 33: Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Fauna and Flora (CITES) A successful international conservation treaties in restricting international trade in in endangered species Main Functions:To maintain its three appendices of species , for each of which a different extent of trade is allowed. Species in App-I are forbidden for international trade except with special permission. App-II species have controlled international trade. App.III species lists species whose trade is forbidden by certain countries but are not listed in other two appendices CITES members have to create National Management Authority, which co-ordinates with CITES Secretariat in Switzerland Slide 34: Convention on Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (1979) ( Bonn Convention or CMS, 1979) Provides strict protection for a list of species and also provides a frame work for collaborative conservation agreements between the states through which each species on second list migrate. Mainly applied to birds, but also has bats and dolphins. The Bonn convention also calls for research and surveys Slide 35: Wildlife (Protection )Act 1972 Provides for protection of-Wild animals , Animal articles , and - Plants. The WL (P) Act regulates sale, barter etc of notified wild plants and animal species. It also provides control over keeping of wild animals in captivity. The 1991 amendment covers the possession of notified plant species. The Act exercise control under the Schedules I-VI. Schedule I lists rare and endangered totally protected species. Schedule II includes game species for which licenses can be issued under special circumstances. Schedule III and Schedule IV comprises species of small games. Schedule V includes vermin, common crow, fruit bats, mice and rats. Amendment 1991: Bird trade was stopped in 1991 following an amendment to the Wildlife Protection Act, 1972. Amendment 2006: The creation of a National Tiger Conservation Authority Slide 36: Faunal Diversity in India India has a total of 89,451 animal species accounting for 7.31% of the faunal species in the world (MoEF 1997) and the flora accounts for 10.78% of the global total. The endemism of Indian biodiversity is high - about 33% of the country's recorded flora are endemic to the country and are concentrated mainly in the North-East, Western Ghats, North-West Himalayas and the Andaman and Nicobar islands. However, this rich biodiversity of India is under severe threat owing to habitat destruction, degradation, fragmentation and over-exploitation of resources. Slide 37: Status of Total diversity of Indian Fauna Taxa Species in India Species in World % in India Protista 2577 31259 8.24 Mollusca 5070 66535 7.62 Arthropoda 68389 987949 6.90 Ot. Invertebrates8329 87121 9.56 Protochordata 119 2106 5.65 Pisces 2546 21723 11.72 Amphibia 209 5150 4.06 Reptilia 456 5817 7.84 Aves 1232 9026 13.66 Mammalia 390 4629 8.42 Total 89,451 12,21,315 7.31 Source: UNEP-GBA (1995), MOEF (1997 and 1998), ZSI (1999), Kumar and Khanna, 2003 Slide 38: Endemic Species: India has many endemic vertebrate species. Areas rich in endemism are northeast, the Western Ghats and the northwestern Himalayas. A small pocket of local endemism also occurs in the Eastern Ghats . The Gangetic plains are generally poor in endemics. Endemic Species are those whose distribution is restricted to certain limited area. Table : Endemic Indian Fauna Group No. of species % Land Molluscs 878 Freshwater Molluscs 89 Insects 16,214 23.00 Amphibia 110 52.63 Reptilia 214 46.92 Aves 69 0.56 Mammalia 38 9.74 Source: MoEF (1999), Kumar and Khanna, 2003 Slide 39: Name of the Group No. of species 1. Protista 750 2. Animalia 3. Porifera 500 4. Cnidaria 790 5. Ctenophora 10 6. Platyhelminthes 350 7. Gastrotricha 88 8. Kinorhyncha 99 9. Annelida 440 10. Mollusca 3370 11. Bryozoa 170 12. Entoprocta 8 13. Phoronida 3 14. Brachiopoda 3 15. Arthropoda Crustacea 2430 Pycnogonida 16 Merostomata 2 16. Sipunculida 38 17. Echiura 33 18. Tardigrada 33 19. Chaetognatha 5 20. Echinodermata 30 21. Hemichordata 12 22. Chordata Protochordata 116 Pisces 1800 Amphibia (in esturines/mangroves) 3 Aves 145 Mammals 29 Total 12456 Data for other phyla not available Source: ENVIS Newsletter, ZSI, 4(1&2), 1997 Table : Marine Biodiversity of India Slide 40: Threatened Species What are Threatened Species? The Threatened species are those that are often impoverished of low fecundity, dependent on patchy or unpredictable resources, extremely variable in population density, persecuted or otherwise prone to extinction in human dominated landscapes. Red Data Book (RDB) was developed during 1960s and the species were placed under various threatened categories according to the severity of the threats faced by them and the estimated eminence of their extinction. World Conservation monitoring Centre (WCMC) in collaboration with IUCN Species Survival commission network of the specialist groups compiles the IUCN Red list every two years since 1986. Slide 42: IUCN Red List Categories: Extinct (EX) - A taxon is Extinct when there is no reasonable doubt that the last individual has died. Extinct In The Wild (EW) - A taxon is Extinct in the wild when it is known only to survive in cultivation, in captivity or as a naturalized population (or populations) well outside the past range. Critically Endangered (CR) - A taxon is Critically Endangered when it is facing an extremely high risk of extinction in the wild in the immediate future, as defined by any of the criteria. Endangered (EN) - A taxon is endangered when it is not Critically Endangered but is facing a very high risk of extinction in the wild in the near future, as defined by any of the criteria. Slide 43: Vulnerable (VU) - A taxon is Vulnerable when it is not Critically Endangered or Endangered but is facing a high risk of extinction in the wild in the medium-term future, as defined by any of the criteria. Lower Risk (LR) - A taxon is Lower Risk when it has been evaluated, does not qualify for any of the threatened categories Critically Endangered, Endangered or Vulnerable or Data Deficient (LR/nt- near threatened, Lr/lc- least concerned, LR/cd-conservation dependent). Near Threatened (NT): A taxon is Near Threatened when it has been evaluated against the criteria but does not qualify for Critically Endangered, Endangered or Vulnerable now, but is close to qualifying for, or is likely to qualify for, a threatened category in the near future. Least Concern (LC) A taxon is Least Concern when it has been evaluated against the criteria and does not qualify for Critically Endangered, Endangered, Vulnerable or Near Threatened. Widespread and abundant taxa are included in this category. Slide 44: Data Deficient (DD) A taxon is Data Deficient when there is inadequate information to make a direct, or indirect, assessment of its risk of extinction based on its distribution and/or population status. Not Evaluated (NE) A taxon is Not Evaluated when it is has not yet been assessed against the criteria. Endemics (E) Species restricted to a particular geographical area or ecosystem. Slide 45: Kumar and Khanna (2006) in their overview of the threatened Indian fauna have listed 648 species of animals categorized as “ Threatened “ by IUCN (2002); it is approximately 8.91 % of the world's total (7266 species) number of threatened faunal species . Globally Threatened Indian Species Slide 46: Threatened Fauna from India by Taxonomic Groups Group No. of Species % Mammalia 212 Aves 143 Reptilia 34 Amphibia 148 Pisces 78 Mollusca 05 Crustacea 12 Other Invertebrates 16 Total 648 Source:Kumar and Khanna (2006),Globally Threatened Indian Fauna.Zool.Surv.India, pp. 1-104. Slide 47: : On analysis of the threat categories by groups (at global level), it is found that out of 648 species of threatened Indian fauna, Analysis of threat Categories Slide 48: Forest Owlet Some Critically Threatened Indian Birds Slide 49: Some Critically Threatened Indian Mammals Slide 50: RAPID POPULATION Reduction:Decline >80% in 10 years or 3 generations (CR): >50% in 10 years or 3 generations (EN); Decline >20% in 10 years or 3 generations (VU) Decline in Extent of occurrence, Area of occupancy, and or quality of habitat(A1c) B. SMALL RANGE AND FRAGMENTED, DECLINING OR FLUCTUATING: Extent of Occurrence estimated<100 km2 (CR); <5,000 km2 (EN); <20,000 km2 (VU) Decline in Extent of occurrence, Area of occupancy, and or quality of habitat(B2a,B2b,B 2c) C. SMALL POPULATION AND DECLINING: Population <250 mature individuals (CR); <2,500 mature individuals (EN); <10,000 mature individuals (VU) None D1. VERY SMALL POPULATION : Population <50 mature individuals (CR);Population <250 mature individuals (EN);Population <1,000 mature individuals (VU) None D2. VERY SMALL RANGE: Typically, Area of Occupancy <100 km 2 or <5 locations None The IUCN Threatened Category thresholds at a glance Slide 51: are those which are non native or alien to the particular area and whose introduction, deliberate or accidental may be detrimental to the health of the natural fauna or flora. The impact of invasive species is second only to that of human population growth and associated activities as a cause of loss of biodiversity throughout the world. The invasions of non-native plants, animals and microbes are thought to be responsible for the decline of native species now listed as endangered or threatened. Invasive species Slide 52: Major Threats to Biodiversity: 1. Habitat Loss and Degradation: 2.Exploitation:Exploitation, including hunting, collecting, fisheries and fisheries by catch, and the impacts of trade in species and species’ parts, constitutes a major threat. 3.Alien Invasive Species: 4.Disturbance, persecution and uprooting, including deliberate eradication of species considered to be pests 5. Incidental take, particularly the drowning of aquatic reptiles and mammals in fishing nets Slide 53: 6. Disease, both exotic and endemic, exacerbated by the presence of large number of domestic livestock or introduced plant species 7. Limited distribution, which may compound the effects of other factors. In the majority of cases individual species are faced by several of these threats operating simultaneously, and it is often difficult or impossible to identify with confidence the primary cause of decline. However, the major category of threat, which affects 76% of species, is habitat loss and modification frequently due to cultivation and settlements. Slide 54: Assessing Biodiversity Why Assess Biodiversity? Conservation importance of an area is typically determined by assessing its biodiversity and, as the basic units of biodiversity is a species. This is done mainly by counting the number of species present and by the abundance of key species Slide 55: Biodiversity Assessment Techniques There are several methods, like Sampling by selecting sample areas or transect routes Mean number of species per sample, as a measure of Species Richness Time based observation , such as time restricted search and timed species counts The Objective of Assessing Biodiversity is usually to compare sites or to provide the data that can be used by others for comparing sites. The methodology should be consistent and clearly slated so that it can be repeated. Slide 56: Total Species List Most common method is a Total List of the Species ever recorded and the species are then simply added when detected by same or subsequent workers. An annotated list of species, with informations on various sightings or impressions of of abundance greatly improves the accuracy and ease of interpretation. Diversity of searching includes, collecting, trapping, listening for calls, play back of tapped calls, looking for droppings or different life stages at different altitudes and latitudes or habitats , nocturnal, diurnal in different weathers or at different seasons. By talking to local peoples or Para-taxonomists , hunters and fisherman by inspecting their catch. Slide 57: Other Sampling techniques Total Genus or family list Parallel line searches is the best method for presence of visible and fairly sedentary species in a reasonably small areas Habitat sub-sampling Time restricted search or rapid inventories Encounter rates Species discovery curves Timed species counts Habitat feature assessment Recording absence Slide 58: Documenting rarities In many cases only the location of rare species is known from vague descriptions and it is unknown whether the population has gone extinct or just can not be relocated. In such cases boundaries of such populations are drawn accurately on the largest scale of topographic map and the distribution notes are added in the field only by ground truthing technique.To ensure relocation of the population hand written notes/ maps are supplemented. Slide 59: Record Database file structure Species Scientific name Reference Source reference for the record Locality Name and description of the recording locality Country International Standardization Organisation (ISO) code for recording country Co-ordinates Geographical Co-ordinates Certainty Code for certainty that geographical co- ordinates are for correct locality Accuracy Code For accuracy of the co-ordinates Record type Years of record at locality Altitude Max. and Min. Record Type Collected specimen/ Sightings Status Abundance/breeding status /months/ etc Name of the observer/Collector Slide 60: Why set Conservation Priorities? For too many conservation problems but constraint of time and money, the priorities have to be set in to quantify aspects such as Rarity, Extent of decline And rate of decline And then use this data to determine priorities Slide 61: Prioritizing Species Vulnerability to extinction (as per IUCN criteria) Critically Endangered-50% probability of extinction in 5 years Endangered- 20% probability in 20 years Vulnerable- 10% probability in 100 years Extinction: Species not sighted since last 50 years are whose members are reported to have lost breeding potential and last surviving member was sighted 50 years back. Slide 62: IUCN CATEGORIES THRESHOLDS Main Numerical Thresholds Criteria Critical Endangered Vulnerable A.Rapid Decline >80% over ten year >50% over 10 years or 50% over 20 years or or three generations 3 generations 5 generations B.Small Range Extent of occurrence <5000km2 or area of 20000km2 or area of <100km2 or area of Occupancy<500km2 Occupancy , 2000km2 occupancy<10km2 C. Small population ,250 mature individual,b 2500 mature individual <10000 mature individuals D.Very Small Population, 50 individual 250 mature individuals <1000 mature individuals Slide 63: Prioritizing Habitats Information on species priorities can be used to determine for conservation of habitats at local or global level. The aspect to be taken into considerations are Number of species Number of threatened species Rarity of habitats and The rate of decline As a result of such analysis there is so much concern over tropical rain forests and coral reefs- both of high global importance yet disappearing at frightening rate There is a need to balance both local and global importance such as habitat that are locally common but globally rare. Slide 64: Conservation Priorities Diversity :Species richness- Total number of species in a site 2. Abundance: Total count of all individuals of all the species Rarity :Proportion of population of species 4. Conservation status : Many species of high threat status are present Slide 65: Monitoring aspects The study includes: Population of species changing on site? Population of pest species changing Most important areas for a species? Habitat requirement of a species without bias for juveniles or males Population estimates from mark-release -recapture Slide 66: Why do we need conservation planning? Planning has the advantage of providing The opportunities to agree priorities for action, Organize complex programmes in sensible sequence, Assign responsibilities for action, Determine budgets both for entire plan and for components within it, Determine work programmes, on how to monitor and evaluate the success of the work and allow the project to continue even if staff changes. Planning approach is fundamental to many areas of conservation although the terminology and structure may vary. It underpins species action plans and integrated conservation development plans Slide 67: The Planning Process A Plan is successful if: the need for it is understood by those involved and they are fully consulted during the preparation of the plan There is a process of monitoring and review to adjust the plans as necessary The resource implications have been considered so that plan is realistic considering stages like Mission,current position, objectives, strategies, actions, monitoring, reviewing etc. Slide 68: Writing a species action plan Current Position of the Species: Conservation status, reason for inclusion in action plan process, population size, geographical distribution, trends, level of population and conservation knowledge, ecology, limiting factors and threats Legal Status:International and National Priority Statement: High medium or low Objectives: Goal at which to aim in taking conservation Broad Policies: General strategies to be used to achieve the objectives Actions : (High, medium or low priority) : Policy and legislative, site safeguard, land acquisition and reserve management, species management and protection, advisory, International, future research monitoring, communication and publicity Each action to be given priority rating according to cost effectiveness and achievability Review : Time table and procedure for monitoring effectiveness and for reviewing and updating the plan Slide 69: Writing a management plan Summary: Like Importance of the site, objectives and strategy (Important for the managers, media , public and fund raisers) Current Position: Published and unpublished information, information documenting changes in site like grazing pressures, and consequences of change , particularly useful Location, site status, Tenure, legal and other constraints and permission required and main fixed assets Physical informations like Climate, Hydrology, Geology and soils Biological informations like Habitats, Flora, fauna Cultural informations like Commercial use, Educational Use, Recreational use, Archeological interest, Aesthetic considerations, such as land scape, Research, survey and monitoring Evaluation: Importance of site in terms of international, national, regional and local status. Lie Size,Diversity, Naturalness, Rarity, Fragility, Typical ness, recorded history, Position in ecological/ Slide 70: Writing a management plan(contd.) Geological units; potential value for future development, role in in habitat and species action plan, Visitor services, Education, marketing, retail marketing, recruitment of members, public affairs, Demonstration and advisory affairs Intrinsic appeal Other Criteria Identificaon/ confirmation of important features Operations likely to damage the special interests Main factors influencing management of sites Land of conservation or strategic importance in the vicinity of reserve Objectives : List the main priorities of the area, particular plant communities, increasing the number of particular species, visitors or ensuring sustainable exploitation of particular species and Broad policies,Actions, monitoring and Review Slide 71: Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Fauna and Flora (CITES) A successful international conservation treaties in restricting international trade in in endangered species Main Functions:To maintain its three appendices of species , for each of which a different extent of trade is allowed. Species in App-I are forbidden for international trade except with special permission. App-II species have controlled international trade. App.III species lists species whose trade is forbidden by certain countries but are not listed in other two appendices CITES members have to create National Management Authority, which co-ordinates with CITES Secretariat in Switzerland Slide 72: Convention on Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (1979) ( Bonn Convention or CMS, 1979) Provides strict protection for a list of species and also provides a frame work for collaborative conservation agreements between the states through which each species on second list migrate. Mainly applied to birds, but also has bats and dolphins. The Bonn convention also calls for research and surveys Slide 73: Convention on Wetlands of International Importance especially Waterfowl Habitat ( Ramsar Convention,1971) Held at Ramsar, Iran, the treaty provides for international collaboration on wetland conservation, including Mangroves and Coral reefs. The contracting parties have four obligations Incorporate the consideration of wetlands conservation within their national land-use planning Designate at least one wetland of international importance (Ramsar Sites) according to the specified criteria. Promote wetland conservation by creating nature reserves and Train staff in wetland wardeneing, research and management and consult other countries especially for species or areas . there are 116 countries participating and over a thousand Ramsar Sites.. Ramsar Provides small grants from a fund, international expertise and resources. Ramsar Convention Beaureu, rue Mauverney 28, CH-1196, Gland, Switzerland E mail: email@example.com Slide 74: Species Management Why Manage Species? Species management is particularly important when a species is rapidly declining or the population is very small The Techniques For Animals include providing supplementary food, providing breeding sites, removing predators/poachers, restricting disturbance and re-establishment. For plants: Pollinating, weeding to remove competitors, fencing to exclude herbivores, creating new individual tissue culture, collecting seeds and planting out seed or seedlings. Slide 75: Integrating Development and Conservation Have a conflicting consequences. The conservation problems largely results from increasing human populations, new technologies and increasing expectations. The traditional approach to conservation has been preventing farming, grazing hunting, timber extraction or access, often with little consideration of social or economic consequences. Many such restrictions are often ignored as a result of local antipathy, or even antagonism, combined with inability or lack of motivation of the authorities to enforce regulations. Over the last two decades, conservation organisations have increasingly tried conservation and development with the hope of producing a dream package both preserves biodiversity and reduce poverty, so generating co-operation instead of conflict Slide 76: Rates of Natural and present day species extinction An absolute estimate of extinction, such as year-wise requires our knowledge about the how many species are there known. Problems of estimating numbers is formidable. In all potentially species rich groups the estimate of number of species far exceeds the number of known species. What is the back ground rate of extinction? How fast a species disappears in absence of human impacts? Various source of informations support the benchmark of a species lifetime at a million years or so, and a consequent rate of extinction at no more than one species per million species/p.year. Slide 77: Factors effecting Extinction Habitat Loss : On Land Habitat Loss : In Oceans Habitat Loss: In Fresh water Pollution Introduced species Over-harvesting Global climate change 8.Secondary extinction: Once species becomes extinct, there will be many other extinctions as consequence 9. Deforestation 10.Desertification 11. Urbanization 12. Wetland drainage 13.Pollution 14. Dams and water diversions Slide 78: Biodiversity , Ecosystem Services and Human Welfare An ecosystem is an array of living things and the physical and chemical environment with which they interact like Wetlands, forests, grasslands, streams and estuaries, desert and Himalaya. A healthy ecosystem provides the conditions and process that sustain human life, in addition to providing food, medicines, purification of air and water,accumulation of toxins, decomposition of wastes, mitigation of floods, moderation of storm surges, stabilisation of landscapes and regulation of climates, detoxification of sediments of soil, maintenance of soil fertility, control of potential pest and disease-causing species, dispersal of seeds and aesthetics Slide 79: Thank you Dr.Vinod Khanna Zoological Survey of India Dehra Dun You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.